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THE DEVELOPMENT OF A FRAMEWORK FOR AN INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT SYSTEM WITHIN A HIGH TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF A FRAMEWORK FOR AN INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT SYSTEM WITHIN A HIGH TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY by KEITH RICHARD LAMBERT submitted in accordance with the requirements
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THE DEVELOPMENT OF A FRAMEWORK FOR AN INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT SYSTEM WITHIN A HIGH TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY by KEITH RICHARD LAMBERT submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF BUSINESS LEADERSHIP at the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA PROMOTER: DR M. M. MARSHALL March 2008 ABSTRACT Competitive and high-risk environments require complex high technology systems, which need to be supported and maintained over their respective life cycles. These systems often have a significant consequence of failure, and require complex management systems to achieve their operational objectives. Significant leadership and management challenges exist, not only in South Africa, but also in other developing countries, where systems may be utilised beyond the lifespan they were designed for and are susceptible to obsolescence. This study was conducted by following a structured process; the research consisted of three stages. The first stage dealt with the research problem, including the delimitations of the study. The second stage was further divided into three phases. The first phase deconstructed the appropriate literature, which included the interpretation of numerous definitions of logistics, integrated logistics support, and the integrated logistics support elements. In addition, the research was grounded in the fields of operations management, supply chain management and integrated logistics support. The second phase focused on the deconstruction of six case studies from four different high technology complex systems. From the analysis of the first two phases followed the third phase of research, which focused on the identification of areas requiring further research. Further research was conducted by means of a questionnaire, the results of which were analysed for variable dependency and variable association. The third stage of the research included the collation and analysis of the findings of the first two stages of research. The analysis utilised the principles of Mode 2 research and design science research, whereby an ILS framework and associated grounded technological rules have been recommended. These recommendations are robust in nature, as they can be applied in the most challenging environment and circumstances as identified. Furthermore, by grounding the theory in the disciplines of operations management, supply chain management and integrated logistics support, the reliability, validity, relevance, and applicability of the study could be substantiated. This implied that the generated theoretical knowledge could be transferred to and applied in practice, and as such, an organisation can reap substantial value added benefits, and gain considerable competitive advantage in the market place by applying this developed ILS framework and associated ILS grounded technological rules. i KEY TERMS Integrated logistics support (ILS); integrated logistics support system (ILSS); high technology; developing country; systems beyond designed life; obsolescence; operations management; training, manpower and personnel; maintenance; technical data and documentation; support and test equipment (S&TE); supply support; packaging, handling, storage, and transportation (PHS&T); reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM); supply chain (network); supply chain management. ii DECLARATION OF OWN WORK I declare that THE DEVELOPMENT OF A FRAMEWORK FOR AN INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT SYSTEM WITHIN A HIGH TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY is my own work and that all the sources that I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references. Keith Richard Lambert Student no.: Date iii Always bear in mind that your own resolution to succeed is more important than any other. Abraham Lincoln. Do not go where the path may lead, go instead where there is no path and leave a trail. Ralph Waldo Emerson. PREFACE During the process of