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The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol

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The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol What is the Kigali Amendment? The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol adopted on 15 October 2016 in Kigali, Rwanda, adds powerful greenhouse gases hydrofluorocarbons
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The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol What is the Kigali Amendment? The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol adopted on 15 October 2016 in Kigali, Rwanda, adds powerful greenhouse gases hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) to the list of substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol. HFCs are to be phased down with modalities that have been effective including concrete phase-down targets, financial mechanism and noncompliance procedure. From the Dubai Pathway to the Kigali Amendment Dubai November 2015 Geneva April 2016 Vienna July 2016 Kigali October 2016 After six years of discussions, parties agree to work towards an amendment to the Montreal Protocol, under the Dubai Pathway on HFCs which entailed a two-stage approach: - Resolving challenges of managing HFCs; - Working towards an HFC amendment. Parties begin implementing the 'Dubai Pathway' by generating solutions to challenges of reducing HFCs under the Montreal Protocol. Parties endorse a range of solutions to the challenges identified under the Dubai Pathway and begin negotiations on the elements of a possible amendment to the Protocol. Parties adopt the historic Kigali Amendment, adding HFCs to the list of substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol. Solutions to key challenges in respect of HFCs Challenge Solution Funding Flexibility in implementation Exemptions Review of alternatives Multilateral Fund maintained as the financial mechanism and sufficient additional financial resources to be provided to developing countries. Parties to have flexibility to prioritize HFCs, sectors, select technologies/alternatives, while phasing down HFCs. Provision for exemptions where alternatives do not exist for specific sub-sectors of use and in addition a special exemption for countries with HAT conditions. The TEAP to conduct periodic reviews and provide updates on the latest emerging and available technologies. Other challenges resolved by the parties focused on: Intellectual Property Rights, nonparty trade provisions, the relationship of HFC phasedown with the on-going phase-out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), capacity-building and institutional strengthening in developing countries, synergies with UNFCCC. What is the expected impact of the Kigali Amendment on climate? Business as usual emissions reach 4-5 gt of CO 2 equivalent in 2050 and continue to increase as shown in the figure. Temperatures will increase slightly as HFC levels continue to increase, but because of the Kigali amendment, the increase should peak in mid-century at about 0.07 C. Without Kigali, HFCs would add a maximum of 0.5 C temperature increase on top of other climate forcings by 2100. How will the Kigali Amendment work? Under the Amendment, Montreal Protocol parties are required to gradually reduce HFC use by per cent by the late 2040s. First reductions by most developed countries are expected in Most developing countries will follow with a freeze of HFCs consumption levels in 2024, and later in 2028 for some other developing countries. What is the agreed HFC phasedown schedule? Baseline formula A5 parties (developing countries) - Group 1 Average HFC consumption for % of hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) baseline A5 parties (developing countries) - Group 2 Average HFC consumption for % of HCFC baseline Non-A5 parties (developed countries) Average HFC consumption for % of HCFC baseline* Freeze Year Reduction Year Reduction Year Reduction 1 st step % % % 2 nd step % % % 3 rd step % % % 4 th step % Plateau % % % * For Belarus, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, 25% HCFC component of baseline and different initial two steps (1) 5% reduction in 2020 and (2) 35% reduction in 2025 What is the agreed HFC phasedown schedule? Percentage of baseline 120.0% 100.0% 80.0% 60.0% 40.0% 20.0% A5 Group 1 A5 Group 2 Non A5* 0.0% Year Baseline for A5 Group 1 = Average HFC consumption levels for % of hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) baseline Baseline for A5 Group 2 = Average HFC consumption levels for % of HCFC baseline Baseline for Non A5 = Average HFC consumption levels for % of HCFC baseline* *For Belarus, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, 25% HCFC component of baseline and different initial two steps (1) 5% reduction in 2020 and (2) 35% reduction in 2025 What is required for the Kigali Amendment to enter into force? The Kigali Amendment will enter into force on 1 January 2019, provided that it is ratified by at least 20 parties to the Montreal Protocol. If that condition is not met by that date, the Amendment will become effective on the 90th day following the date of ratification by the 20 th party. What are the next steps towards ratification? The Ozone Secretariat has forwarded the text of the Kigali Amendment, in all the six official UN languages, to the Depositary, which is the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Depositary will produce certified copies of the text, which will be communicated to the Parties in the coming weeks. For Ratification: First, a party will take the necessary steps at the national level, as specified in their constitutional arrangements, to allow it to move ahead with ratification of the amendment at the international level. The party will then execute an instrument of ratification (or acceptance or approval). The party will then deposit its instrument of ratification (or acceptance or approval) with the Depositary. What are the other key issues from Kigali? During MOP28 in Kigali, Montreal Protocol parties also took decisions on the following two key issues: Energy efficiency Establishment of regular consultations on safety standards Energy efficiency The Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) has been requested to review energy efficiency opportunities in the refrigeration and air-conditioning and heat-pump sectors related to a transition to climate-friendly alternatives. Parties are invited to provide relevant information on energy efficiency innovations in the above sectors by May 2017 on a voluntary basis. TEAP to report in the 29MOP. Establishment of regular consultations on safety standards TEAP has been requested to establish a task force to liaise and coordinate with standards organizations, to support the timely revision of relevant safety standards, TEAP to assess the implications of international standards on the accelerated phase-out of HCFCs and HFC control measures, Parties to submit information on their domestic safety standards committees and national ozone units, The Executive Committee to consider maintaining or increasing the capacity building assistance for improving cooperation with the national and regional standards committees, The Ozone Secretariat to organize a workshop on the safety standards relevant to low global warming potential alternatives. The Kigali Amendment story in the media Global media published at least 13,770 articles about the Kigali Amendment in October, Over 6,000 articles about the Kigali Amendment were published on 15 October alone, Close to 5,000 leading media outlets in 149 countries reported on the Kigali Amendment in at least 36 languages, MOP28 was broadcast live to the world by the Associated Press (AP) the planet's largest news source, We reached 831,398 people with messages on various social media channels. Thank You
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