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The Making of a Global World

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thinkiit prefoundation class x social science
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  GJFHQ@ MSGJ_ _CKSFNJ^HKFOX T-I   QKAHJL QAHCFAC  : ^@C GJMHFE KI J ELKOJL UK_LN ◘  HGTK_^JF^ ^C_GQ ã   Elkojl( wkrln whnc)2 Hfvklvhfe jll akuftrhcs ki t`c elkoc.   ã   Elkojlhzjthkf2 Hftcerjthkf cakfkgy ki j akuftry wht` t`c cakfkghcs ki kt`cr akuftrhcs ufncr akfnhthkf ki ircc ilkws ki trjnc, ajphtjl jfn ljokrs.   ã   Akwrhcs2  J @hfnh wkrln gcjfhfe scj s`clls. ^`csc jrc uscn hf jfahcft wkrln js ikrg ki aurrcfay.   ã   Qhlm _kutc2  _kutc tjmcf oy trjncrs tk ajrry shlm ajreks irkg a`hfj tk t`c wcst.   ã   Qpje`ctth2  J typc ki fkknlc pkpuljr hf lkyjlly.   ã   Cl Nkrjnk=  Hgjehfjry ljfn ki ercjt wcjlt` ijolcn ljfn ki ekln.   ã   Tljftjthkf2  Cstjtc ikr aulthvjthkf ki ajs` arkps lhmc tcj akiicc, akttkf, tkojaak, suejrajfc cta.   ã   Akrf ljws2  Orhths` ljws w`ha` hgprkvcgcft tk kfc jfkt`cr jfn tk t`c hgpkrt ki akrf.   ã   Caklkey2  Qtuny ki krejfhsgs hf rcljthkf tk kfc jfkt`cr jfn tk t`chr surrkufnhfes.   ã   ^`c ajfjl aklkfhcs2  t`c hakfklkehcs/jrcjs hrrhejtcn oy fcw ajfjls, w`crc pcjsjfts irkg pjrts ki Tufbjo sjtcn.   ã   _unncrpkst2  Ajstlc pljeuc- J ijst sprcjnhfe jgkfe ajttlc.   ã   A`utfcy Gusha(Tkpuljr gusha hf ^rhfhnjn)2  Quppkscn tk oc t`c rcsult ki aulturjl iushkf.   ã   Cftrcprcfcur2 kfc w`k ufufncrtjmcs akggcrahjl cftcrprhsc wht` a`jfac ki prkihtcn kr lkss. Qtjrt cftcrprhsc oy `hgscli/`crscli jt `hs/ `cr Kwf rhsm.   ã   @ksc2 J rhktkus ajrfhvjl hf ^rhfhnjn w`cf wkrmcrs ki jll rjacs jfn rclhehkf bkhf tk aclcorjtc.   ã   Akklhc 2 Sfsmhllcn fjthvc ljokrcrs. Hfncfturcn Hfnhjf ljokrcrs wcrc kitcf rcicrrcn tk js akklhc hf ^rhfhnjn. ã   Hfnhek2 Nccp vhklct oluc aklkr.   ã   Jllhcs2 Ocikrc t`c ihrst wkrln wjr, Orhtjhf, Irjfac jfn _usshj ikrgcn jf jllhjfac jfn ikue`t tkect`cr hf t`c ihrst Ukrln Ujr. ^kect`cr t`cy wcrc mfkwf js Jllhcs.   ã   Acftrjl Tkwcr2 Jf jllhjfac ikrgcn oy Ecrgjfy, Justrhj-@ufejry, Htjly, Ljtcr ^urmcy, Ikue`t tkect`cr hf t`c Ihrst Ukrln Ujr.^kect`cr t`cy wcrc mfkw js Jllhcs.   ã   Jxhs-pkwcr2 Ecrgjfy, Htjly, Justrhj, ^urmcy wcrc mfkwf js Jxhs pkwcrs nurhfe t`c Qcakfn Ukrln Ujr.   ã   HGI 2  Hftcrfjthkfjl gkfctjry iufn.   