completing this doctoral degree, many people have asked me why I want to complete a doctoral degree and why anyone in their right mind would want to do so. From the start to the finish of the process the answers have differed. The answers differed for various reasons depending on the stage of my life I was in at the time. My reasons were self-actualisation fulfilment, contribution to the body of knowledge of management and leadership theory, and last but not least because I enjoy a challenge. It was a seminal, life-changing experience, as you not only grow as a person, but also learn a lot about yourself. There have been many challenges during the process of completing this degree; despite these challenges it was worth the effort, time and sacrifices that had to be made. Fortunately there were many encouraging words along the way. I'm doing it because I choose it. And if it's not working, I can make a change. Alanis Morissette. As long as I have the feelings that I can improve and I will learn and be better I will continue. Ayrton Senna. In reading the lives of great men, I found that the victory they won was over themselves. Self discipline, with all of them, was first. Harry S Truman. iv Really big people are, above everything else, courteous, considerate and generous not just to some people in some circumstances but to everyone all the time. Thomas J. Watson. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost my gratitude goes to my parents and brother whom encouraged me in all my ventures. My appreciation goes to my promoter, Dr Ria Marshall for her guidance, mental stimulation, and patience. Chris Els, his wife Dorothy and their son Christopher for their motivation, and support. Chris also assisted with questionnaire distribution and collection. Dr Natasja Holtzhausen for her patience and support while I was in the final stages of completing this thesis. Lt Col Arthur Ahrens for permission and assisting with the distribution of questionnaires. All the respondents whom were interviewed, and who were willing to completed the pilot study questionnaire as well as the final questionnaire. Without whom the quantitative study of this thesis would not have been possible. Lt Col Jan Augustin, Messrs Hugo Coppejans; Dave Watts; Johan Botha, Johan Steyn; Raoul Hodges; Bertie Liebenberg and Jan de Koster for assisting with the distribution of the questionnaires. Mrs. Lorraine Grobler, subject librarian, for her support. Mrs. Lynette Smith, and Ms. Cathy Lourens for their valuable assistance. Dr. D. Levey and Ms. Hanlie van Heerden whom assisted with the language editing. Professional military and industrial panel for their contribution during the final result discussion. Prof. Rene Pellissier for her valuable insight. Finally to my friends, colleagues and acquaintances, who assisted with information, and who motivated me during this degree. Additional acknowledgements are provided in Appendix J. As we express our gratitude, we must never forget that the highest appreciation is not to utter words, but to live by them. John F. Kennedy v THE LOGISTICIAN Logisticians are a sad and embittered race of men who are very much in demand in war, and who sink resentfully into obscurity in peace. They deal only in facts, but must work for men who merchant in theories. They emerge during war because war is very much a fact. They disappear in peace because peace is mostly theory. The people who merchant in theories, and who employ logisticians in war and ignore them in peace, are generals. Generals are a happily blessed race who radiate confidence and power. They feed only on ambrosia and drink only nectar. In peace, they stride confidently and can invade a world simply by sweeping their hands grandly over a map, pointing their fingers decisively up terrain corridors, and blocking defiles and obstacles with the sides of their hands. In war, they must stride more slowly because each general has a logistician riding on his back and he knows that, at any moment, the logistician may lean forward and whisper: No, you can t do that. Generals fear logisticians in war and, in peace, generals try to forget logisticians. Romping along beside generals are strategists and tacticians. Logisticians despise strategists and tacticians. Strategists and tacticians do not know about logisticians until they grow up to be generals which they normally do. Sometimes a logistician becomes a general. If he does, he must associate with generals whom he hates; he has a retinue of strategists and tacticians whom he despises; and, on his back, is a logistician whom he fears. This is why logisticians who become generals always have ulcers and cannot eat their ambrosia. Author unknown, Made available by Major William K. Bawden, RCAF. (Bowersox, Closs and Helferich. 