The Effect of Attitudes and Emotions on the Desire to Use Arabic in Communication: a Case Study of the Learners of Arabic as a Second Language at the Malysian University of Islamic Sciences

The main purpose of this study was to investigate antecedents and results of willingness to communicate of Arabic learning students on their language proficiency. The number of 225 students from the Islamic Science University of Malaysia voluntarily
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   ﺪﻠﳎﺩﺪﻋ   ١٣   ﺔﻠﳎﺪﻟﺕ   ﺔﻳﻮﺑﺮﺘﻟﻴﺴﻔﻨﻟ - ﺔﻌﻣﻠﺴﻟﻥ   ﺱﻮﺑ   ﺔﺤﻔﺻ ) ٣ -  ٤٣ (   ٣٣                           *            ____________________________________________      ٢ \\  ٢     \\  ٣       \\  ٣    _____________  _  ______________________________                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             _____________________________________________    The Effect of Attitudes and Emotions on the Desire to Use Arabic in Communication: a Case Study of the Learners of Arabic as a Second Language at the Malysian University of Islamic Sciences Mechael Ibrahim *  Islamic Science University Of Malaysia, Malaysia  _____________________________________________    The main purpose of this study was to investigate antecedents and results of willingness to communicate of Arabic learning students on their language proficiency. The number of 225 students from the Islamic Science University of Malaysia voluntarily participated in the study. The students were randomly selected and they were representing four faculties of the University. A model of Willingness to communicate in the second language was tested used Structural Equation Modeling and was found to accurately fit the data. The study found that language competence was antecedent of language communication confidence, while language confidence significantly and statistically correlated with willingness to communicate and consequently language proficiency. Moreover, intrinsic motivation indirectly influenced willingness to communicate through both confidence and competence while international posture was directly effects willingness to communicate. On the other hand, language anxiety was found to be negatively correlated with language competence and consequently lack of ability to use the targeted language. Keywords:  language learning, Arabic, confidence in learning a language, language anxiety.   *                 –      ٣٣ ﻦﻣ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﺓﺮﻜﻓ   ﺖﻘﺜﺒﻧﺍﱃﻭﻷﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ / ﻷﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ . ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺗ   ﻥﺃ   ﺐﺒﺴﺑﻭﺷﺃ   ﺎﻬﻤﻠﻌﺗﻭ   ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍﺾﻌﺑ   ﺎ   ﻮﺸﻳﻭ   ﹰﺪﻴﻘﻌﺗ   ﺪ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﱃﺇ   ﺮﻈﻨﻟﺍ   ﻢﺘﻳ   ﺚﻴﺣ   ﺕﺎﻀﻗﺎﻨﺘﻟﺍﻭ   ﺽﻮﻤﻐﻟﺍ   ﻒﻗﻮﳌﺍ   ﻯﻮﺘﺴﻣ   ﺎﻤﳍﻭﺃ   ﲔﻨﺛﺍ   ﲔﻳﻮﺘﺴﻣ   ﻦﻣ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﺕﺎﻤﺴﻟﺍ   ﻯﻮﺘﺴﻣ   ﺎﻤﻬﻴﻧﺎﺛﻭ ) trait .( ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﺔﺒﻏﺭ   ﺲﻜﻌﺗﻭ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ   ﻮﳓ   ﺓﺮﻘﺘﺴﻣ   ﺔﻋﺰﻧ   ﺕﺎﻤﺴﻟﺍ   ﻯﻮﺘﺴﻣ   ﰲ   ﱃﺇ   ﻒﻗﻮﳌﺍ   ﻯﻮﺘﺴﻣ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﺔﺒﻏﺭ   ﻪﺠﺘﺗ   ﺎﻤﻨﻴﺑ   ﻦ  ﻌﳌﺍ   ﻕﺎﻴﺴﻟﺍ   ﰲ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍ ) Yashima, Zenuk-Nishide & Shimizu, 2004 .( ﺭﺎﻴﺘﻧﺇ   ﻙﺎﻣ   ﻑ  ﻌ  ﻭ   ﻩﺅﻼﻣﺯﻭ ) ٩٩٨ ( ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﺳﺍ   ﺎ   ﺄﺑ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﻊﻣ   ﹴﻦ  ﻌﻣ   ﺖﻗﻭ   ﰲ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﰊﺎﻄﳋﺍ   ﺭﺍﻮﳊﺍ   ﰲ   ﻝﻮﺧﺪﻠﻟ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺛ   ﺔﻐﻟ   ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺎﺑ   ﻦ  ﻨﻴﻌﻣ   ﹴﺹﺎﺨﺷﺃ   ﻭﺃ   ﹴﻦ  ﻌﻣ   ﹴﺺﺨﺷ ) MacIntyre, et. el., 1998 ﺻ   ٤٧ .( ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺩ   ﺕﺭﺎﺷﺃ   ﺪﻗﻭ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻦﻜﻤﺘﻟﺍ   ﱃﺇ   ﻱﺩﺆﺗ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﺳﺭﺎﻤﳌﺍ   ﻥﺃ   ﱃﺇ   ﺓﺪﻳﺪﻋ   ﱃﺇ   ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﺖﺣ  ﻮﻟ   ﺚﻴﺣ   ﺔﻴﻣﻼﻜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻜﻠﳌﺍ   ﺦﻴﺳﺮﺗﻭ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﻚﻠﺘﳝ   ﻥﺃ   ﻞﺒﻗ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍ   ﺓﺮﺜﻛ   ﻥﺃ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺏﺎﺴﺘﻛﺍ   ﰲ   ﻪﺘﺻﺮﻓ   ﻢﺨﻀﺗ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﻜﻠﳌﺍﻋﺎﺴﺗ   ﺎﻤﻛ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍ ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺐﻠﻐﺘﻟﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺪ   ﺔﺳﺭﺎﻤﳌﺍ   ﻡﺪﻋ   ﻦﻋ   ﻉ   ﺔﲡﺎﻨﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﺗﺍﺬﻟﺍ   ﺔﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍ   ﻥﺍﺪﻘﻓﻭ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺕﺍﺩﺮﻔﳌﺍ   ﺔﻠﻗﻭ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻙﺎﻜﺘﺣﻻﺍ   ﺔﻠﻗﻭ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ )  ﻢﻴﻫﺮﺑﺇ   ﻞﻴﺋﺎﻜﻴﻣ٠٠٩ ٠٠٧ﻭﺩﻭﻭ   ﻭ   ﻎﻨﺑﻭ   ٠١٠ Peng & (Woodrow,   ﻞﻘﺣ   ﰲ   ﺪﻳﺪﳉﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﱠﻥﺃ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺀﺍﱪﺧ   ﻯﺮﻳﻭﺩﺎﻋ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺱﺭﺪﻟﺍﹰﻳﺩﺎﻔﺗ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﺳﺭﺎﻤﳌﺍ   ﺐﻨﺠﺘﻳ   ﺎﻣ   ﹰ  ﺔﻠﻴﺌﺿ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻟ   ﺔﻠﻴﺼﺣ   ﱃﺇ   ﹰﻤﺋﺍﺩ   ﻱﺩﺆﻳ   ﺎﳑ   ﺀﺎﻄﺧﻸﻟ . ﰲﻭ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟ   ﹼﻥﺈﻓ   ﻲﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ   ﻕﺎﻴﺴﻟﺍ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺮﺛﺃ   ﻦﻣ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﳍ   ﺎﳌ   ﹰﺮﻈﻧ   ﻯﻮﺼﻗ   ﹰﺔﻴﳘﺃ   ﲔﻤﻠﻌﳌﺍﻭ   ﲔﻤﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﲔﺑ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺘﻟﺍ   