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The internet of things from rfid to the next generation pervasive networked systems wireless network

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THE INTERNET OF THINGSWIRELESS NETWORKS AND MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS 4#%1$+%1* )4,)5(,624 ,07/%)5)%4'+%&24%624:248%: 0%,/:%1;+%1*,)))24*…
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THE INTERNET OF THINGSWIRELESS NETWORKS AND MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS 4#%1$+%1* )4,)5(,624 ,07/%)5)%4'+%&24%624:248%: 0%,/:%1;+%1*,)))24* Unlicensed Mobile Access Technology: Protocols, Architectures, Security, Standards and Applications #%1$+%1*%74)1')!#%1*%1(,%1+7%%     Wireless Quality-of-Service: Techniques, Standards and Applications %2()%,)52)1.2%1(#%1$+%1*=    " Broadband Mobile Multimedia: Techniques and Applications #%1$+%1* +,8)1%2%74)1')!#%1*%1(!+20%5+)1      The Internet of Things: From RFID to the Next-Generation Pervasive Networked Systems 7#%1#%1$+%1*%74)1')!#%1*%1(7%15+)1*,1*=      Millimeter Wave Technology in Wireless PAN, LAN, and MAN +%2,7",%2,1*!72$+27%1(#%1$+%1*      Security in Wireless Mesh Networks #%1$+%1*71$+)1*%1(21*/,17     Resource, Mobility and Security Management in Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications #%1$+%1*21*/,17%1(%5%:7.,7-,5)     Wireless Mesh Networking: Architectures, Protocols and Standards #%1$+%1*,-7172%1(21*/,17     Mobile WIMAX: Toward Broadband Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks #%1$+%1*%1(5,%28%+)1      Distributed Antenna Systems: Open Architecture for Future Wireless Communications 21*/,17#%1$+%1*%1(,-7172     AUERBACH PUBLICATIONS 888%7)4&%'+37&/,'%6,215'20 !24()4%//   <%9    0%,/24()45'4'34)55'20THE INTERNET OF THINGS From RFID to the Next-Generation Pervasive Networked SystemsEdited byLu Yan s Yan Zhang Laurence T. Yang s Huansheng NingNew YorkLondonAuerbach Publications Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 Š 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Auerbach is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4200-5281-7 (Hardcover) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The Authors and Publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www. copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC) 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The Internet of things : from RFID to the next-generation pervasive networked systems / Lu Yan ... [et al.]. p. cm. -- (Wireless networks and mobile communications ; 8) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4200-5281-7 (alk. paper) 1. Ubiquitous computing. 2. Radio frequency identification systems. 3. Wireless communication systems. I. Yan, Lu. II. Title. III. Series. QA76.5915.I68 2008 384.5--dc22 Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the Auerbach Web site at http://www.auerbach-publications.com2007047411Contents 1RFID Tags ..............................................................................................1 PETER J. HAWRYLAK, M.H. MICKLE, AND J.T. CAIN2RFID Automatic Identification and Data Capture ..............................333RFID Data Warehousing and Analysis ................................................534RFID Data Management: Issues, Solutions, and Directions......................................................................................81XIAOYONG SU, CHICHENG CHU, B.S. PRABHU, AND RAJIT GADHHECTOR GONZALEZ AND JIAWEI HANQUAN Z. SHENG, KERRY L. TAYLOR, ZAKARIA MAAMAR, AND PAUL BREBNER5RFID Security: Threats and Solutions ...............................................1076RFID Specification Revisited.................................................................127NICOLAS SKLAVOS AND VISHAL AGARWALPEDRO PERISLOPEZ, JULIO C. HERNANDEZCASTRO, JUAN M. ESTEVEZTAPIADOR, AND ARTURO RIBAGORDAvviN Contents7RFIG Geometric Context of Wirless Tags..........................................1578RFID Application in Animal Monitoring..........................................1659RAMESH RASKAR, PAUL BEARDSLEY, PAUL DIETZ, AND JEROEN VAN BAARVASILEIOS NTAFIS, CHARALAMPOS Z. PATRIKAKIS, EIRINI G. FRAGKIADAKI, AND EFTYCHIA M. XYLOURIFRAGKIADAKIRFID Applications in Assets and Vehicles Tracking..........................185 WEI LIU, ZHAO PENG, WENQUING CHENG, JIANHUA HE, AND YAN ZHANG10 RFID Enabled logistics Services ....................................................... 207 ZONGWEI LUO, EDWARD C. WONG, C.J. TAN, S.J. ZHOU, WILLIAM CHEUNG, AND JIMING LIU11 Location Tracking in an Office Environment: The NationwideCase Study ..........................................................................................233 IRENE LOPEZ DE VALLEJO, STEPHEN HAILES, RUTH CONROYDALTON, AND ALAN PENN12 Pervasive Computing Security: Bluetooth® Example .........................257 GIORGOS KOSTOPOULOS, PARIS KITSOS, AND ODYSSEAS KOUFOPAVLOU13 Internet of Things: A Context-Awareness Perspective ........................287 DAVY PREUVENEERS AND YOLANDE BERBERSIndex...................................................................................... 309Preface With more than two billion terminals in commercial operation world-wide, wireless and mobile technologies have enabled a first wave of pervasive communication systems and applications. Still, this is only the beginning as wireless technologies such as RFID are currently contemplated with a deployment potential of tens of billions of tags and a virtually unlimited application potential. A recent ITU report depicts a scenario of “Internet of things” — a world in which billions of objects will report their location, identity, and history over wireless connections. The realization of the “Internet of things” will probably require dramatic changes in systems, architectures and communications which should be flexible, adaptive, secure, and pervasive without being intrusive. Although the RFID technology has already laid a foundation for the “Internet of things,” other research and development thrusts are also required to enable such a pervasive networking world, such as communications protocols, middleware, applications support, MAC, data processing, semantic computing and search capabilities, and even low-power technologies. Significant