ã   FHCK2  Fcw Hftcrfjthkfjl Cakfkgha krncr. ◘   ^@C T_C-GKNC_F UK_LN Jll t`rkue` `hstkry `ugjf skahcthcs `jvc ocakgc stcjnhly gkrc hftcrlhfmcn. Irkg jfahcft thgcs trjvclcrs. ^rjncrs,  prhcsts jfn phlerhgs trjvclcn vjst nhstjfacs ikr mfkwlcnec, kppkrtufhty jfn sphrhtujl iulihllgcft, kr tk csajpc  pcrscauthkf. ^`cy ajrrhcn ekkns, gkfcy, vjlucs, smhlls, hncjs, hfvcfthkfs jfn cvcf ecrgs jfn nhscjscs. (h) Qhlm _kutcs Lhfm t`c Ukrln 2 ^`c fjgc ‐Qhlm rkutcs‘ pkhfts tk t`c hgpkrtjfac A`hfcsc Qhlm ajrekcs jlkfe t`hs rkutc. @hstkrhjfs `jvc hncfthihcn scvcrjl shlm _kutcs, kvcr ljfn jfn oy scj, mfhtthfe tkect`cr vjst rcehkfs ki Jshj, jfn lhfmhfe Jshj wht` Curkpc jfn fkrt` Jirhaj. A`hfcsc Tkttcry jlsk trjvclcn t`c sjgc rkutc, js nhn tcxthlcs jfn sphacs irkg Hfnhj jfn Qkut` cjst Jshj. Hf rcturf prcahkus gctjls ilkwcn irkg Curkpc tk Jshj. Cjrly A`rhsthjf ghsshkfjrhcs acrtjhfly trjvclcn t`hs rkutc tk Jshj, js nhn cjrly Guslhg prcja`crs j icw acfturhcs ljtcr. Ounn`hsg cgcrecn irkg cjstcrf Hfnhj jfn sprcjn hf scvcrjl nhrcathkfs. (hh) Ikkn ^rjvcls 2 Qpje`ctth jfn Tktjtk2 ^rjncrs jfn trjvclcrs hftrknuacn fcw arkps ^k t`c ljfns t`cy trjvclcn. Cvcf ‐rcjn‘ ikkn stuii hf nhstjft pjrts ki t`c wkrln Ghe`t s`jrc akggkf krhehfs. ^jmc spje`ctth kr fkknlcs. Ht hs oclhcvcn t`jt  GJFHQ@ MSGJ_ _CKSFNJ^HKFOX T-I   QKAHJL QAHCFAC  ? fkknlcs trjvclcn. Ucst irkg a`hfj tk ocakgc spje`ctth. Kr pcr`jps Jrjo trjncrs tkkm Tjstj tk Qhahly.Gjfy ki kur akggkf ikkns, sua` js pktjtkcs, Qkyj, erkufnfuts, gjhzc, tkgjtkcs, a`hlhcs, swcct pktjtkcs, jfn sk kf wcrc fkt mfkwf tk kur jfacstkrs ufthl jokut ihvc acfturhcs jek. ^`csc ikkns wcrc kfly hftrknuacn hf Curkpc jfn Jshj jitcr A`rhstkp`cr Aklugous jaahncftjlly nhsakvcrcn t`c vjst akfthfcft t`jt wkuln ljtcr ocakgc mfkwf js t`c Jgcrhajs. (hhh) Akfqucst, Nhscjsc jfn ^rjnc2  Hf t`c :9 t`  Acftury jitcr Curkpcjf sjhlkrs ikufn j Qcj rkutc ki Jshj jfn jlsk suaacssiully arksscn t`c wcstcrf kacjf tk Jgcrhaj. Ikr acfturhcs ocikrc, t`c Hfnhjf Kacjf `jn mfkwf j oustlhfe trjnc, wht` ekknc, Tckplc, mfkwlcnec, austkgs cta. Ocikrc hts ‐nhsakvcry‘ Jgcrhaj `jn occf aut kii irkg rceuljr akftjat wht` t`c _cst ki t`c wkrln ikr ghllhkfs ki ycjrs. Out irkg t`c :9 t`  acftury, hts vjst ljfns Jfn joufnjft arkps jfn ghfcrjl  ocejf tk trjfsikrg trjnc jfn lhvcs cvcry w`crc. ^`c Tkrtueucsc n Qpjfhs` akfqucst jfn aklkfhzjthkf ki Jgcrhaj wjs ncahshvcly Sfncr wjy oy t`c ghn :9 t`  acftury. Hf ijat, t`c gkst pkwcriul wcjpkf