ﺰﻳﺰﻌﺗﻭ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍﺀﺍﻮﺳﻬﺟﺭﺎﺧ   ﻭﺃ   ﺔﻴﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻘﻟﺍ   ﻞﺧﺍﺩ ) MacIntre & Charos, 1996 ( ﻰﺻﻭﺃ   ﺍﺬﻟ   MacIntyre et. al. ) ٩٩٨ (   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﺪﻋﺎﺴ   ﻱﻮﻐﻟ   ﺟ   ﺀﺎﺸﻧﺇ   ﺓﻭﺭﻮﻀﺑ   ﺓﺩﺎﺟﺇ   ﱄﺎﺘﻟﺎﺑﻭ   ﻪﻳﺪﻟ   ﺔﻴﺴﻔﻨﻟﺍ   ﺔﻘﺜﻟﺍ   ﻦﻳﻮﻜﺘﻟ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﻣ   ﱢﻞﻜﻟ   ﺲﻴﺋﺮﻟﺍﻭ   ﻰﲰﻷﺍ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺪﻌﺗ   ﱵﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍﻣ   ﻦﻣﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻲﻤﻠﻌﺘ . ﺔﺒﻠﻄﻟﺍ   ﺔﺒﻏﺭ   ﺀﺍﱪﳋﺍ   ﻂﺑﺭ   ﺪﻗﻭﺎﻬﻨﻣ   ﺓﲑﺜﻛ   ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﺑ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ : ﺔﻴﺼﺨﺷ   ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﻌﻓﺍﺪﻟﺍﻭ   ﺕﺎﻫﺎﲡﻻﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﺗﺍﺬﻟﺍ   ﺔﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ ) MacIntre & Charos, 1996 .(  ﺭﺎﻴﺘﻧﺇ   ﻙﺎﻣ   ﺡﺮﺘﻗﺍ MacIntre ﻩﺅﻼﻣﺯﻭ ) ٩٩٨ ( ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﺝﺫﻮﳕﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲﺕﺍﲑﻐﺘﳌﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻯﻮﺘﳛ   ﻮﻫﻭ   ﺔﻴ   ﺰﻴﻔﲢ   ﰲ   ﻢﻫﺎﺴ  ﱵﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﺴﻔﻨﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﰲ   ﺎﻬﻣﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍﻭ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍﻲﻣﻮﻴﻟﺍ   ﻞﺻﺍﻮﺘﻟﺍ . ﺔﻴﺼﺨﺷ   ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺘﳌﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﹸﻞ  ﻤ  ﺸ  ﻭﺔﻴﻟﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﺔﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍﻭ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ / ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ   ﺔﻴﻠﺻﺍﻮﺘﻟﺍﳌﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ   ﻒﻗﺍﻮﳌﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍﲔﺑ   ﺪﺋﺎﺴﻟﺍ   ﺥﺎﻨ   ﺔﻴﺗﺍﺬﻟﺍ   ﻪﺘﻳﺎﻔﻛﻭ   ﻪﺘﻴﻌﻓﺍﺩﻭ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﺕﺎﻴﻛﻮﻠﺳﻭ   ﺕﺎﻋﻮﻤ   ﺍﻦ  ﻌﻣ   ﺺﺨﺷ   ﻊﻣ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺭﻭ . ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ   ﺍﺬﻫ   ﲑﺸ  ﻭ   ﲑﺛﺄﺗ   ﻦﻣ   ﺔﺒﻛﺮﻣ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﻥﺃ   ﱃﺇ   ﻱﺮﻈﻨﻟﺍ   ﺩﺍﺮﻓﺃ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺔﻴﺟﺭﺎﳋﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﻠﺧﺍﺪﻟﺍ   ﺕﺍﲑﻐﺘﳌﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﲔﻋﻮﻧﲔﻤﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ . ﻡﺎﻤﺘﻫﻼﻟ   ﲑﺜﳌﺍ   ﻦﻣﻭﺓﺪﻳﺪﻋ   ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺩ   ﺕﺭﺎﺷﺃ   ﺪﻘﻓ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌ   ﹴﻊﻓﺍﺩ   ﱪﻛﺃ   ﺪﻌﺗ   ﺲﻔﻨﻟﺍ   ﺔﻘﺛ   ﻥﺃ   ﱃﺇ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﻉﻭﺮﺸﻠﻟ )  ﻢﻴﻫﺍﺮﺑﺇ   ﻞﻴﺋﺎﻜﻴﻣ٠١١  Hsieh & Kang  ٠١٠ ( ﺔﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍ   ﺩﻮﺟﻭ   ﻦﻋ   ﺓﺭﺎﺒﻋ   ﺲﻔﻨﻟﺎﺑ   ﹶﺔﻘﺜﻟﺍ   ﹼﻥﻷ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻥﺍﺪﻘﻓﻭ   ﺔﻴﺗﺍﺬﻟﺍ . ﹼﻥﺃ   ﱃﺇ   ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻨﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﻝﺪﺗﻭﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﻣﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻪﺘﻳﺎﻔﻛ   ﹼﻥﺃ   ﺭﻮﺼﺘﻳ   ﻱﺬﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴ   ﺭﺍﻮﳊﺎﺑ   ﺃﺪﺒﻳ   ﺎﻣ   ﹰﺒﻟﺎﻏ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﺔﻴﻟﺎﺧﻭ   ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻋ   ﻦﻣ   ﻑﻮﺧ   ﻭﺃ   ﹴﻞﺠﺧ   ﻥﻭﺩ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺱﺭﺎﳝﻭ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﺃﺰﺠﺘﻳ   ﻻ   ﹰﺀﺰﺟ   ﺀﺎﻄﺧﻷﺍ   ﺪﻌﻳ   ﻪﻧﻷ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺀﺎﻄﺧﻷﺍﺔﻴﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻌﻟﺍ .   ﻩﺅﻼﻣﺯﻭ   ﺭﺎﻴﺘﻧﺇ   ﻙﺎﻣ   ﻝ  ﺍ  ﺪ  ﰒ ) ٩٩٨ ( ﺍﻭ   ﺕﺎﻫﺎﲡﻻﺍﺔﻴﻌﻓﺍﺪ   ﰲ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍﻭ   ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ   ﺲﻔﻨﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻋ   ﺭﺎﻃﺇ   ﰲ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺞﻬﻨﻟﺍ   ﺍﺬﻫ   ﺰﻛﺭﻭ   ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺗ   ﺔﻴﻔﻴﻛﻭ   ﻦ  ﻌﻣ   ﻊﻤﺘﳎ   ﻮﳓ   ﺔﻴﻠﻣﺎﻜﺘﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻠﻘﻌﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﻫﺎﲡﻻﺍﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﹼﻌﺗ   ﺔﻴﻌﻓﺍﺩ   ﰲ   ﺎﻫﲑﺛﺄﺗ . ﺝﺫﻮﳕ   ﺐﺴﺣﻭ   ﺮﻧﺩﺭﺎﻏ   ـﻟ   ﻲﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ   ﻉﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ ) ٩٨٥ ( ﻜﺘﻟﺍ   ﹼﻥﺈﻓﺕﺎﻨﻳ   ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻋ   ﺔﺛﻼﺛ   ﻦﻣ   ﻥ  ﻮﻜﺘﺗ   ﺔﻴﻠﻣﺎﻜﺘﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻌﻓﺍﺪﻠﻟ   ﺔﻴﺿﺮﻔﻟﺍﻲﻫ :  ﺔﻴﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ   ﻒﻗﺍﻮﳌﺍ   ﻮﳓ   ﺕﺎﻫﺎﲡﻻﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﻠﻣﺎﻜﺘﻟﺍﺔﻴﻌﻓﺍﺪﻟﺍﻭ .  ﺔ  ﺻﺎﺧ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ   ﱠﻞ  ﺟ   ﹼﻥﺃ   ﻊﺑﺎﺘﺘﻟﺍ   ﻝﻼﺧ   ﻦﻣ   ﻭﺪﺒﻳﻭ   ﺎﻜﻳﺮﻣﺃ   ﰲ   ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺗ   ﻝﺎﳎ   ﰲﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍﻭ   ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ   ﺍﺬﻫ   ﺕﺪﻤﺘﻋﺍ   ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻤﺸﻟﺍﺀﺍﺮﺟﺇ   ﰲ   ﻪﺘﻣ   ﲔﺑ   ﺔﻘﻴﺛﻭ   ﺕﺎﻃﺎﺒﺗﺭﺍ   ﺎﻬﻠﻛ   ﺕﺪﺟﻭﻭ   ﺔﻴﻧﺍﺪﻴﳌﺍ   ﺙﻮﺤﺒﻟﺍ   ﲔﺑﻭ   ﺐﻧﺎﺟ   ﻦﻣ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﺮﺧﺁ   ﺐﻧﺎﺟ   ﻦﻣ   ﺕﺎﻫﺎﲡﻻﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﻌﻓﺍﺪﻟﺍ ) ﻭﺩﻭﻭ   ﻭ   ﻎﻨﺑ٠١٠ Peng & Woodrow .  