R&D work has been undertaken over recent years on these systems, with pioneering work initiated in the US. In Europe, the European Union has been instrumental in supporting the many R&D facets of pervasive communications. Asia is also proactively moving into this field through various R&D initiatives on “ubiquitous communications.” Emerging industrial interest in this field indicates that prospects for commercial applications of these technologies, are promising, and it is our hypothesis that a generic and comprehensive textbook is needed, where system-level problems in the context of the “Internet of things” are indicated and tutorials on their applications are required. While placed in the specific context of the exciting expansion period of this research direction, this book will provide readers a comprehensive technical, practical, deploying, policy guidance covering fundamentals and recent advances in pervasive networked systems, from RFID towards “Internet of things.”viiviiiNPrefaceThe main features of this book include: N The first book of its kinds to address the major new technological developments in the field “Internet of things” N Reflects current research trends as well as industry needs N A good balance between theoretical issues and practical issues N Covers case studies, experience reports, and best practice N Concept and technical issues addressed in this book are timely, and being seriously considered in the technology roadmap and strategies in EU, US, and Asia This book serves well as a useful reference for students, educators, faculties, telecom service providers, research strategists, scientists, researchers, and engineers in the field of wireless networks and mobile communications. We would like to acknowledge the effort and time invested by all contributors for their excellent work. All of them are extremely professional and cooperative. Our thanks also go to the anonymous chapter reviewers, who have provided invaluable comments and suggestions which help to significantly improve the whole text. Special thanks go to Richard O’Hanley, Jessica Vakili and Jay Margolis of Taylor & Francis Group for their support, patience and professionalism given in the whole publication process of this book. Last but not least, special thanks should also go to our families and friends for their constant encouragement, patience and understanding throughout this book project. Lu Yan, Yan Zhang, Laurence T. Yang, Huansheng NingContributors Vishal Agarwal Indian Institute of Technology Electrical Engineering Department Bombay, IndiaChi-Cheng Chu University of California, Los Angeles WINMEC Los Angeles, CA, U.S.A.Paul Beardsley Mitsubishi Electric Research Labs Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.Ruth Conroy-Dalton University College London The Bartlett London, UKYolande Berbers Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement of Computer Science Leuven, Belgium Paul Brebner National ICT Australia Limited Braddon, Australia J.T. Cain University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA, U.S.A.Paul Dietz Mitsubishi Electric Research Labs Cambridge, MA, U.S.A. Juan M. Estevez-Tapiador Carlos III University of Madrid Computer Science Department Madrid, SpainWenqing Cheng Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan, ChinaEirini G. Fragkiadaki Agricultural University of Athens Faculty of Animal Science and Aquaculture Athens, GreeceWilliam Cheung University of Hong Kong E-business Technology Institute Hong Kong, ChinaRajit Gadh University of California, Los Angeles WINMEC Los Angeles, CA, U.S.A. ixxNContributorsHector Gonzalez University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Computer Science Urbana, IL, U.S.A. Stephen Hailes University College London Department of Computer Science London, UK Jiawei Han University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Computer Science Urbana, IL, U.S.A. Peter J. Hawrylak University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA, U.S.A. Jianhua He Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan, China Julio C. Hernandez-Castro Carlos III University of Madrid Computer Science Department Madrid, Spain Paris Kitsos Hellenic Open University School of Science and Technology Patras, Greece Giorgos Kostopoulos University of Patras Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Patras, Greece Odysseas Koufopavlou University of Patras Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Patras, GreeceJiming Liu University of Hong Kong E-business Technology Institute Hong Kong, China Wei Liu Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan, China Irene Lopez de Vallejo University College London The Bartlett London, UK Zongwei Luo University of Hong Kong E-business Technology Institute Hong Kong, China Zakaria Maamar Zayed University College of Information Technology Dubai, U.A.E. M.H. Mickle University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA, U.S.A. Vasileios A. NtaďŹ s Agricultural University of Athens Faculty of Animal Science and Aquaculture Athens, Greece Charalampos Z. Patrikakis National Technical University of Athens Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Athens, Greece Zhao Peng Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan, ChinaContributorsNAlan Penn University College London The Bartlett London, UKXiaoyong Su University of California, Los Angeles WINMEC Los Angeles, CA, U.S.A.Pedro Peris-Lopez Carlos III University of Madrid Computer Science Department Madrid, SpainC.J. Tan University of Hong Kong E-business Technology Institute Hong Kong, ChinaB.S. Prabhu University of California, Los Angeles WINMEC Los Angeles, CA, U.S.A.Kerry L. Taylor Commonwealth ScientiďŹ c and Industrial Research Organisation Information Engineering Laboratory Canberra, AustraliaDavy Preuveneers Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement of Computer Science Heverlee, BelgiumJeroen van Baar Mitsubishi Electric Research Labs Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.Ramesh Raskar Mitsubishi Electric Research Labs Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.Edward C. Wong University of Hong Kong E-business Technology Institute Hong Kong, ChinaArturo Ribagorda Carlos III University