ki t`c Qpjfhs` akfqucrkrs wjs fkt j akfvcfthkfjl ghlhtjry wcjpkf, Ht wjs t`c ecrgs sua` js sgjll pkx t`jt t`cy ajrrhcn kf t`chr pcrskf. Qgjll pkx hf  pjrthauljr prkvcn j ncjnly mhllcr. Ht sprcjn nccp hftk t`c akfthfcft, j`cjn cvcf ki jfy Curkpcjfs rcja`hfe t`crc, Ht mhllcn jfn ncahgjtcn w`klc akuftrhcs, pjvhfe t`c wjy ikr akfqucst. Sfthl t`c fhfctccft` acftury, pkvcrty jfn `ufecr wcrc akggkf hf Curkpc. Ahthcs wcrc arkwncn j ncjnly nhscjscs wcrc whncsprcjn. _clhehkus akfilhats wcrc akggkf jfn rclhehkus nhsscftcrs wcrc pcrscautcn. ^`kusjfn t`crcikrc ilccn Curkpc irkg Jgcrhaj. Hf t`c :3 t`  acftury, A`hfj jfn Hfnhj wcrc jgkfe t`c wkrln‘s rha`cst akuftrhcs. @kwcvcr, irkg t`c :3 t`  acftury, A`hfj hs sjhn tk `jvc rcstrhatcn kvcrscjs akftjats jfn rctrcjtcn hf tk hskljthkf. ^`c rhshfe hgpkrtjfac ki t`c Jgcrhajs erjnujlly gkvcn t`c acftrc ki wkrln trjnc wcstwjrns. Curkpc fkw cgcrecn js t`c acftrc ki wkrln trjnc. ◘   ^@C FHF^CF^@ ACF^S_X (:0:3-:8:>) Hf t`c :8 t` (h)   J wkrln Cakfkgy tjmcs s`jpc2 ^rjnhthkfjlly, akuftrhcs lhmcn tk oc scli suiihahcft hf ikkn. Out hf :8 acftury, t`c wkrln a`jfecn nuc tk cakfkgha, pklhthajl, skahjl, aulturc ^ca`fklkehajl ijatkrs tk trjfsikrg skahcthcs jfn rcs`jpc cxtcrfjl rcljthkf. Cakfkgha hncfthty t`rcc typcs ki gkvcgcft kr ilkw wht` hf hftcrfjthkfjl cakfkgha cxa`jfecs. (j) ^`c ilkw ki trjnc (o) ^`c ilkw ki t`c ljo kur (a) t`c gkvcgcft ki ajphtjl Jll t`rcc ilkws wcrc alkscly hftcrwkvcf jfn jiicatcn pckplcs lhvcs gkrc nccply fkw t`jf cvcr ocikrc. ^`c hftcrakffcathkf akuln skgc thgcs oc orkmcf. Ikr cxjgplc, ljo kur gherjthkf wjs kitcf gkrc rcstrhatcn t`jf ekkns kr ajphtjl ilkws. t` (hh)   _klc ki ^ca`fklkey2 _jhlwjys, stcjg s`hpphfe jfn tclcerjp` wcrc hgpkrtjft hfvcfthkfs. ^ca`fklkehajl jnvjfac wjs kitcf t`c rcsult ki ljrecr skahjl, pklhthajl jfn cakfkgha ijatkrs rjhlwjys lhe`tcr wjekfs jfn ljrecr s`hps `clpcn gkvc ikkn gkrc a`cjply jfn quhamly irkg ijr jwjy ijrgs tk gjrmcts. Fkw jfhgjl wcrc sljue`tcrcn ikr ikkn kvcr jt t`c stjrthfe pkhft hf Jgcrhaj, Justrjlhj kr Fcw Rcjljfn t`cf trjfspkrtcn tk Curkpc js. Irkzcf gcjt. ^`hs rcnuacn s`hpphfe aksts jfn lkwcrcn gcjft prhacs hf Curkpc. Octtcr lhvhfe akfnhthkfs prkgktcn skahjl pcjac wht`hf t`c akuftry jfn suppkrt ikr hgpcrhjlhsg jorkjn. acftury Orhtjhf, scli suiihahcfay hf ikkn gcjft lkwcr stjfnjrns jfn skahjl akfilhat. Js urojf acftcrs cxpjfncn jfn hfnustry ercw, t`c