ﺎﻤﻴﺷﺎﻳ   ﺡﺮﺘﻗﺍ ) (Yashima, 2002 ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟ   ﻞﻳﺪﺑ   ﺮﺧﺁ   ﹰﺟﺫﻮﳕﺎﲡﺍ   ﻦﻋ   ﺓﺭﺎﺒﻋ   ﻮﻫﻭ   ﺮﻧﺩﺭﺎﻏﻭﺃ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌ   ﻡﺎﻋ   ﻩ   ﱄﺎﺘﻟﺎﺑﻭ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﹼﻌﺗ   ﱃﺇ   ﻪﻌﻓﺩ   ﻱﺬﻟﺍ   ﻩﺎﲡﻻﺍ   ﻚﻟﺫ   ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﺔﺳﺭﺎﻤﳌﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﻴﺴﻔﻨﻟﺍ   ﻪﺘﻘﺛﻭ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻪﺘﻳﺎﻔﻛ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺮﺛﺆﻳﺔﺠﺣﺎﻨﻟﺍ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ . ﻮﳓ   ﻩﺎﲡﻻﺍ   ﹼﻥﺈﻓ   ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ   ﺍﺬﳍ   ﹰﻘﺒﻃﻭ   ﺔﻴﺴﻔﻨﻟﺍ   ﺔﻘﺜﻟﺍ   ﻊﻣ   ﺎﻬﻌﻤﺘﳎﻭ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﻓﺎﻘﺛ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﻣ   ﻥﺍﺰﻔﲢﺙﺪﺤﺘﻟﺍ   ﰲ   ﻉﻭﺮﺸﻟﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﻖﻳﺮﻃ   ﻦﻋ   ﺎ   ﺎﻘﺗﺍﻭ   ﺎ   ﺩﺎﺟﺇ   ﺔﻟﻭﺎﳏﻭ   ﺔﺳﻭﺭﺪﳌﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ   ﺔﺤﺟﺎﻨﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﺠﻴﺗﺍﺮﺘﺳﻻﺍ   ﻝﺎﻤﻌﺘﺳﺍﻭ   ﺔﻟﺎﻌﻔﻟﺍ   ﺔﺳﺭﺎﻤﳌﺍﻑﻮﺧ   ﻭﺃ   ﻞﺠﺧ   ﻥﻭﺩ   ﺓﺮﻤﺘﺴﳌﺍ   ﺕﺎﺒﻳﺭﺪﺘﻟﺍﻭ .  ﻒﺸﻛ   ﺪﻘﻓ   ﻡﺪﻘﺗ   ﺎ  ﻤﻋ   ﹰﻼﻀﻓﻗﺎﻓﺭﻭ   ﺎﻤﻴﺷﺎﻳ (Yashima, Zenuk-Nishide, Shimizu, 2004) ﻫﻭﺮﺟﺃ   ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ   ﰲﻰﻠﻋ   ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﳒﻹﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻥﻮﻤﻠﻌﺘﻳ   ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍ   ﲔﻴﻧﺎﺑﺎﻴﻟﺍ   ﺔﺒﻠﻄﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﻯﺪﻟ   ﺔﻴﻟﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﺔﻘﺜﻟﺍ   ﹼﻥﺃ   ﹰﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﺃ   ﹰﺔﻐﻟ   ﺎﻬﻔﺻﻮﺑ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍﻭ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﻉﻭﺮﺸﻟﺍ   ﱃﺇ   ﻱﺩﺆﺗ   ﺎﻣ   ﹰﺩﺎﻋ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻊﻤﺘﳎ   ﻮﳓ   ﰊﺎﳚﻹﺍ   ﻩﺎﲡﻻﺍ   ﻪﻌﻓﺪﻳ   ﺎﻤﻨﻴﺑ   ﻪﺘﻠﺻﺍﻮﻣ   ﺔ  ﺪﲜ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﻢﹼﻌﺗ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻪﺜﳛﻭ   ﺎﻬﺘﻓﺎﻘﺛﻭ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍﺎ   ﺩﺎﺟﺇﻭ   ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﳌﺍ   ﻒﻗﺍﻮﳌﺍ   ﰲ   ﺎﻬﺘﺳﺭﺎﳑ   ﱄﺎﺘﻟﺎﺑﻭ   ﺎﻬﺘﺟﺍﻭ .   ﺚﺤﺒﻳ   ﻥﺃ   ﺪﻳﺮﻳ   ﻱﺬﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﻥﺃ   ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﺕﺭﺎﺷﺃﻭ   ﺪﻠﳎﺩﺪﻋ   ١٣   ﺔﻠﳎﺪﻟﺕ   ﺔﻳﻮﺑﺮﺘﻟﻴﺴﻔﻨﻟ - ﺔﻌﻣﻠﺴﻟﻥ   ﺱﻮﺑ   ٣٣٢   ﺔﻴﻟﻭﺪﻟﺍ   ﻥﻭﺆﺸﻟﺍ   ﰲ   ﹰﻧﺎﻜﻣ   ﻪﺴﻔﻨﻟ ) ﻴﻟﻭﺪﻟﺍ   ﻒﻗﺍﻮﳌﺍ (  ﺔﻴﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﺔﻴﺳﺎﻴﺴﻟﺍﻮﻜﺗ   ﰲ   ﻉﻭﺮﺸﻟﺍﻭ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﱃﺇ   ﺭﺩﺎﺒﻳ   ﺎﻣ   ﹰﺒﻟﺎﻏﻦﻳﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺮ  ﺒﻋ   ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻌﻟﺍ . ﻪﻗﺎﻓﺭﻭ   ﺎﻤﻴﺸﻳ   ﻒﺸﻛ   ﺪﻘﻟﻭ (Yashima et al., 2004) ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﺕﺎﻫﺎﲡﻻ   ﻥﺃ   ﻢﻬﺘﺳﺍﺭﺩ   ﰲ   ﻪﺘﻴﻌﻓﺍﺪﺑ   ﹰﺪﻴﻃﻭ   ﹰﺔﻗﻼﻋ   ﺎﻬﻌﻤﺘﳎﻭ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻮﳓﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍ   ﰲ   ﻪﻋﻭﺮﺷﻭ  .  ﲔﺑ   ﺔﻗﻼﻋ   ﺩﻮﺟﻭ   ﻯﺮﺧﺃ   ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺩ   ﺖﻔﺸﻛ   ﻯﺮﺧﺃ   ﺔﻬﺟ   ﻦﻣﻭﺮﺜﻛﻷﺍ   ﺔﻳﺩﺮﻔﻟﺍ   ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍﺜﻣ   ﹰﺭﺍﺮﻘﺘﺳﺍ :  ﺔﻴﺼﺨﺸﻟﺍﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍﻭ   ﺲﻨﳉﺍﻭ   ﺮﻤﻌﻟﺍﻭ . ﻲﻔﻓ   ﺱﻭﺮﻛ   ﻭ   ﺭﺎﻴﺘﻧﺇ   ﻙﺎﻣ   ﺎﻫﺍﺮﺟﺃ   ﺔﻴﺒﻳﺮﲡ   ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ (MacIntyer & Charos, 1996) ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟ   ﺭﺎﺴﳌﺍ   ﻞﻴﻠﲢ   ﺎﻬﻴﻓ   ﲔﻣﺪﺨﺘﺴﻣ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺔﻴﺼﺨﺸﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﻤﺴﻟﺍ   ﺭﺎﺛﺁﻴﺼﺨﺸﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﻤﺴﻟﺍ   ﻥﺃ   ﺎﻔﺸﺘﻛﺍ   ﺪﻗﻭﺮﺛﺆﺗ   ﺔ  ﻣﺎﻋ   ﺓﺭﻮﺼﺑ   ﺔ   ﺔﻘﺜﻟﺍ   ﻖﻳﺮﻃ   ﻦﻋ   ﺓﺮﺷﺎﺒﻣ   ﲑﻏ   ﺔﻘﻳﺮﻄﺑ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﺔﺒﻏﺭ   ﰲﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻮﳓ   ﺕﺎﻫﺎﲡﻻﺍﻭ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﺴﻔﻨﻟﺍ .   ﻯﻮﺼﻗ   ﺔﻴﳘﺃ   ﺎﳍ   ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ   ﹼﻥﺃ   ﻚﺷ   ﻻﻭ   ﺀﺍﻮﺿﻷﺍ   ﻂﻴﻠﺴﺗ   ﰲ   ﺔ  ﺻﺎﺧ   ﲔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﲔﻳﻮﺑﺮﺘﻟﺍﻭ   ﲔﺜﺣﺎﺒﻠﻟﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻲﻤﻠﻌﺘﻣ   ﺔﺒﻏﺭ   ﺮﺛﺄﺗ   ﺔﻴﻔﻴﻛ   ﻰﻠﻋﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﺔﻴ   ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﹼﻥﻷ   ﺎﻬﻠﻣﺍﻮﻋﻭ   ﺔﻴﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ   ﻝﻮﺼﻔﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﻗﺎﻴﺴﺑﺲﻳﺭﺪﺘﻟﺍ   ﻕﺮﻃﻭ   ﺔﻳﻮﺑﺮﺘﻟﺍ   ﺐﻴﻟﺎﺳﻷﺎﺑ   ﺮﺛﺄﺘﺗ   ﺪﻗ . ﺪﹼﻛﺆﻳ   ﺎﳑﻭ   ﺀﺍﱪﺧ   ﺎﻫﺍﺮﺟﺃ   ﱵﻟﺍ   ﺔﺜﻳﺪﳊﺍ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ   ﹼﻥﺈﻓ   ﻚﻟﺫ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﹼﻥﺃ   ﱃﺇ   ﺕﺭﺎﺷﺃ   ﺎﻬﻤﹼﻌﺗﻭ   ﺕﺎﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺗﺎﻴﺳ   ﺔﻔﻴﻇﻭ   ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻧ   ﻥﻮﻜﺗ   ﺎﻣ   ﹰﺩﺎﻋﻞﺜﻣ   ﻒﻗﺍ  ﻤﹾﻟﺍ   ﻕﺔﻴﻓﺎﻘﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻔﻠﳋﺍﻭ   ﺔﻋﻮﻤ   ﺍ   ﻢﺠﺣ   ﻦﻳﺭﻭﺎﶈﺍﻭ   ﻉﻮﺿﻮﳌﺍ .   ﻝﺩﺎﺒﺘﻟ   ﺔﺒﻠﻄﻠﻟ   ﺔﻤﻬﻣ   ﻦﻛﺎﻣﺃ   ﺔﻴﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ   ﻝﻮﺼﻔﻟﺍ   ﺪﻌﺗﻭ   ﻢﹼﻌﺗ   ﰲ   ﺔﻟﺎﻌﻔﻟﺍ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﺳﺭﺎﻤﳌﺍﻭ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺭﺎﻜﻓﻷﺍ   ﱵﻟﺍ   ﻥﺍﺪﻠﺒﻟﺍ   ﰲ   ﹰﺔﻴﻧﺎﺛ   ﹰﺔﻐﻟ   ﺎﻬﻔﺻﻮﺑ   ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﳒﻹﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍﺛ   ﹰﺔﻐﻟ   ﺎﻬﻔﺻﻮﺑ   ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﳒﻹﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺱﺭﺪﺗﺔﻴﻧﺎ . ﻰﻠﻋ   ﱡﻝﺪﻳ   ﺍﺬﻫﻭ   ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺔﺒﻠﻄﻟﺍ   ﻊﻴﺠﺸﺗ   ﰲ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻟﺍ   ﺭﻭﺩﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺎ   ﺍﺭﺎﻬﻣ   ﻦﻣ   ﻦﻜﻤﺘﻟﺍﻭ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ  .  