1986:iii). My logisticians are a humorless lot they know that if my campaign fails, they are the first ones I will slay. Alexander (Logistics World, 2005). Behind every great leader there was an even greater logistician. M. Cox (Logistics World, 2005). vi THE DEVELOPMENT OF A FRAMEWORK FOR AN INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT SYSTEM WITHIN A HIGH TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING INTRODUCTION STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM SCOPE OF STUDY RESEARCH PROBLEM RESEARCH QUESTION AND REQUIREMENTS TO ANSWER PROPOSITIONS ASSUMPTIONS DELIMITATIONS RESEARCH OVERVIEW IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY CHAPTER OUTLINE SYNOPSIS OF THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING...17 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION SEMINAL LITERATURE OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TAYLOR SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT FAYOL PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT DRUCKER - MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES WOODWARD PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT SCHEIN ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE SENGE LEARNING ORGANISATION ALLISON ESSENCE OF DECISION: EXPLAINING THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS RELEVANCE TO INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT SYSTEMS SUPPLY CHAIN, SUPPLY NETWORK AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS OF SUPPLY CHAIN, SUPPLY NETWORK AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT...25 vii 2.4 INTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SYSTEMS BRIEF HISTORY OF LOGISTICS DEFINITIONS OF LOGISTICS DEFINITIONS OF INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT EVOLUTION OF THE INTEGRATED LOGISTICS CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED DISTRIBUTION EVOLUTION OF INTEGRATED LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT AVAILABLE MODELS OF INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT MILITARY MILITARY EXPENDITURE DEVELOPING WORLD CONTEXT ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY AND THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX HIGH TECHNOLOGY KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT ELEMENTS (DISCIPLINES) MAINTENANCE SUPPORT FAILURE AND MAINTENANCE SUPPORT AND TEST EQUIPMENT SUPPLY SUPPORT PACKAGING, HANDLING, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATION TECHNICAL DATA AND DOCUMENTATION FACILITIES MANPOWER AND PERSONNEL TRAINING AND TRAINING DEVICES COMPUTER RESOURCES RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY, AND MAINTAINABILITY CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS EQUIPMENT BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE OBSOLESCENCE DISPOSAL OF MATERIAL/SYSTEM/EQUIPMENT RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY FROM MILITARY TO INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS...85 viii 2.16 FINANCIAL/BUDGET CONSTRAINTS FOR LOGISTIC SUPPORT SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW CURRENT RELEVANT LITERATURE...88 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN INTRODUCTION APPROACH TO RESEARCH PHASE 1, PHASE 2 AND PHASE 3 RESEARCH PHASE 1 RESEARCH PHASE 2 RESEARCH PHASE 3 RESEARCH STATISTICAL ANALYSIS DESCRIPTIVE AND INFERENTIAL STATISTICS PARAMETRIC AND NONPARAMETRIC STATISTICS INFERENTIAL STATISTICS INTEGRATION OF THE THREE PHASES OF RESEARCH SUMMARY OF RESEARCH DESIGN CHAPTER 4 PHASE 1 RESEARCH: DECONSTRUCTION OF LITERATURE INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT INTRODUCTION DECONSTRUCTION DEFINED AND USED DECONSTRUCTION OF LITERATURE MAINTENANCE SUPPORT SUPPORT AND TEST EQUIPMENT SUPPLY SUPPORT PACKAGING, HANDLING, STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION TECHNICAL DATA AND DOCUMENTATION FACILITIES MANPOWER AND PERSONNEL TRAINING AND TRAINING DEVICES COMPUTER RESOURCES RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY, AND MAINTAINABILITY (RAM), DEPENDABILITY CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT OBSOLESCENCE DISPOSAL SUMMARY OF DECONSTRUCTED LITERATURE ix CHAPTER 5 PHASE 2 RESEARCH: DECONSTRUCTION OF CASE STUDIES INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND GENERAL AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION OF SYSTEMS USED IN CASE STUDIES RADAR BACKGROUND GENERAL AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION RADIO NAVIGATION SYSTEMS BACKGROUND GENERAL AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION SATELLITE EARTH STATION BACKGROUND GENERAL AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION MODULAR NUCLEAR REACTOR BACKGROUND GENERAL AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION DECONSTRUCTED CASE STUDIES SYSTEM ALPHA SYSTEM BRAVO (SOUTH AMERICAN) SYSTEM CHARLIE SYSTEM DELTA SYSTEM ECHO SYSTEM FOXTROT SUMMARY OF DECONSTRUCTED CASE STUDIES MAINTENANCE SUPPORT AND TEST EQUIPMENT SUPPLY SUPPORT PACKAGING, HANDLING, STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION TECHNICAL DATA AND DOCUMENTATION FACILITIES MANPOWER AND PERSONNEL TRAINING AND TRAINING DEVICES COMPUTER RESOURCES RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT OBSOLESCENCE DISPOSAL ASPECTS REQUIRING FURTHER RESEARCH CHAPTER 6 PHASE 3 RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE INTRODUCTION x 6.2 QUESTIONNAIRE FOCUS PILOT STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE HIGH TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS RESULTS INFERENTIAL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS CROSS TABULATION ANALYSIS COLLATION OF PHASE 3 OF RESEARCH CHAPTER 7 COLLATION OF THREE PHASES OF RESEARCH INTRODUCTION GROUNDED ELEMENTS OF THE FRAMEWORK MAINTENANCE THREE PHASES COLLATED SUPPORT AND TEST EQUIPMENT THREE PHASES COLLATED SUPPLY SUPPORT THREE PHASES COLLATED PACKAGING, HANDLING, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATION THREE PHASES COLLATED TECHNICAL DATA AND DOCUMENTATION THREE PHASES COLLATED FACILITIES THREE PHASES COLLATED MANPOWER AND PERSONNEL THREE PHASES COLLATED TRAINING AND TRAINING DEVICES THREE PHASES COLLATED COMPUTER RESOURCES THREE PHASES COLLATED RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY, AND MAINTAINABILITY THREE PHASES COLLATED CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT THREE PHASES COLLATED OBSOLESCENCE THREE PHASES COLLATED DISPOSAL THREE PHASES COLLATED FRAMEWORK GROUNDED TECHNOLOGICAL RULES SUMMARY CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS INTRODUCTION BUSINESS PROBLEM RESEARCH PROBLEM xi 8.2 INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT SYSTEM FRAMEWORK (ILSS) RECOMMENDATIONS - GROUNDED TECHNOLOGICAL RULES SUMMARY CONTRIBUTION CONCLUSION FUTURE RESEARCH SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CHAPTER 9 REFERENCES LIST OF APPENDICES... XIII LIST OF TABLES...XIV LIST OF FIGURES...XVI xii LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX A: RELEVANT WORLD INDICES...A-1 APPENDIX B: DEFINITION OF TERMS...B-1 APPENDIX C: INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT ELEMENT AND PLAN DEFINITIONS...C-1 APPENDIX D: LIST OF TECHNICAL ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS...D-1 APPENDIX E: ILS PILOT STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE...E-1 APPENDIX F: ILS FINAL STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE SAAF... F-1 APPENDIX G: ILS FINAL STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE INDUSTRIAL ORGANISATIONS ED...G-1 APPENDIX H: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF THE FINAL QUESTIONNAIRE DATA...H-1 APPENDIX I: COMBINATION OF DECONSTRUCTION OF INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT LITERATURE AND DECONSTRUCTION OF CASE STUDIES...I-1 APPENDIX J: ADDITIONAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... J-1 xiii LIST OF TABLES TABLE 2 1: DRIVERS IN SUPPLY CHAIN...23 TABLE 2 2: SELECTED LITERATURE OF LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AND THE EXTENT TO WHICH THEY ARE LINKED TO THE STUDY...26 TABLE 2 3: ACCESS TO INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY...46 TABLE 2 4: TECHNOLOGY: DIFFUSION AND CREATION, AND GDP AND R&D...47 TABLE 2 5: MANUFACTURED AND HIGH TECHNOLOGY EXPORTS, AND PRIORITIES IN PUBLIC SPENDING...48 TABLE 2 6: ARMAMENTS...48 TABLE 2 7: GOVERNANCE INDICES...50 TABLE 2 8: NET PRIMARY AND NET SECONDARY ENROLMENT RATE...52 TABLE 2 9: HDI, ADULT LITERACY RATE, COMBINED GROSS ENROLMENT RATIO AND EDUCATION INDEX...53 TABLE 2 10: MILITARY EXPENDITURE ($) COMPARED TO GDP...87 TABLE 2 11: GLOBAL DEFENCE EXPENDITURE AGAINST % OF GDP...87 TABLE 3 1: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MODE 1 AND MODE TABLE 4 1: SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW TABLE 4 2: DECONSTRUCTED LITERATURE REVIEW TABLE 5 1: HULL-LOSS ACCIDENTS FATAL AIRLINER, VARIOUS FLIGHT PHASES AND TRAINING TABLE 5 2: FATAL CIVIL AIRLINER ACCIDENTS PER CONTINENT FROM 1945 TO TABLE 5 3: FATAL CIVIL AIRLINER ACCIDENTS PER GEOGRAPHICAL REGION FROM 1945 TO TABLE 6 1: QUESTIONS ASKED RELATING TO INTEGRATED LOGISTIC SUPPORT THEMES FOR MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL ORGANISATIONS TABLE 6 2: INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT CONCERNS BETWEEN REVIEWED LITERATURE AND CASE STUDIES, AND ADDITIONAL FURTHER STUDY REQUIRED TABLE 6 3: CONTINGENCY TABLE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS CLASSIFIED BY QUESTIONS 4, 8 AND TABLE 6 4: CHI-SQUARE AND CRAMER S V STATISTICS OF CROSS TABULATION OF SPECIFIC QUESTIONS TABLE 6 5: COLLATION OF PHASE 3 OF RESEARCH TABLE 7 1: GROUNDED TECHNOLOGICAL RULES OF ILS RESEARCH xiv TABLE 8 1: GROUNDED TECHNOLOGICAL RULES OF ILS RESEARCH (A REPEAT OF TABLE 7-1) TABLE A 1: MILITARY EXPENDITURE ($) COMPARED TO GDP...A-1 TABLE A 2: COMMITMENT TO EDUCATION: PUBLIC SPENDING...A-1 TABLE A 3: TOTAL POPULATION, COMMITMENT TO HEALTH, HIV, AND LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH...A-2 xv LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 1: RESEARCH OVERVIEW...11 FIGURE 1 2: THESIS DOCUMENT CHAPTER OUTLINE...16 FIGURE 2 1: DOMAIN IN WHICH INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SYSTEMS EXIST (ACRONYMS AVAILABLE IN THE LIST OF BUSINESS AND TECHNICAL ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS)...28 FIGURE 2 2: EVOLUTION OF THE INTEGRATED LOGISTICS CONCEPT...41 FIGURE 2 3: CRITICAL FAIURE PATTERNS...62 FIGURE 2 4: TYPICAL TRANSFER FROM MILITARY TO INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS...85 FIGURE 3 1: APPROACH TO RESEARCH (RESEARCH OVERVIEW)...95 FIGURE 5 2: THE WORLD AT NIGHT FIGURE 5 3: PEBBLE BED REACTOR CERAMIC-ENCAPSULATED URANIUM FUEL AND FUEL SPHERES FIGURE 6 1: RESPONDENTS GENERAL DEMOGRAPHICS (GENDER, RACE, AND HOME LANGUAGE) FIGURE 6 2: QUESTION 8 JOB ORIENTATION FIGURE 6 3: QUESTION 11 KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE FIGURE 6 4: QUESTION 12 WRITING OPERATOR AND MAINTENANCE DOCUMENTATION IN SUCH A MANNER THAT OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL ARE CAPABLE OF UNDERSTANDING THE CONTENTS THEREOF FIGURE 6 5: QUESTION 18 SUPPORT AND TEST EQUIPMENT FACTORS USED ON YOUR SYSTEM THAT REQUIRE IMPROVEMENT FIGURE 6 6: QUESTION 20 RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY (RAM) - (DEPENDABILITY) ISSUES FIGURE 6 7: QUESTION 24 DETERMINANTS OF OBSOLESCENCE FIGURE 6 8: QUESTION 25 ECONOMICAL DECISIONS AS THEY RELATE TO SUPPLY SUPPORT FIGURE 6 9: QUESTION 26 USING THE FOLLOWING PLANS TO IMPROVE YOUR SYSTEM S PERFORMANCE FIGURE 6 10: QUESTION 27 TYPICAL DISPOSAL COSTS FIGURE 6 11: QUESTION 32 POSSIBLE CAUSES OF MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL ERROR FIGURE 6 12: QUESTION 34 TYPES OF FAILURES/DEFECTS FIGURE 6 13: CROSS TABULATION OF QUESTION 8 (JOB ORIENTATION) BY QUESTION 4 (BASIC TRAINING) xvi FIGURE 6 14: CROSS TABULATION OF QUESTION 8 (JOB ORIENTATION) BY QUESTION 9A (BEST PRACTICES) FIGURE 6 15: CROSS TABULATION OF QUESTION 8 (JOB ORIENTATION) BY QUESTION 10A(ACCESSIBILITY) FIGURE 6 16: CROSS TABULATION OF QUESTION 8 (JOB ORIENTATION) BY QUESTION 11 (EXPERIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE) FIGURE 6 17: CROSS TABULATION OF QUESTION 8 (JOB ORIENTATION) BY QUESTION 12 (UNDERSTANDING OPERATOR AND MAINTENANCE MANUALS) FIGURE 6 18: CROSS TABULATION OF QUESTION 8 (JOB ORIENTATION) BY QUESTION 18A (AVAILABILITY OF S&TE, AND PERSONNEL) FIGURE 6 19: CROSS TABULATION OF QUESTION 8 (JOB ORIENTATION) BY QUESTION 18C (S&TE SUPPORT/MAINTENANCE) FIGURE 6 20: CROSS TABULATION OF QUESTION 8 (JOB ORIENTATION) BY QUESTION 20A (CONDUCTING RAM ANALYSES) FIGURE 6 21: CROSS TABULATION OF QUESTION 8 (JOB ORIENTATION) BY QUESTION 20C (IDENTIFYING PARTS WITH EXCESSIVE FAILURE RATES) FIGURE 6 22: CROSS TABULATION OF QUESTION 8 (JOB ORIENTATION) BY QUESTION 24A (COST TO SUPPORT) FIGURE 6 23: CROSS TABULATION OF QUESTION 8 (JOB ORIENTATION) BY QUESTION 25E (LEAD-TIME TO REPAIR) FIGURE 6 24: CROSS TABULATION OF QUESTION 8 (JOB ORIENTATION) BY QUESTION 27C (REDESIGN FOR ALTERNATIVE USE (E.G. DEMILITARISATION)) FIGURE 6 25: CROSS TABULATION OF QUESTION 8 (JOB ORIENTATION) BY QUESTION 34A (MAINTENANCE INDUCED FAILURES) FIGURE 6 26: CROSS TABULATION OF QUESTI
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