ncgjfn ikr jerhaulturc prknuats up, pus`hfe up jerhaulturc prhacs. Sf`jppy wht` `he` ikkn prhacs, hfnustrhjlhsts jfn urojf nwcllcrs ikracn t`c joklhthkf ki t`c akg ljws. Js ikkn prhacs icll akfsugpthkf hf Orhtjhf rksc. Ikrg t`c ghn fhfctccft` acftury, ijstcr hfnustrhjl erkwt` hf Orhtjhf jlsk lcn tk `he`cr hfakgcs , jfn t`crcikrc gkrc ikkn hgprkvcs. Jrkufn t`c wkrln hf hfnustrhjl cjstcrf Curkpc, _usshj, Jgcrhaj jfn Justrjlhj. ^`c ncgjfn ikr ljo kur hf pljacs w`crc wjs hf s`krt supply-js hf Jgcrhaj jfn Justrjlhj lcn tk gkrc gherjthkf. Oy :084, j elkojl cakfkgy `jn tjmcf s`jpc , jaakgpjfhcn oy akgplcx a`jfecs hf ljokr gkvcgcft pjttcrfs, ajphtjl ilkw, caklkehcs jfn tca`fklkey.  GJFHQ@ MSGJ_ _CKSFNJ^HKFOX T-I   QKAHJL QAHCFAC  1 (hhh) Ljtc :8 t`  acftury aklkfhjlhsg2 Ht hs hgpkrtjft tk rcjlhzc t`c njrmcr shnc t`hs prkacss. Hf gjfy pjrts ki t`c wkrln, t`c cxpjfshkf ki trjnc jfn j alkscr rcljthkfs`hp wht` t`c wkrln cakfkgy jlsk gcjft j lkss ki irccnkgs jfn lhvclh`kkns. Ljtc :8 t`  acftury Curkpcjf akfqucst prknuacn gjfy pjhfiul cakfkgha skahjl jfn caklkehajl a`jfecs. Orhtjhf jfn Irjfac gjnc vjst jnnhthkfs tk t`chr kvcrcjts tcrrhtkrhcs hf t`c ljtc :8 t` Acftury Oclehug jfn Ecrgjfy ocajgc fcw aklkfhjl pkwcrs. ^`c SQ jlsk ocajgc j aklkfhjl pkwcr hf t`c ljtc :084s oy tjmhfe kvcr skgc aklkfhcs cjrlhcr `cln oy Qpjhf. (hv) _chftcrprcts kr ^`c Ajttlc Tljeuc2 Hf Jirhaj, hf t`c :084s ijst sprcjnhfe nhscjsc ki ajttlc pljeuc `jn j tcrrhiyhfe hgpjat kf pckplc‘s lhvch`kkns jfn t`c lkajl cakfkgy. Jirhaj `jn joufnjft ljfn jfn j rcljthvcly sgjll pkpuljthkf. Ikr acfturhcs, ljfn jfn lhvcstkam sustjhfcn Jirhajf lhvclh`kkn jfn wkrmhfe ikr j wjec wjs fkt j whnc sprcjn. Hf ljtc :8 t`  acftury Jirhaj t`crc wcrc icw akfsugc ekkns t`jt wjecs akuln ouy. Hf t`c ljtc :8 t`  acftury, Curkpcjfs wcrc jttrjatcn tk Jirhajf oy hts skuracs ki ljfn ghfcrjls. Curkpcjfs akgc tk Jirhaj `kphfe tk cstjolhs` pljftjthkfs jfn ghfcs tk  prknuac arkps jfn ghfcrjls ikr cxpkrt tk Curkpc. Out t`crc wjs jf ufcxpcatcn prkolcg j s`krtjec ki ljokrs whllhfe tk wkrm ikr wjecs. (v) Hfncfturcn ljokrs Gherjthkf irkg Hfnhj2 Hf t`c :8t`c acftury, `ufnrcns ki t`kusjfns ki Hfnhjf jrc A`hfcsc ljokrcrs wcft tk wkrm kf pljftjthkfs, hf ghfcs jfn hf rkjn jfn rjhlwjy akfstruathkf prkbcats jrkufn t`c wkrln. Gkst Hfnhjf hfncfturcn wkrmcrs ajgc irkg t`c cjstcrf Sttjr Trjncs`, Oh`jr, Acftrjl Hfnhj jfn t`c nry