ﺔﺻﺎﺧﻭ   ﺎﻳﺰﻴﻟﺎﻣ   ﰲ   ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻮﻤﻠﻌﻣ   ﻂﺑﺮﻳ   ﺎﻣ   ﺓﺩﺎﻋﻭ   ﺔﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍ   ﻒﻌﺿ   ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻟﺎﳌﺍ   ﺔﻴﻣﻼﺳﻹﺍ   ﻡﻮﻠﻌﻟﺍ   ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ   ﰲ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﺳﺭﺎﻤﳌﺍ   ﻡﺪﻌﺑ   ﺔﺒﻠﻄﻟﺍ   ﻯﺪﻟ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ ) ﺪﻋﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ ( ﻝﻭﺎﲢ   ﺍﺬﻟ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﻞﺠﳋﺍﻭ   ﺭﺎﺒﺘﺧﺍﻭ   ﺔﻠﻜﺸﳌﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﺎﻳﺎﺒﺧ   ﻒﺸﻛ   ﺔﻴﻧﺍﺪﻴﳌﺍ   ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﰲ   ﲔﻤﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﻯﺪﻟ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﲑﺛﺄﺗ   ﻯﺪﻣ   ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ   ﰲ   ﹰﺔﻴﻧﺎﺛ   ﹰﺔﻐﻟ   ﺎﻬﻔﺻﻮﺑ   ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟ   ﻢ   ﺩﺎﺟﺇﺔﻳﺰﻴﻟﺎﳌﺍ   ﺔﻴﻣﻼﺳﻹﺍ   ﻡﻮﻠﻌﻟﺍ .  ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ ﹸﺔﻳﺮﻈﻧﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ ﰲ   ﺪﻧﻮﻤﺸﺘﻳﺭﻭ   ﻲﻜﺳﻭﺮﻛ   ﻚﻣ   ﺡﺮﺘﻗﺍ (McCrosky & Richmond, 1987)   ﻝﻭﻷ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﺢﻠﻄﺼﻣ   ﲔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﲔﻳﻮﺑﺮﺘﻟﺍﻭ   ﺀﺍﱪﳋﺍ   ﲔﺑ   ﻝﻭﺍﺪﺘﻟﺍ   ﲑﺜﻛ   ﺢﺒﺻﺃﻭ   ﺓﺮﻣﺎﻬﻤﻠﻌﺗﻭ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺗ   ﻝﺎﳎ   ﰲ . ﺭﺎﻴﺘﻧﺇ   ﻙﺎﻣ   ﻡﺎﻗ   ﻡﺎﻋ٩٩٤ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ   ﻊ  ﺳﻭ   ﺫﺇ   ﺔﻳﺮﻈﻨﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﻊﻴﺳﻮﺘﺑ   ﻊﻴﺠﺸﺗ   ﰲ   ﺔﻤﻬﻣ   ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻋ   ﺎﻫﱪﺘﻋﺍ   ﱵﻟﺍ   ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ   ﻞﻤﺸﻴﻟ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﺰﻔﺣﻭ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﺳﺭﺎﻤﳌﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻢﹼﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﺔﺳﺭﺎﻤﳌﺍ   ﻦﻋ   ﻪﻟ   ﺔﻄﺒﺜﳌﺍ   ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ   ﻦﻋ   ﹰﻼﻀﻓ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ . ﻪﺘﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﺭﻮﺼﺗ   ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﻦﻣﻭﺓﺮﻤﺘﺴﳌﺍ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﺳﺭﺎﻤﳌﺍﻭ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ .   ﻣﹸ   ﺪﻗﻭﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ   ﺍﺬﻫ   ﺝﺰ  ) ﻖﺤﻠﻣ   ﺮﻈﻧﺎﻇ ( ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﺑ   ﹰﻘﺣﻻ   ﺔﻴﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ Social education model ﺔﺻﺎﺧ   ﺝﺎﻣﺪﻧﻻﺍ   ﺐﻧﺎﺟ intergrativeness ﻝﻮﺼﺤﻠﻟ   ﺕﺎﻫﺎﲡﻻﺍﻭ   ﻯﺪﻟ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﺭﺍﺮﻜﺗ   ﻝﻮﺣ   ﻞﻴﺻﺎﻔﺘﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﺪﻳﺰﳌﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋﺪﻳﺪﳉﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ . ﺔﺒﻏﺭ   ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ   ﺍﺬﻫ   ﰲ   ﺝﺎﻣﺪﻧﻻﺎﺑ   ﺪﺼﻘﻳﻭﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ ﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﻋﻮﻤﳎ   ﻊﻣ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗ   ﻞﺻﻮﺘﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻐﺑ   ﺔﻓﺎﻘﺜﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﺏﺎﺴﺘﻛﺍﻭ   ﺎﻬﺘﻓﺎﻘﺛ   ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣﻭ   ﻊﻣ   ﻲﻤﻠﺴﻟﺍ   ﺶﻳﺎﻌﺘﻟﺍﻭ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ   ﱃﺇ   ﺎ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﻋﻮﻤﳎ . ﺕﺎﻤﺴﻟ   ﻥﺃ   ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ   ﺍﺬﻫ   ﺽﺮﺘﻔﻳﻭ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺎﺑ   ﹰﺔﺒﺟﻮﻣﻭ   ﹰﺪﻴﻃﻭ   ﹰﺔﻗﻼﻋ   ﺔﻴﺗﺍﺬﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻌﻓﺍﺪﻟﺍﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ . ﻡﺎﻤﺘﻫﻼﻟ   ﲑﺜﳌﺍ   ﻦﻣﻭﺭﺎﻴﺘﻧﺇ   ﻙﺎﻣ   ﹼﻥﺃﻪﺋﻼﻣﺯﻭ (MacIntyre, Clement, Dornyei & Noel, 1998) ﺚﻴﺣ   ﺔﻳﺮﻈﻨﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﻊﻴﺳﻮﺘﻟ   ﺩﻮﻬﳉﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﹰﺪﻳﺰﻣ   ﺍﻮﻟﺬﺑ   ﻲﻣﺮﳍﺍ   ﻂﻄﺨﳌﺍ   ﺍﻮﺣﺮﺘﻗﺍ ) hierarchical schemata (   ﺎﻫﺮﺻﺎﻨﻋ   ﱪﻋ   ﺪﱠﻘﻌﳌﺍ   ﱄﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﻙﻮﻠﺴﻟﺍ   ﺓﺮﻫﺎﻇ   ﻒﺻﻮﻟﺔﻴﺴﻔﻨﻟﺍ   ﺎ   ﺍﺮﺛﺆﻣﻭ   ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ .  ﺔﻤﻬﳌﺍ   ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣﻭﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﺭﻮﺼﺗ   ﻪﻠﻛ   ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ   ﺍﺬﻫ   ﰲ   ﺔﻴﻠﺻﺍﻮﺘﻟﺍ   ﻪﺗﺍﺭﺪﻗ   ﻯﻮﺘﺴﻣ   ﻙﺍﺭﺩﺇﻭ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻪﺘﻳﺎﻔﻛ   ﻦﻋﻪﻳﺪﻟ   ﱄﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍﻭ . ﺭﺎﺷﺃ   ﺪﻗﻭ (Dornyei, 2003) ﻥﺃ   ﱃﺇ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻪﺘﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﺭ  ﻮﺼﺘﺑ   ﺮﺛﺄﺘﺗ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺗ   ﻮﳓ   ﻪﺘﻴﻌﻓﺍﺩﻭ . ﺍ   ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ   ﻦﻤﻀﺗﻭﻴﻣﺮﻫ   ﺕﺎﻘﺒﻃ   ﺖﺳ   ﺡﺮﺘﻘﳌ . ﺔﻘﺒﻄﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﺮﺛﺆﺗﻭ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟ   ﻲﻠﻌﻔﻟﺍ   ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﻻﺍ   ﻲﻫ   ﱃﻭﻷﺍ   ﱵﻟﺍﻭ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﻯﺪﻟ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﹰﻼﻌﻓ   ﺔﻘﺒﻄﻟﺍﺕﺎﻘﺒﻄﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﻦﻣ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻘﺒﻄﻟﺍ   ﺪﻌﺗ .   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﺎﻫﹶﻻ  ﻭﹸ   ﻥﺎﺘﻴﺿﺮﻔﻟﺍ   ﻥﺎﺘﻨﻳﻮﻜﺘﻟﺍ   ﺔﺜﻟﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻘﺒﻄﻠﻟﻭ   ﻦ  ﻌﻣ   ﺺﺨﺷ   ﻊﻣ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻞﺻﺍﻮﺘﻟﺍﺔﻘﺜﻟﺍ   ﺎﻬﻴﻧﺎﺛﺔﺠﺣﺎﻧ   ﺓﺭﻮﺼﺑ   ﻞﺻﺍﻮﺘﻟﺍ   ﺍﺬﻫ   ﺀﺍﺮﺟﺇ   ﰲ   ﺔﻴﺴﻔﻨﻟﺍ  .  ﺪ  ﻌ  ﻭ   ﹴﻦ  ﻌﻣ   ﻒﻗﻮﳌ   ﺕﺍﺮﺛﺆﻣ   ﺔﻘﺑﺎﺴﻟﺍ   ﺙﻼﺜﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﻘﺒﻄﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ ) (situation-specific  ﺰﻴﺟﻭ   ﺮﺘﻓ   ﰲ .   