of Madrid Computer Science Department Madrid, SpainEftychia M. Xylouri-Fragkiadaki Agricultural University of Athens Faculty of Animal Science and Aquaculture Athens, GreeceQuan Z. Sheng University of Adelaide School of Computer Science Adelaide, AustraliaYan Zhang Simula Research Laboratory Lysaker, NorwayNicolas Sklavos University of Patras Patras, GreeceS.J. Zhou University of Hong Kong E-business Technology Institute Hong Kong, ChinaxiChapter 1RFID Tags Peter J. Hawrylak, M.H. Mickle, and J.T. Cain Contents 1.11.21.3Introduction ................................................................................................2 1.1.1 RFID Basics .....................................................................................6 1.1.2 Passive RFID Tag Basics...................................................................6 1.1.3 Active RFID Tag Basics....................................................................7 1.1.4 Semipassive RFID Tag Basics ...........................................................7 1.1.5 Semiactive RFID Tag Basics.............................................................8 Passive Tags .................................................................................................8 1.2.1 How Backscatter Communication Works.........................................8 1.2.2 Operating Frequencies: An Overview ...............................................9 1.2.3 Magnetic Coupling: Near-Field ......................................................11 1.2.4 Electromagnetic Coupling: Far-Field ..............................................12 1.2.5 Near-Field and Far-Field: Some Key Points.....................................12 1.2.6 Manufacturing Issues with Passive RFID Tags ...............................15 1.2.7 The EPC Gen-2 Protocol ................................................................17 1.2.8 Current Outstanding Issues with Passive RFID Tags .....................19 1.2.8.1 Reducing Tag Size ............................................................19 1.2.8.2 Lowering Tag Cost ...........................................................19 1.2.8.3 Increasing Read Range .....................................................19 1.2.8.4 Increasing Read Rate ........................................................20 1.2.8.5 Improving Tag Security ....................................................20 Active Tags ................................................................................................21 1.3.1 Active Communication Versus Backscatter Communication..........21 1.3.2 Active Tags Conforming ISO 18000-7 ...........................................21 12NThe Internet of Things1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.3.6Sensors............................................................................................24 Security...........................................................................................25 Increasing Battery Life....................................................................26 Current Outstanding Problems with Active RFID Tags .................27 1.3.6.1 Low Power Communication .............................................27 1.3.6.2 Lowering Energy Consumption When Dormant .............27 1.3.6.3 Enhanced Security............................................................28 1.4 Semipassive RFID Tags .............................................................................28 1.4.1 Extending Read Range ...................................................................28 1.4.2 Equipping with Sensors ..................................................................29 1.4.3 Outstanding Issues with Semipassive Tags......................................29 1.4.3.1 Cost..................................................................................29 1.4.3.2 Lower Power Sensors ........................................................30 1.4.3.3 Passive Operation as a Fallback.........................................30 1.5 Future of RFID .........................................................................................30 References ...........................................................................................................32 Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) has a long history and is part of the technological revolution both current and past. RFID enables quick payment of tolls and quick identification of items. In addition, RFID provides benefits, such as tracking assets, monitoring conditions for safety, and helping to prevent counterfeiting. RFID plays an integral part in the technological revolution along with the Internet and mobile devices, which are connecting the world together. This chapter focuses on the RFID tag and provides an overview and history of the various types of tags, their uses, and the physics behind their operation.1.1 Introduction RFID has a long history. RFID uses radio waves, which are one form of electromagnetic waves. As such, the genesis of RFID must be attributed to the founders of the electromagnetic wave theory: Michael Faraday, James Maxwell, and Heinrich Hertz. In the mid-nineteenth century, Faraday discovered that a current flowing through a wire created a magnetic field and conversely that, when a wire is exposed to a magnetic field, a current is present in the wire. Today this discovery is known as Faraday’s law and along with the Ampere–Maxwell law forms the basis for a magnetic field, or near-field RFID systems. Maxwell developed the mathematical theory describing electromagnetism using the work of Faraday and others. Maxwell’s work dealt only with the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet bands of the electromagnetic spectrum because the other types of electromagnetic waves were not known to exist [1]. Hertz was able to verify Maxwell’s work and discovered radio waves [1], [2]. Today, the existence of numerous other electromagnetic (EM) waves, such as x-rays and gamma rays are known.RFID TagsN3From these beginnings, scientists and inventors, such as Reqinald Fessenden and Guglielmo Marconi began in the early part of the twentieth century to develop many radio-based applications we use each da
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