nhstrhats ki ^jghl Fjnu. H t`c ghn :8 t`  acftury t`csc rcehkfs cxpcrhcfacs gjfy a`jfecs akttjec hfnustrhcs ncalhfcn, ljfn rcft rksc, ljfns wcrc alcjrcn kir ghfcs jffktjthkfs. Jll t`chst jiicatcn t`c lhvcs ki pkkr, t`cy ijhl tk pjy t`chr rcfts, ekt nccp hf ncot jfn wcrc ikrc tk gherjtc hf scjra` ki wkrm. :8t`c acftury hfncfturc `js occf ncsarhocn js j fcw systcg ki sljvcry. Kf jrrhvjl jt t`c  pljftjthkfs, ljokrcrs ikufn akfnhthkfs ki oc nhiicrcft ikrg w`jt t`cy `jn hgjehfcn. Lhvhn jfn wkrmhfe akfnhthkfs wcrc `jrs` jfn t`crc wcrc icw lcejl rhe`ts. Out wkrmcrs nhsakvcrcn t`chr kwf wjys ki survhvhfe. Gjfy ki t`cg csajpcn hftk t`c wkrlns t`rkue` hi ajue`t t`cy ijacn scvcrc pufhs`gcfts. Irkg t`c :884s, Hfnhj fjthkfjlhst lcjncrs kppksc t`c systcg ki hfncfturcn ljokr gherjthkf js joushvc jfn arucl. Ht wjs joklhs`cn hf :8?:. Xct ikr j fugocr ki ncajncs jitcrwjrns, ncsacfnjfts ki Hfnhj hfncfturcn wkrmcrs, jitcr t`kue`t ki j akklcst rcgjhfcn jf ufcjsy-ghfkrhty hf t`c Ajrhoocjf hsljfns skgc ki Fjhfpjul‘s cjrly fkvcls ajpturc t`chr scfsc ki lkss jfn jlhcfjthkf. (vh) Hfnhjf Cftrcprcfcurs Jorkjn2 Hfnhjf trjncs jfn gkfcy lcfncrs jlsk ikllkwcn Curkpcjf aklkfhzcrs hftk Jirhaj. @yncrjojnh shfn`h trjncrs, `kwcvcr, vcfturcn ocykfn Curkpcjf aklkfhcs. Irkg t`c :094s t`cy cstjolhs`cn ilkurhs`hfe cgpkrhj jt ousy pkrts wkrln whnc, scllhfe lkajl jfn hgpkrtcn aurhkus tk tkurhsts.  (vhh) Hfnhjf ^rjnc, Aklkfhjlhsg jfn t`c Elkojl systcg2 Ihfc akttkfs prknuacn hf Hfnhj wcrc cxpkrtcn tk Curkpc. Orhths` akttkf gjfuijaturc ocejf tk cxpjfn jfn hfnustrhjlhsts prcssurhzcs t`c ekvcrfgcft tk rcstrhat akttkf hgpkrts jfn prktcat lkajl hfnustrhcs. ^jrhiis wcrc hgpkscn kf alkt` hgpkrts hftk Orhtjhf. Akfscqucftly t`c hfilkw ki gc Hfnhjf akttkf ocejf tk ncalhfc. Irkg t`c cjrly :8t`c acftury Orhths` gjfuijaturcs jlsk ocejf tk sccm kvcrscjs gjrmcts ikr t`crc alkt`. Cxaluncn irkg t`c Orhths` gjrmct oy tjrhii ojrrhcrs ,. Hfnhjf tcxthlc fkw ijacn sthll akgpcththkf hf kt`cr hftcrfjthkfjl gjrmcts= U`hlc cxpkrts hi gjfuijaturcs ncalhfcn rjphnly, cxpkrt ki rjw gjtcrhjls hfarcjsc cqujlly ijst .hfnhek uscn ikr t`c nychfe alkt` wjs jfkt`cr hgpkrtjft cxpkrt ikr gjfy scacncs Orhtjhf ercw kphug hf Hfnhj jfn cxpkrt ht tk a`hfj ,jfn wht` t`c gkfcy cjrfcn t`rkue` t`hs sjlc, ht ihfjfacn hts tcj jfn kt`cr hgpkrts irkg a`hfj. Nurhfe :8 t`  acftury Orhths` gjfuijaturcs ilkkncn t`c Hfnhjf gjrmct. Ikkn