ﱪﺘﻌﺘﻓ   ﺔﺳﺩﺎﺴﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﺴﻣﺎﳋﺍﻭ   ﺔﻌﺑﺍﺮﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﻘﺒﻄﻟﺍ   ﺎﻣﺃﺪﻣﻷﺍ   ﺔﻠﻳﻮﻃ   ﺕﺍﲑﺛﺄﺗ   ﺎﳍﻭ   ﺓﺮﻘﺘﺴﻣ . ﺔﻘﺒﻄﻟﺍ   ﻞﺜﻤﺘﺗﻭﰲ   ﺔﻌﺑﺍﺮﻟﺍﺕﺎﻨﻳﻮﻜﺘﻟﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻱﻮﺘﲢ   ﱵﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﻌﻓﺍﺪﻟﺍ   ﺔﻋﺰـﻨﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻌﻓﺍﺪﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﺼﺨﺸﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻌﻓﺍﺪﻟﺍ   ﻲﻫﻭ   ﺙﻼﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﺿﺮﻔﻟﺍﺔﻴﺴﻔﻨﻟﺍ   ﺔﻘﺜﻟﺍﻭ   ﺕﺎﻋﻮﻤ     ﺍ   ﲔﺑ . ﺔﺴﻣﺎﳋﺍ   ﺔﻘﺒﻄﻟﺍ   ﺎﻣﺃ   ﻞﻤﺸﺗ   ﱵﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﻧﺍﺪﺟﻮﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻓﺮﻌﳌﺍ   ﻕﺎﻴﺳ   ﻞﺜﲤ   ﺎ   ﺈﻓ   ﺔﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍﻭ   ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ   ﻒﻗﻮﳌﺍﻭ   ﺕﺎﻋﻮﻤ   ﺍ   ﲔﺑ   ﺕﺎﻫﺎﲡﻻﺍﺔﻴﻟﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ . ﻭﻕﺎﻴﺴﻟﺍ   ﻦﻋ   ﺓﺭﺎﺒﻋ   ﻲﻫﻭ   ﺔﻴﻠﹾﻔ  ﺴﻟﺍ   ﺔﻘﺒﻄﻟ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺥﺎﻨﳌﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻱﻮﺘﲢ   ﱵﻟﺍﻭ   ﻱﺩﺮﻔﻟﺍﻭ   ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍﺎ   ﺎﲰﻭ   ﺔﻴﺗﺍﺬﻟﺍ   ﺔﻳﻮﳍﺍﻭ . ﻦﻋ   ﺔﻘﺒﻄﻟﺍ   ﺕﺪﻌﺘﺑﺍ   ﺎﻤﹼﻛﻭﺮﺷﺎﺒﻣ   ﲑﻏ   ﺎﻫﲑﺛﺄﺗ   ﻥﺎﻛ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﺔﻘﺒﻃ .                 –      ٣٣٣   ﻖ  ﻃ   ﻞﺼﺘﻣ   ﻕﺎﻴﺳ   ﻲﻔﻓ Yashima, Zenuk-Nishide & Shimizu, ) ٠٠٤ ( Yashima ) ٠٠٢ ( ﻒﻟﺎﺳ   ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ   ﻥﻮﺳﺭﺪﻳ   ﺍﻮﻧﺎﻛ   ﲔﻴﻧﺎﺑﺎﻴﻟﺍ   ﺔﺒﻠﻄﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﺔﻋﻮﻤﳎ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺮﻛﺬﻟﺍ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﹼﻥﺃ   ﺍﻮﺿﺮﺘﻓﺍ   ﺪﻗﻭ   ﹰﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﺃ   ﹰﺔﻐﻟ   ﺎﻬﻔﺻﻮﺑ   ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﳒﻹﺍ   ﺓﺭﻮﺼﺑ   ﺮﺛﺄﺘﺗ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﰲ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﻋﻮﻤﳎ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻱﻮﺘﲢ   ﱵﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﺴﻔﻨﻟﺍ   ﺔﻘﺜﻟﺎﺑ   ﹰﻻﻭﺃ   ﺓﺮﺷﺎﺒﻣﻞﺜﻣ   ﺔﻴﺴﻔﻨﻟﺍ   ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ : ﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍﺭﻮﺼﺗﻭ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻪﺘﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ . ﹰﺜﻟﺎﺛﻭ   ﺔﻴﺗﺍﺬﻟﺍ   ﺔﺒﻌﻓﺍﺪﻟﺍ   ﹰﻴﻧﺎﺛ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺎﺑ   ﺮﺛﺄﺘﺗ   ﱵﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﻟﻭﺪﻟﺍ   ﻥﻭﺆﺸﻟﺍ   ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺘﻠﻟ   ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﺳﻻﺍﻭ   ﻞﻤﻌﻟﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺘﻠﻟ   ﺝﺭﺎﳋﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﻣﺎﻗﻹﺍﺀﺎﻛﺮﺸﻟﺍﻭ   ﺀﺎﻗﺪﺻﻷﺍ   ﻊﻣ   ﰲﺎﻘﺜﻟﺍ . ﻢﻠﻌﺘﻣ   ﻥﺎﻛ   ﺎﻤﹼﻛﻭ   ﻖﻠﻗ   ﺍﺫ   ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍﻪﺘﻳﺎﻔﻛﻭ   ﺾﻔﺨﻨﻣ   ﻱﻮﻐﻟﺔﻴﻟﺎﻋ   ﺔﻴﻟﺎﺼﺗﺍ   ﺔﻳﺎﻔﻛ   ﺍﺫ   ﻥﺎﻛ   ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻋ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ . ﱪﺘﺧﺍ   ﺪﻗﻭﻥﻭﺮﺧﺁﻭ   ﺎﻤﻴﺸﻳ Yashima et al. ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺎﺑ   ﺝﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ   ﺍﺬﻫ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺍ   ﻥﺃ   ﺍﻮﻔﺸﺘﻛﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﺟﺫﻮﻤﻨﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﺋﺎﻨﺒﻟﺍ   ﺔﻟﺩﺎﻌﳌﺍ   ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ   ﺔﻟﻭﺎﳏﻭ   ﺔﻴﺴﻔﻨﻟﺍ   ﺔﻘﺜﻟﺎﺑ   ﺮﺛﺄﺘﺗ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍﺬﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻌﻓﺍﺪﻟﺍ   ﻥﺃ   ﻻﺇ   ﺔﻴﻟﻭﺪﻟﺍ   ﻥﻭﺆﺸﻟﺍﺓﺭﻮﺼﺑ   ﺮﺛﺄﺘﺗ   ﻻ   ﺔﻴﺗﺍ   ﲑﻏ   ﺓﺭﻮﺼﺑ   ﺮﺛﺄﺘﺗ   ﻦﻜﻟ   ﻝﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻏﺮﻟﺎﺑ   ﺓﺮﺷﺎﺒﻣﺔﻴﻟﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﺔﻘﺜﻟﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺎﻫﲑﺛﺄﺘﺑ   ﻚﻟﺫﻭ   ﺓﺮﺷﺎﺒﻣ .  ﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﺀﺍﱪﺧ   ﻁﺎﺳﻭﺃ   ﰲ   ﻯﱪﻛ   ﺔﺠﺿ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ   ﺕﺭﺎﺷﺃ   ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ   ﺾﻌﺑ   ﺖﻔﺸﺘﻛﺍ   ﺚﻴﺣﺎﻬﻤﻠﻌﺗﻭ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺗﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﲔﺑ   ﺔﺒﺟﻮﻣ   ﺓﺪﻴﻃﻭ   ﺔﻗﻼﻋ   ﺩﻮﺟﻭ   ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍﻭ )  ﻦﻳﺎﺘﺳﺎﻛ٩٧٥ ) Chastain (  ﺭﺎﻧﺩﺭﺎﻏ ﺖﻴﻧﻭﺮﻏﻭ   ﻲﺜﻴﲰ ) Gardner, Smythe & Grunet ٩٧٧ ﻥﺎﻤﺴﻘﻴﻠﻗ   ﺖﻨﻤﻴﻠﻛ   ﻲﺜﻴﲰ   ﺭﺩﺎﻧﺭﺎﻏ٩٧٦ ) Gardner, Smythe, Clement & Gliksman  ﺰﺘﻳﻭﺭﻮﻫ   ﻭ   ﺚﻴﻓ٩٨٦ ) Faith & Horwitz (  ﺩﺭﺍﻮﻫ٩٧٧  ) Howard  ( ﻞﻳﲑﻣﻭﺑﻭ ﰊﺎﻧﲑ٩٧٦ Merrill & Burnaby ( ﺖﺿﺭﺎﻋ   ﺎﻤﻨﻴﺑ   ﺎﻤﻬﻨﻴﺑ   ﻁﺎﺒﺗﺭﺍ   ﻱﺃ   ﻯﺮﺧﺃ   ﺔﻋﻮﻤﳎ ) ﻲﺴﻧﺎﻧ٩٧٦ﲔﺘﺴﻳﺮﻛ   ﺰﻴﺗﻭﺃ   ﻭ٩٩١ ﺪﻟﺎﻧﻭﺩ   ٩٧٣ ( ﻎﻧﻮﻳ   ﻭ   ﺰﺘﻳﻭﺭﻮﻫ   ﺖﺒﺛﺃ   ﺪﻗﻭ ) ٩٩١ ( Hortiwz and Young   ﻒﺼﻧ   ﻦﻋ   ﻞﻘﻳ   ﻻ   ﺎﻣ   ﱠﻥﺃ   ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﺕﺎﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺗ   ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺑ   ﰲ   ﺍﻮﻠﺠﺳ   ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍ   ﺔﺒﻠﻄﻟﺍﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﻥﻮﻧﺎﻌﻳﻤﻬﻨﳌﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟ . ﺓﺮﻫﺎﻇ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻥﺃ   ﺐﺒﺴﺑﻭ   ﻥﺈﻓ   ﺓﺮﺷﺎﺒﻣ   ﺓﺭﻮﺼﺑ   ﺎﻬﺘﻈﺣﻼﻣ   ﺐﻌﺼﻳ   ﺓﺩﺮﳎ   ﺔﻴﺴﻔﻧ   ﺮﻳﺮﻘﺘﻟﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺪﻤﺘﻌﺗ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﺖﻟﻭﺎﻨﺗ   ﱵﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﺒﻟﺎﻏﺕﻼﺑﺎﻘﳌﺍﻭ   ﺕﺎﻧﺎﺒﺘﺳﻻﺍﻭ   ﰐﺍﺬﻟﺍ . ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﺭﺪﺼﻣ   ﺎﻣﺃ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﹼﻥﺄﺑ   ﹰﺔﻠﺋﺎﻗ   ﺮﻈﻨﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﻬﺟﻭ   ﺾﻌﺑ   ﻪﻴﻟﺇ   ﺕﺭﺎﺷﺃ   ﺪﻘﻓ  ﻮﳏﻭ   ﹲﻝﻮﹸﻘ  ﻨ  ﻣ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍﰲ   ﻯﺮﺧﻷﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻝﺎﻜﺷﺃ   ﻦﻣ   ﹲﻝﻞﺜﻣ   ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﳌﺍ   ﺕﻻﺎ   ﺍ : ﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗﻭ   ﺭﺎﺒﺘﺧﻻﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗ . ﻯﺮﻳﻭ   ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ   ﻦﻣ   ﺓﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﻻﺍ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﻜﻣﺇ   ﺓﺮﻜﻔﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﻮﻧﺎﺒﺘﻣ   ﺕﻻﺎ   ﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﻦﻣ   ﺔﺼﻠﺨﺘﺴﳌﺍ   ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﺕﻼﻜﺸﳌ   ﺔﺒﺳﺎﻨﳌﺍ   ﻝﻮﻠﳊﺍ   ﺩﺎﳚﻹ   ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﳌﺍ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺗ   ﻝﺎﳎ   ﰲﺎﻬﻤﻠﻌﺗﻭ   ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﻭﺃ )  ﻎﻧﻮﻳ١٩٩١  Young .(  ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻥﺃ   ﺍﻭﺃﺭ   ﺚﻴﺣ   ﹰﻔﻠﺘﳐ   ﹰﺠﻬﻨﻣ   ﻥﻭﺮﺧﺁ   ﻚﻠﺳﻭ   ﻥﺃﻭ   ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻦﻋ   ﺔﻴﺳﺎﺳﺃ   ﺭﻮﺼﺑ   ﻒﻠﺘﳜ   ﹰﺰﻴﻤﺘﻣ   ﹰﻋﻮﻧ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍ   ﲔﺑ   ﹰﻴﺒﻠﺳ   ﹰﻃﺎﺒﺗﺭﺍ   ﻙﺎﻨﻫﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍ   ﲔﺑ   ﺔﻗﻼﻋ   ﺪﺟﻮﺗ   ﻻ   ﺎﻤﻨﻴﺑ ) ﻲﺴﻧﺎﻧ٩٧٦ﺰﻴﺗﻭﺃﻭ   ﲔﺘﺴﻳﺮﻛ   ٩٩١ ﺪﻟﺎﻧﻭﺩ   ٩٧٣ .(   ﻞﻌﻓ   ﺩﺭ   ﻭﺃ   ﻊﻠﻫ   ﻪﻧﺃ   ﺍﺬﻫ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﹰﺀﺎﻨﺑ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻑ  ﻋﻭ   ﹶﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﹺﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍ   ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻧ   ﻖﺜﺒﻨﻳ   ﱯﻠﺳ   ﻲﻔﻃﺎﻋﺎﻬﻤﻠﻌﺗﻭ   ﹶﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﹶﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ . ﲔﺑ   ﻊﻤﺠﻠﻟ   ﺔﻟﻭﺎﳏ   ﰲﻭ   ﺰﺘﻳﻭﺭﻮﻫ   ﺶﻗﺎﻧ   ﲔﺠﻬﻨﻟﺍ Hortiwz ﻪﻠﻴﻣﺯﻭ ) ٩٩١ ( ﻥﺃﻠﻘﻟﺍﻫﻭ   ﺔﺴﻴﺋﺭ   ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻣ   ﺔﺛﻼﺛ   ﻦﻣ   ﻊﺒﻨﻳ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖ ) :(   ﱄﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ )( ﻦﻣ   ﱯﻠﺴﻟﺍ   ﱘﻮﻘﺘﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﻑﻮﳋﺍ   ﻦﻳﺮﺧﻵﺍ )( ﺭﺎﺒﺘﺧﻻﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍﻭ . ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻥﺈﻓ   ﻢﳍﻮﻗ   ﺐﺴﺣﻭ   ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻗ   ﱃﺇ   ﺔﺛﻼﺜﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻉﺍﻮﻧﻷ   ﻞﻘﻧ   ﺩﺮﳎ   ﺲﻴﻟ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﹰﻧﺎﻴﻛ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﺍﻭﱪﺘﻋﺍ   ﻞﺑ   ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﺕﺎﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩﻌﻣ   ﹰﻴﺴﻔﻧ ﺕﺍﺪﻘﺘﻌﳌﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﺗﺍﺬﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﻛﺍﺭﺩﻹﺍ   ﻦﻋ   ﹰﺪﻘ   ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﺕﺎﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﹼﻌﺘﺑ   ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﺕﺎﻴﻛﻮﻠﺴﻟﺍﻭ   ﺭﻮﻌﺸﻟﺍﻭ   ﻻ   ﺔﻴﺼﻌﺘﺴﳌﺍ   ﺔﻴﺴﻔﻨﻟﺍ   ﺔﻠﻜﺸﳌﺍ   ﻩﺬﳍ   ﻝﻮﻠﺣ   ﺩﺎﳚﻹ   ﺍﺬﻟ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺗ   ﺕﺎﻗﺎﻴﺳ   ﰲ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﺔﺸﻗﺎﻨﻣ   ﻦﻣ   ﺪﺑﺎﻬﻤﻠﻌﺗﻭ   ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ . ﹰﻋﻮﻧ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﺭﺎﺒﺘﻋﺍ   ﻊﻣﹰﻼﻘﺘﺴﻣﻂﺑﺍﻭﺮﻟﺍ   ﻒﺸﻛ   ﻢﻬﳌﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﻪﻧﺈﻓ   ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻦﻋ   ﻪﻨﻴﺑ ) ﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ ( ﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻉﺍﻮﻧﺃ   ﺔﻴﻘﺑﻭ .  ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ ﺔﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ ﺮﺛﺃ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﺮﺛﺃ   ﻝﻮﺣ   ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ   ﺙﻮﺤﺒﻟﺍ   ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ   ﺕﺀﺎﺟ   ﺾﻌﺑ   ﺕﺃﺭ   ﺪﻘﻓ   ﹰﺔﺿﺭﺎﻌﺘﻣﻭ   ﹰﺔﻀﻗﺎﻨﺘﻣ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍﻟﺍ   ﹼﻥﺃ   ﺔﻴﺒﻳﺮﺠﺘﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﻧﺍﺪﻴﳌﺍ   ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍﹰﺟﺎﻋﺰﻧﺍ   ﺐﺒﺴﻳ   ﻖﻠﻘ   ﻦﻣ   ﺕﺎﻋﻮﻤﳎ   ﲑﺜﻳﻭ   ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌ   ﹰﻔﻴﻔﻃﻞﺜﻣ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍ   ﺮﻳﻮﻄﺘﻟ   ﺔﻀﻗﺎﻨﳌﺍ   ﺕﺎﻴﻛﻮﻠﺴﻟﺍ :   ﺭﺎﻜﻧﺇﻭ   ﻥﺎﻴﻜﻟﺎﺑ   ﺔﻃﺮﻔﳌﺍ   ﺔﻳﺎﻨﻌﻟﺍﻭ   ﱄﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﺲﺟﻮﺘﻟﺍ   ﻢﻴﻴﻘﺘﻟﺍﻭ   ﰐﺍﺬﻟﺍ   ﻩﺎﺒﺘﻧﻻﺍ   ﺓﺩﺎﻳﺯﻭ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﺳﺭﺎﳑ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺓﺭﺪﻘﻟﺍﻌﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﺑﺮﻄﺿﻻﺍﻭ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺀﺍﺩﻸﻟ   ﱯﻠﺴﻟﺍﻝﺍﺰﻌﻧﻻﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﺒﺼ   ﺎﻬﻴﻓ   ﺔﻛﺭﺎﺸﳌﺍﻭ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﺳﺭﺎﻤﳌﺍ   ﻦﻋ )  ﻢﻴﻫﺮﺑﺇ   ﻞﻴﺋﺎﻜﻴﻣ a ٠٠٩ ﺕﲑﻟﺎﻜﺳﻭ   ﺰﺘﻳﻭﺭﻮﻫ   ﻭ   ﻎﻨﻴﺷ   ٩٩٩ Cheng, Horwitz, & Schallert, .( ﺔﻟﺩﺃ   ﻙﺎﻨﻫ   ﻥﺈﻓ   ﻚﻟﺫ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺓﻭﻼﻋ   ﺡﺎﺠﻨﻟﺎﺑ   ﹰﺔﻴﺒﻠﺳ   ﹰﺔﻗﻼﻋ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻠﻟ   ﹼﻥﺃ   ﱃﺇ   ﲑﺸﺗ   ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻋﺣ   ﺔﻴﺴﻧﺮﻔﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﹼﻌﺗ   ﰲ   ﻲﳝﺩﺎﻛﻷﺍﻩﺬﻫ   ﺕﺭﺎﺷﺃ   ﺚﻴ   ﻦﻣ   ﺔﻋﻮﻤﳎ   ﺐﺴﺘﻜﻳ   ﹰﻘﻠﻗ   ﺪﺷﻷﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﹼﻥﺃ   ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ   ﹰﺔﺑﻮﻌﺻ   ﺪﺷﺃ   ﺎﻬﻋﺎﺟﺮﺘﺳﺍﻭ   ﹼﻞﻗﺃ   ﺔﻋﺮﺴﺑ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺕﺍﺩﺮﻔﳌﺍ   ﹰﻘﻠﻗ   ﹼﻞﻗﺃ   ﻢﻫ   ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍ   ﻪﺋﺍﺮﻈﻨﺑ   ﹰﺔﻧﺭﺎﻘﻣ )  ﻦﻳﺎﺘﺳﺎﻛ٩٧٥ ) Chastain ( ﺖﻴﻧﻭﺮﻏﻭ   ﻲﺜﻴﲰ   ﺭﺎﻧﺩﺭﺎﻏ ) Gardner, Smythe & Grunet ٩٧٧ ﺖﻨﻤﻴﻠﻛ   ﻲﺜﻴﲰ   ﺭﺩﺎﻧﺭﺎﻏ   ﻥﺎﻤﺴﻘﻴﻠﻗ٩٧٦ ) Gardner, Smythe, Clement & Gliksman  ﺰﺘﻳﻭﺭﻮﻫ   ﻭ   ﺚﻴﻓ٩٨٦ ) Faith & Horwitz (   ﺩﺭﺍﻮﻫ٩٧٧  ) Howard  (  ﰊﺎﻧﲑﺑﻭ   ﻞﻳﲑﻣﻭ٩٧٦ Merrill & Burnaby .