erjhf jfn rjw gjtcrhjl cxpkrt irkg Hfnhj tk Orhtjhf jfn t`c rcst ki t`c wkrn hfarcjscn, out t`c vjluc ki Orhths` cxpkrts ki Hfnhj wjs gua` `he`cr t`jf vjluc ki Orhths` hgpkrts irkg Hfnhjf. ^`us Orhtjhf `jn j ‐trjnc‘ surplus wht` Hfnhj. Orhtjhf uscn t`hs surplus tk ojljfac hts trjnc ncicats wht` kt`cr akuftrhcs. Orhtjhf‘s trjnc surplus hf Hfnhj jlsk `clpcn tk pjy t`c sk ajllcn ‐`kgc a`jrecs t`jt hfaluncn prhvjtc rcghttjfacs `kgc oy Orhths` kiihahjl jfn trjncrs, hftcrcstcn pjygcft kf Hfnhj‘s cxtcrfjl ncpt, jfn pcfshkfs ki Orhths` kiihahjl hf Hfnhj.  GJFHQ@ MSGJ_ _CKSFNJ^HKFOX T-I   QKAHJL QAHCFAC  > ◘   ^@C HF^C_ UJ_ CAKFKGX ^`c ihrst wkrln wjr (:8:>-:0) wjs gjhfly ikue`t hf Curkpc . Nurhfe t`hs pcrhkn t`c wkrln cxpcrhcfacn whnc sprcjn cakfkgha jfn pklhthajl hfstjohlhty jfn jfkt`cr ajtjstrkp`ha wjr. (h) Ujrthgc ^rjfsikrgjthkf2 ^`c Ihrst Ukrln Ujr wjs ikue`t octwccf twk pkwcrs olkams. Kf t`c kfc shnc wcrc t`c Jllhcs-Orhtjhf, Irjfac jfn _usshj (ljtcr bkhfcn oy t`c) Ss ,jfn kf t`c kt`cr shnc wcrc t`c acftrjl pkwcrs- Ecrgjfy ,Justrjlhj, @ufejry jfn kttkgjf turmcy. Ht wjs t`c ihrst gkncrf hfnustrhjl wjr. Ht sjw t`c usc ki gja`hfc eufs, tjfms, jhrarjit, a`cghajl cta. tk t`c irkftlhfcs kf ljrec s`hps jfn trjhfs. ^`c sajlc ki ncjt` jfn ncstruathkf fhfc ghllhkf ncjn jfn ?4 ghllhkf hfburcn wjs uft`hfmjolc ocikrc t`c hfnustrhjl jec. Nurhfe t`c wjr hfnustrhcs wcrc rcstruaturc tk prknuac wjr rcljtcn ekkns cfthrc skahcthcs wcrc jlsk rckrejfhzcn ikr wjr js gcf wcft tk ojttlc, wkgcf hf tk ufncrtjmc bkos t`jt cjrlhcr kfly gcf wcrc cxpcatcn tk nk. (hh) Tkst Ujr rcakvcry2 Orhtjhf w`ha` t`c wkrn‘s lcjnhfe cakfkgy hf t`c pkwcr pcrhkn, hf pjrthauljr ijacn prklkfecn arhshs w`hlc Orhtjhf wjs prckaauphcn wht` wjr, hfnustrhcs `jn ncvclkpcn hf Hfnhj jfn Bjpjf. Jitcr t`c wjr Orhtjhf ikufn ht nhiihault tk rcajpturc hts cjrlhcr pkshthkf ki nkghfjfac hf t`c Hfnhjf gjrmct, jfn tk akgpctc wht` Bjpjf hftcrfjthkfjlly. Gkrckvcr wjr cxpcfnhturcs Orhtjhf `jn okrrkwcn lhocrjlly irkg t`c SQ.^`c wjr `jn lcn tk jf cakfkgha okkg, h.c. tk j ljrec hfarcjsc hf ncgjfn jfn cgplkygcft. U`cf t`c wjr okkg cfncn prknuathkf akftrjatcn jfn ufcgplkygcft lcn tk `uec bko lksscs hf :8?: kfc kf cvcry ihvc Orhths` wkrmcrs wjs kut ki bko. Ocikrc t`c wjr, cjstcrf Curkpc wjs gjbkr wjs supplhcr ki w`cjt hf t`c wkrln gjrmct. U`cf t`hs supply wjs nhsruptcn nurhfe t`c wjr. w`cjt prknuathkf hf Ajfjnj, Jgcrhaj jfn Justrjlhj hf Ajfjnj , Jgcrhaj jfn Justrjlhj cxpjfncn nrjgjthajlly. Out kfac t`c wjr wjs kvcr,  prknuathkf hf Cjstcrf Curkpc rcvhvcn jfn arcjtc lh elut hf w`cjt kut put. Erjhf prhacs icll, rurjl hfakgcs ncalhfcn jfn ijrgcrs icll nccpcr hf tk ncpt. (hhh) _hsc ki gjss prknuathkf jfn akfsugpthkf2 ^`c gkvc tkwjrns gjss prknuathkf `jn oceuf hf t`c ljtc :8 t`  acftury, out hf t`c :8?4s ht ocajgc j a`jrjatcrhstha icjturc ki hfnustrhjl prknuathkf hf t`c SQ. J wcll mfkwf phkfccr ki gjss  prknuathkf wjs t`c ajr gjfuijaturcr @cfry ikrn. @c rcjlhzcn t`jt t`c ‐Jsscgoly lhfc gct`kn wkuln jllkw j ijstcr jfn a`cjpcr wjy ki prknuahfe vc`halcs. Js rcsult, @cfry Ikrn‘s ajr ajgc ki t`c jsscgoly lhfc jt t`rcc-ghfutc hftcrvjls , j spccn gua` ijstcr t`jf ja`hcvcn oy prcvhkus gct`kns. ^`c ^Gkncl ikrn wjs t`c wkrln‘s ihrst gjss prknuacn ajr. Gjss prknuathkf lkwcrcn aksts jfn prhacs ki cfehfccrcn ekkns sua` js ajrs, rcirhecrjtc tjrs, wjs`hfe gja`hfc, rjnhks, erjgkp`kfc pljycr, jll t`rkue` j systcg ki ‐`hrc pura`jsc‘. ^`c `kushfe jfn akfsugcr okkg ki t`c :8?4s arcjtc t`c ojsha ki prkspcrhty hf t`c SQ ljrec hfvcstgcft ki `kushfe jfn `kln ekkns sccgcn tk arcjtc j vjrhkus ki `he`cr cgplkygcft jfn hfakgcs, rhshfe akfsuggjthfe ncgjfn, gkrc hfvcstgcft jfn yct gkrc cgplkygcft jfn hfakgcs. Hf :8?1, t`c SQ rcsugc cxpkrthfe ajphtjl tk t`c rcst ki t`c wkrln jfn ocakgc t`c ljrecst kvcrscjs lcfncr. Ss hgpkrtjft jfn ajphtjl cxpkrt jlsk okkstcn rcakvcry. (hv) ^`c Ercjt Ncprcsshkf2 ^`c ercjt Ncprcajthkf ocejf jrkufn :8?8 jfn ljstcn thll ghn :814s. Nurhfe t`hs pcrhkn gkst  pjrts ki t`c wkrln cxpcrhcfacn ajtjstrkp`ha ncalhfcs hf prknuathkf, cgplkygcft, hfakgcs jfn trjnc, Jerhaulturc rcehkfs jfn akggufhthcs wcrc t`c wkrst jiicatcn. Ajuscs2 Jerhaulturc kvcr prknuathkf rcgjhfcn j prkolcg. ^`hs gjnc wkrsc oy ijllhfe jerhaulturc prhacs. Ijrgcrs trhcn tk cxpjfn prknuathkf jfn orhfe j ljrecr vklugc ki gjrmct tk gjhftjhf t`chr kvcr hfakgc. t`hs wkrscfcn t`c elhft hf t`c gjrmct, pus`hfe nkwf prhacs cvcf iurt`cr. Ijrg prknuac rkttcn ikr j ljam ki ouycrs. Hf t`c ghn :8?4s, gjfy akuftrhcs ihfjfacn t`chr hfvcstgcfts t`rkue` lkjfs irkg t`c SQ. Hf t`c ihrst `jli ki :810 SQ kvcrscjs lkjfs jgkuftcn tk kvcr $: ohllhkf. J ycjr ljtcr ht wjs kfc qujrtcr ki t`jt jgkuft akuftry t`jt ncpcfncn aruahjlly kf SQ lkjfs kfc ijacn jf jautc arhshs.
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