(   ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻌﺑ   ﻀﻳ   ﻻﻭ   ﺝﺮﺣ   ﻱﺃ   ﺐﺒﺴﻳ   ﻻ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻥﺃ   ﻥﻭﺮﺧﺁ   ﻯﺃﺭﻭﳏ   ﻮﻫ   ﻞﺑ   ﻞﻳﻮﻄﻟﺍ   ﻯﺪﳌﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺔﺳﻭﺭﺪﳌﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺏﺎﺴﺘﻛﺍﺭﻮ   ﺪﻠﳎﺩﺪﻋ   ١٣   ﺔﻠﳎﺪﻟﺕ   ﺔﻳﻮﺑﺮﺘﻟﻴﺴﻔﻨﻟ - ﺔﻌﻣﻠﺴﻟﻥ   ﺱﻮﺑ   ٣٣٤   ﺕﺎﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﹼﻌﺗ   ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻌﻟ   ﻲﻔﻃﺎﻋ   ﻞﻌﻓ   ﺩﺮﻛ   ﻊﺑﺎﻧ   ﺲﻴﺋﺭ   ﺭﺍﺮﻘﺘﺳﻻﺍﻭ   ﺀﺎﺧﺮﺘﺳﻻﺎﺑ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﺮﻌﺸﻳ   ﺎﻣ   ﻥﺎﻋﺮﺳﻭ   ﺎﻫﺮﺳﺄﺑ   ﻦﻋ   ﹰﻼﻀﻓ   ﺔﻳﺭﻮﻓ   ﺔﻴﺑﺎﳚﺇ   ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ   ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﺗ   ﻲﺴﻔﻨﻟﺍﻪﻤﻠﻌﺗ   ﺓﲑﺴﻣ   ﻝﺎﻤﺘﻛﻻ   ﺔﻣﺯﻼﻟﺍ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺕﺍﺭﺎﻬﳌﺍ   ﻪﺑﺎﺴﺘﻛﺍ .   ﱂ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﺭﺎﺛﺁ   ﻝﻮﺣ   ﺓ  ﺎﳊﺍ   ﺔﺸﻗﺎﻨﳌﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﻥﺃ   ﺮﻛﺬﻟﺎﺑ   ﺮﻳﺪﳉﺍﻭﺗﻪﺗﺯﻭﺎﲡ   ﻦﻜﻟﻭ   ﺎﻫﺪﺣﻭ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻝﺎﳎ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺓﺮﺻﺎﻗ   ﻦﻜ   ﻱﺭﺎﺒﺘﺧﻻﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍﻭ   ﱄﺎﺼﺗﻻﺍ   ﻑﻮﺨﺘﻟﺍ   ﻝﺎﳎ   ﻞﻤﺸﺘﻟ ) ﺪﻳﺰﳌ   ﻢﻴﻫﺮﺑﺇ   ﻞﻴﺋﺎﻜﻴﻣ   ﺮﻈﻧﺍ   ﺕﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﳌﺍ   ﻦﻣ a ٠٠٩ .(  ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ ﻉﺍﻮﻧﺃ   ﻪﺘﻗﻼﻋﻭ   ﺢﻴﺤﺼﻟﺍ   ﻪﻧﺎﻜﻣ   ﰲ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻊ  ﻀﻳ   ﻲﻜﻟ   ﺔﺛﻼﺛ   ﱃﺇ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﺲﻔﻨﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻋ   ﺀﺍﱪﺧ   ﻢ  ﺴﻗ   ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺎﺑﻡﺎﺴﻗﺃ :)( ﺕﺎﻤﺴﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗ )( ﻦ  ﻌﳌﺍ   ﻒﻗﻮﳌﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗ )( ﻖﻠﻗﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ .  ﻘﺘﺴﻣ   ﻲﻌﻴﺒﻃ   ﻱﺮﻄﻓ   ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺘﺳﺍ   ﲏﻌﻴﻓ   ﻝﻭﻷﺍ   ﺎﻣﺃ   ﺺﺨﺸﻟﺍ   ﺽ  ﻌﺗ   ﺎﻣ   ﺍﺫﺇ   ﹰﺮﺗﺍﻮﺘﻣ   ﺢﺒﺼﻳ   ﻥﺃ   ﻦﻜﳝ   ﻱﺬﻟﺍﻭ   ﹴﻊﺳﺍﻭ   ﹴﻕﺎﻄﻧ   ﻰﻠﻋﻭ   ﺔﻠﻳﻮﻃ   ﺓﺮﺘﻔﻟ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﻉﻮﻨﻟﺍ   ﺍﺬﳍ )  ﺭﺎﻴﺘﻧﺇ   ﻙﺎﻣ٩٩٨ ﺰﻴﺗﻭﺃ   ﻭ   ﲔﺘﺴﻳﺮﻛ   ٩٩١ .( ﻱﺬﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺎﻓ   ﱐﺎﻌﻳ ﹰﻴﻔﻃﺎﻋ   ﹰﺮﻘﺘﺴﻣ   ﻥﻮﻜﻳ   ﺾﻔﺨﻨﳌﺍ   ﺕﺎﻤﺴﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗ   ﻦﻣ   ﻦﻣ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﺍﺬﻫ   ﻥﻷ   ﹰﻳﺭﻮﻌﺷ   ﺎﻴﺧﺮﺘﺴﻣﻭ   ﹰﻴﺒﺼﻋ   ﹰﺋﺩﺎﻫ   ﻣ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﹰﺮﻘﺘﺴﻣ   ﻥﻮﻜﻳ   ﱄﺎﺘﻟﺎﺑﻭ   ﺩﺮﻔﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﺼﺨﺷ   ﺕﺎﲰ   ﻦﻣ   ﺔﻌﺳﺍﻭ   ﺔﻋﻮﻤﳎ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻖﺒﻄﻨﻳ   ﺮﻣﻷﺍ   ﺍﺬﻫﻭ   ﻦﻣﺰﻟﺍﺕﻻﺎﳊﺍ . ﰲ   ﺕﺎﻤﺴﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗ   ﻙﺭﺎﺸﻳ   ﻪﻧﺈﻓ   ﻒﻗﻮﳌﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗ   ﺎﻣﺃﻧﺃ   ﺀﺎﻨﺜﺘﺳﺎﺑ   ﻪﺼﺋﺎﺼﺧ   ﻊﻴﲨ  ﺪﺣﺍﻭ   ﹴﻕﺎﻴﺳ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻖﺒﻄﻨﻳ   ﻪﹴﻦ  ﻌﻣ   ﻒﻗﻮﻣ   ﻭﺃ   ﻂﻘﻓ . ﻖﻠﻗ   ﻒﻗﻮﳌﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗ   ﺔﻠﺜﻣﺃ   ﻦﻣﻭ   ﻊﺟﺮﺗ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﻞﻛ   ﻥﻷ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻴﺿﺎﻳﺮﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗ   ﺭﺎﺒﺘﺧﻻﺍﻞﺜﻣ   ﺩﺪﳏ   ﻕﺎﻴﺳ   ﱃﺇ : ﺔﻠﻜﺸﳌﺍ   ﹼﻞﺣ   ﺭﺎﺒﺘﺧﻻﺍ   ﰲ   ﻝﻮﺧﺪﻟﺍﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﺳﺭﺎﳑﻭ   ﺔﻴﺿﺎﻳﺮﻟﺍ . ﺺﺨﺸﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻳ   ﺪﻗﻪﻨﻜﻟﻭ   ﺔﻴﺿﺎﻳﺮﻟﺍ   ﺔﻠﻜﺸﳌﺍ   ﹼﻞﺣ   ﺀﺎﻨﺛﺃﻖﻠﻘﺑ   ﺏﺎﺼﻳ   ﻻ   ﺪﻗ   ﺍﺬﻜﻫﻭ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻪﻣﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍ   ﺪﺘﻋ ) ﻥﺎﻤﻨﻴﻓﻭ   ﻥ  ﻮﻛﺎ  ١٩٩٠  Bacon & Finnemann  ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻭ  ٩٩٦ ) ( Woodrow .(  ﻦ  ﻌﳌﺍ   ﻒﻗﻮﳌﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗﻭ   ﺕﺎﻤﺴﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗ   ﻦﻋ   ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗ   ﻒﻠﺘﳜﻭ   ﺺﺨﺷ   ﻪﻟ   ﺽ  ﻌﺘﻳ   ﻱﺬﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻪﺑ   ﺪﺼﻘﻳ   ﺚﻴﺣ   ﹰﻴﺒﺴﻧﻯﺮﺧﺃﻭ   ﺔﻈﳊ   ﻭﺃ   ﺮﺧﺁﻭ   ﲔﺣ   ﲔﺑ .   ﺔﻟﺎﺣ   ﻮﻫ   ﻱﺃﺓﺮﺑﺎﻋ   ﺔﻴﻔﻃﺎ   ﻥﺃ   ﻦﻜﳝ   ﱵﻟﺍﻭ   ﺺﺨﺸﻠﻟ   ﱯﺼﻌﻟﺍ   ﺭﻮﻌﺸﻟﺍ   ﻦﻋ   ﺮ  ﻌ  ﺖﻗﻮﻟﺍ   ﺭﻭﺮﻣ   ﻊﻣ   ﺐﻠﻘﺘﺗ . ﺕﺎﻤﺴﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗ   ﻦﻣ   ﹶﻼ  ﻛ   ﻞﻤﺘﳛﻭ   ﺎﻤﻬﺒﺤﺼﺗ   ﹰﻨﻣﺰﻣ   ﹰﺿﺮﻣ   ﺎﺤﺒﺼﻳ   ﻥﺃ   ﻒﻗﻮﳌﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗﻭ   ﲏﻌﻳ   ﻻ   ﻦﻜﻟﻭ   ﺔﻨ  ﻌﳌﺍ   ﻒﻗﺍﻮﳌﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﻴﺒﺼﻌﻟﺍ   ﺽﺍﺮﻋﻷﺍ   ﻪﺗﺎﻴﻛﻮﻠﺳﻭ   ﻪﻓﺭﺎﻌﻣﻭ   ﻪﻔﻃﺍﻮﻋ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺮﹼﺆﻳ   ﻪﻧﺃ   ﹰﻌﺒﻃ   ﻚﻟﺫ )  ﻎﻧﻮﻳ٩٩١ ﻡ Young  ﺓﺪﺋﺎﻋ   ٩٩٤ .( ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗ   ﺭﺎﺛﺁ   ﻦﻣﻭ   ﺔﻴﺳﺎﺴﺣ   ﺮﺜﻛﺃﻭ   ﺓﺭﺎﺛﻹﺍ   ﺕﺎﻳﻮﺘﺴﻣ   ﻦﻣ   ﻊﻓﺮﻳ   ﻪﻧﺃ   ﺔﻴﻔﻃﺎﻌﻟﺍﻲﺋﺎﻘﻠﺘﻟﺍ   ﱯﺼﻌﻟﺍ   ﺯﺎﻬﺠﻠﻟ . ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﺑ   ﺏﺎﺼﳌﺎﻓ   ﻥﺫﺇ   ﻯﻮﺘﺴﳌﺍ   ﻕﻮﻓ   ﺀﻲﺷ   ﻱﺃ   ﻦﻜﻟﻭ   ﺔﻳﻮﻴﺣﻭ   ﻁﺎﺸﻨﺑ   ﺎﻤﺋﺍﺩ   ﺮﻌﺸﻳﺎﻬﻴﻓ   ﺏﻮﻏﺮﻣ   ﲑﻏ   ﺓﺭﺎﺛﺈﺑ   ﻪﻴﻟﺇ   ﺮﻈﻨﻳ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﱏﺩﻷﺍ . ﺭﺎﺛﺁ   ﺎﻣﺃﻖﻠﻗﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗ   ﻦﻣ   ﱐﺎﻌﻳ   ﻱﺬﻟﺎﻓ   ﰲﺮﻌﳌﺍ   ﺐﻧﺎﳉﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ   ﻪﻨﻋ   ﻝﻮﻘﻳ   ﻭﺃ   ﻪﻴﻓ   ﺱﺎﻨﻟﺍ   ﺮﻜﻔﻳ   ﺎﲟ   ﺔﻴﺳﺎﺴﺣ   ﺔﻳﺎﻏ   ﰲ   ﻭﺃ   ﹰﻘﻘﳏ   ﻞﺸﻔﻟﺍ   ﻥﺎﻛﺃ   ﺀﺍﻮﺳ   ﻞﺸﻔﻟﺍ   ﻦﻋ   ﺎﻤﺋﺍﺩ   ﺮﻜﻔﻳﻭ   ﻝﻭﺎﳛ   ﺎﻣ   ﹰﺒﻟﺎﻏﻭ   ﻙﺎﺒﺗﺭﻻﺍﻭ   ﻕﺎﻫﺭﻹﺍ   ﻪﻟ   ﺐﺒﺴﻳ   ﺪﻗ   ﺎﳑ   ﹰﻼﻴﺨﺘﻣ   ﻞﺜﻣ   ﲑﺜﺗ   ﺪﻗ   ﱵﻟﺍ   ﻒﻗﺍﻮﳌﺍ   ﰲ   ﻁﺭﻮﺘﻟﺍ   ﻱﺩﺎﻔﺗ   ﺺﺨﺸﻟﺍﻩﺬﻫ   ﺀﺎﻴﺷﻷﺍ ) ﻥﺎﻤﻨﻴﻓﻭ   ﻥ  ﻮﻛﺎ  ٩٩٠  Bacon & Finnemann   ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻭ  ٩٩٦ ) ( Woodrow .(  ﻦﻣ   ﺔﻐﻟ   ﻢﹼﻌﺗ   ﺔﻳﺍﺪﺑ   ﰲ   ﻪﻧﺇ   ﻝﻮﻘﻟﺍ   ﺔﻠﻓﺎﻧ   ﻦﻣ   ﺢﺒﺻﺃﻭ   ﺕﺎﺑﻮﻌﺼﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﺔﻋﻮﻤﳎ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﻪﺟﺍﻮﻳ   ﺔ  ﳊﺍ   ﺕﺎﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﺪﻋﺍﻮﻘﻟﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﺕﺍﺩﺮﻔﳌﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﺏﺎﻌﻴﺘﺳﻻﺍ   ﺔﻴﺣﺎﻧ   ﻦﻣ   ﺀﺍﻮﺳﱠﻛﺭ   ﻮﻟ   ﺍﺬﻟ   ﺎﻫﲑﻏ   ﻭﺃ   ﺐﻴﻛﺍﺮﺘﻟﺍﺕﺎﻳﺪﺤﺘﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﺰ   ﺪﻨﻋ   ﺡﺎﻴﺗﺭﻻﺍ   ﻡﺪﻌﺑ   ﺮﻌﺷﻭ   ﺔﻴﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﺑﻮﻌﺼﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﹰﺀﺰﺟ   ﺎﻫﱪﺘﻌﻳ   ﱂ   ﻞﻗﻷﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻭﺃ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺀﺎﻄﺧﻷﺍ   ﺏﺎﻜﺗﺭﺍ   ﺍﺬﻫﻭ   ﺡﺎﻴﺗﺭﻻﺍ   ﻡﺪﻋ   ﺐﻠﻘﻨﻳ   ﺎﻣ   ﻥﺎﻋﺮﺴﻓ   ﻢﹼﻌﺘﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ   ﻦﻣ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﱐﺎﻌﻳ   ﺎﻣﺪﻨﻋﻭ   ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗ   ﱃﺇ   ﻲﺴﻔﻨﻟﺍ   ﺮﺠﻀﻟﺍﺮﻳ   ﺔﻟﺎﳊﺍ   ﻖﻠﻗ   ﺭﺍﺮﻜﺗ   ﻦﻣﺍﺫﺈﻓ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﺓﺭﺎﺛﺇ   ﻂﺒﺗ   ﻢﹼﻌﺗ   ﻕﺎﻴﺳ   ﰲ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻳ   ﻥﺃ   ﻊﻗﻮﺘﻳ   ﹰﻼﻌﻓ   ﺍﺬﻫ   ﺙﺪﺣ   ﻪﻨﻳﻮﻜﺗ   ﺔﻴﻔﻴﻛﻭ   ﻱﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻖﻠﻘﻟﺍ   ﺭﺪﺼﻣ   ﺎﻨﻫﻭ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ )  ﻎﻧﻮﻳ٩٩١ ﻡ Young  ﺓﺪﺋﺎﻋ   ٩٩٤ . (  ﺔﻴﺗﺍﺬﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻌﻓﺍﺪﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ   ﺡﺎﳒ   ﰲ   ﹰﻴﺳﺎﺳﺃ   ﹰﻨﻛﺭ   ﺔﻴﺗﺍﺬﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻌﻓﺍﺪﻟﺍ   ﺪﻌﺗﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍﻭ   ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍﻢﻴﻠﻌﺗ   ﰲ   ﹰﻳﻮﻴﺣ   ﹰﻼﻣﺎﻋﻭ   ﺔﻣﺎﻋ   ﺔﻔﺼﺑ   ﻢ   ﺔﺻﺎﺧ   ﺔﻔﺼﺑ   ﺎﻬﻤﻠﻌﺗﻭ   ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﺕﺎﻐﻠﻟﺍ ) ﻞﻴﺋﺎﻜﻴﻣ   ﻢﻴﻫﺮﺑﺇ b ٠٠٩ ﺩﺭﻮﻔﺴﻛﺃﻭ   ﻼﺳﺭﺎﻜﺳ   ٩٩٢  ( ﺰﹼﻛﺭ   ﺪﻘﻟﻭ   ﲔﺑ   ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻌﻟﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﰲﺮﻌﳌﺍﻭ   ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ   ﺲﻔﻨﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻋ   ﺞﻬﻨﻣ   ﰲ   ﺔﻴﻠﺧﺍﺪﻟﺍ   ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍﻭ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﻤﻠﻟ   ﺔﻴﺼﺨﺷ   ﺕﺎﲰﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﹼﻌﺘﻟ   ﺔﻴﺗﺍﺬﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻌﻓﺍﺪﻟﺍﻴﺒﻨﺟﻷﺍ   ﻭﺃ   ﺔﻴﻧ . ﺪﻗﻭ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺏﺎﺴﺘﻛﺍ   ﰲ   ﺎﻬﺘﻴﳘﺃ   ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ   ﺕﺎﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ   ﺖﺘﺒﺛﺃ   ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍ   ﰲ   ﻢﹼﻌﺘﳌﺍ   ﺓﺪﻋﺎﺴﳌ   ﻚﻟﺫﻭ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﻲﺛﺪﺤﺘﻣ   ﻊﻣ   ﰊﺎﳚﻹﺍ   ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺘﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻟﺎﻌﻔﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﺠﻴﺗﺍﺮﺘﺳﻻﺍﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﺔﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍﻭ   ﻡﺃ   ﺔﻐﻠﻛ   ﻑﺪﳍﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ . ﺍﺬﻫ   ﺪ  ﻌ  ﻭ  ﻗ   ﻦﻣ   ﹰﻌﺟﺍﺮﺗ   ﺔﻴﻓﺮﻌﳌﺍ   ﲑﻏ   ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺎﺑ   ﻡﺎﻤﺘﻫﻻﺍﲔﻤﺘﻬﳌﺍ   ﻞ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺎﻬﻤﹼﻌﺗﻭ   ﺕﺎﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺗﻭ   ﺔﻣﺎﻋ   ﺔﻔﺼﺑ   ﻢﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺎﺑ   ﻥﻮﻳﻮﺑﺮﺘﻟﺍﻭ   ﺲﻔﻨﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻋ   ﺀﺎﻤﻠﻋ   ﻢﺘﻫﺍ   ﺚﻴﺣ   ﺹﻮﺼﳋﺍ   ﻪﺟﻭﻞﺜﻣ   ﺔﻴﻓﺮﻌﳌﺍ   ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺎﺑ   ﹰﻴﳜﺭﺎﺗ : ﺔﳉﺎﻌﻣﻭ   ﺓﺮﻛﺍﺬﻟﺍﻭ   ﺀﺎﻛﺬﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻌﻟﺍ   ﰲ   ﺡﺎﺠﻨﻠﻟ   ﺓﺪﻴﺣﻭ   ﺕﺍﺮﺷﺆﻣ   ﺎ   ﺃ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺕﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﳌﺍﺔﻴﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ . ﳌﺍ   ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ   ﻥﺃ   ﻢﻬﻀﻌﺑ   ﺡﺮﺻ   ﺪﻗﻭﺔﻴﻓﺮ   ﻦﻋ   ﺪﻳﺰﻳ   ﺎﻣ   ﺮﺴﻔﺗ 50% ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ   ﻞﻴﺼﺤﺘﻟﺍ   ﰲ   ﻦﻳﺎﺒﺘﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣﻢﻠﻌﺘﻤﻠﻟ   ﻲﳝﺩﺎﻛﻷﺍ   ﻭﺃ . ﹰﻴﻨﻤﺿ   ﻪﺟﻮﺘﻟﺍ   ﺍﺬﻫ   ﺀﻲﻣﺆﻳﻭﺔﻴﻓﺮﻌﳌﺍ   ﲑﻏ   ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﳘﺃ   ﻦﻣ   ﻞﻴﻠﻘﺘﺑ . ﺪﺿ   ﺓﺭﻮﺛ   ﻥﺃ   ﻻﺇ   ﻝﻭﺎﺣ   ﺎﻣ   ﺪﻨﻋ   ﻡﺮﺼﻨﳌﺍ   ﻥﺮﻘﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﺕﺃﺪﺑ   ﺪﻗ   ﻪﺟﻮﺘﻟﺍ   ﺍﺬﻫ   ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ   ﺕﻼﻴﺼﺤﺘﻟﺍ   ﻦﻳﺎﺒﺘﻟ   ﺔﻌﻨﻘﻣ   ﺔﺑﺎﺟﺇ   ﺩﺎﳚﺇ   ﻥﻮﺜﺣﺎﺒﻟﺍﻠﻟﺎﻛﺬﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﺔﺑﺭﺎﻘﺘﳌﺍ   ﺕﺎﻳﻮﺘﺴﳌﺍ   ﰲ   ﺔﺒﻠﻄ . ﺕﺃﺪﺑ   ﹰﺪﻳﺪﲢﻭ   ﺎﻣ   ﺪﻨﻋ   ﻲﺿﺎﳌﺍ   ﻥﺮﻘﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﺕﺎﻴﻨﻌﺒﺴﻟﺍ   ﰲ   ﺓﺭﻮﺜﻟﺍ   ﻩﺬﻫﺕﱪﻣﻻ   ﻭ   ﺮﻧﺩﺭﺎﻏ   ﺮﻬﻇﺃ Gardner & Lambart ﺔﻴﻌﻓﺍﺪﻠﻟ   ﻥﺃ   ﺔﻳﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍﻭ   ﺔﻣﺎﻋ   ﺔﻔﺼﺑ   ﻲﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ   ﺯﺎﳒﻹﺎﺑ   ﹰﺔﻳﺩﺮﻃ   ﹰﺔﻗﻼﻋﺹﻮﺼﺧ   ﺔﺟﻭ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺗ   ﰲ   ﺔﻳﻮﻐﻠﻟﺍ . ﺪﻌﺗﻭﻩﺬﻫﻥﺄﺑ   ﺓﺪﺋﺎﺴﻟﺍ   ﺓﺮﻜﻔﻟﺍ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﹰﺑﻼﻘﻧﺍ   ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ   ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻨﻟﺍ   ﻢﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ   ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ   ﰲ   ﺡﺎﺠﻨﻟﺍ   ﺩﺪﲢ   ﱵﻟﺍ   ﻲﻫ   ﺔﻴﻓﺮﻌﳌﺍ   ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻌﻟﺍﺎﻬﻴﻓ   ﻞﺸﻔﻟﺍ   ﻭﺃ .  ﻦﻣﺰﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﻦ  ﺪﹾﻘﻌﻟﺍ   ﻦﻣ   ﺏﺮﻘﻳ   ﺎﻣ   ﺪﻌﺑﻭ
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