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The Makran Accretionary Wedge off Pakistan: Tectonic Evolution and Fluid Migration. Hannover 1997

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Geological Description of the Makran Coast (Balochistan, Pakistan) and its potential for industrial exploitation
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  BUNDESANSTALT ÛR GEOWISSENSCHAFTEN JND ROHSTOFFEHANNOVER MAKRAN 1Tektonische Entwicklung und Fluidtransportim Makran-AkkretionskeiVPakistan' Teil 1The Makran Accretionary Wedge off Pakistan:Tectonic Evolution and Fluid Migration - Part L Fôrderungsvorhaben 3 G Ot22 ASONNE cruise SO-122 7 August 6 September 997)Operational Report and Preliminary ResultsAuthor: Funding Agency:Date:Archiv-Nr.:H.A. Roeser with contributions by J. Adam, H.-O. Bargeloh, M.Block, V. Damm, H. Dohmann, J. Fritsch, P. Kewitsch, K. Puskeppe-leit, U. von Rad, C. Reichert, U. Schrader, B. Schreckenberger, .Sievers, D. Steinmann,'W. oB (all BGR), T. Schillhorn Geomar), A.Inam, M. Tahir (both NIO) and A.H. Cheema HDIP)Bundesministerium lir Bildung, Wissenschaft, orschung und Tech-nologieNovember 1997 æ Ë('*'n w*q :hèque 9  rouse/ô 116643  BGR 116643 -2- Contents List of Tab1es............. .......................3List of Fi9ures............. ......................3Summary ........................ Zusammenfassung ........ 01 Geoscientific bjectives ........... ....................l21.1 ntroduction ........ ....................;............... ................ 21.2 Source, migration nd discharge f fluids. ............... 31.3 Geophysics nd morphology f the Makran ccretionary edge....... ..........141.4 Stnrcture f the crust off the Makran accretionary edge ......... 151.5 Targets f cruise O-122...... .........,........172 Participants ............... .................. 82.1 Scientific rew..... ................. 82.2 Ship's rew.......... ................. 93 Cruise iary......... .................. ......204 Geophysical nstrumentation...... ...................254.1 Airgun ystem....... ................254.2 Streamer ystem.... .................; ...............274.3 Seismic ecording quipment .................274.4 Gravimetric nd magnetic quipment ......................274.5 Computer ystems or navigation, ata acquisition, ata processing nd nterpretation 84.6Utilized quipment f he ship........... ......................285 Operational eports ......................295.1 Profile lan nd ist of profi1es............. ....................295.2 Fishing ff Pakistan ..............295.3 Navigation nd acquisition f non-seismic ata.... ..................... 45.3.1 Navigation nd ositioning .............345.3.2Data cquisition .............345.3.3 Data rocessing ............. 55.4 Reflection eismics................ .................365.5 Gravity ................445.5. Gravity onnections............5.5.2 Gravity measurements t sea......... ....................475.5.2.I Short escription f the seagravimeter ystem. ............475.5.2.2 rocessing f the gravity ata........... ..........4g5.6 Magnetics........... ..................495.6.1 he gradient agnetometer............. ..................495.6.2 Processing f the data f the magnetic radiometer................. .............505.7 Hydroacoustics .....................535.7.1 ydroswoop;....... ...........535.7.2Parasound......... ................:. ............. 66 Scientific esults ........566.1 Composite ine drawings ...... 66.2 Reflection eismics................ .................776.2.1 ntroduction ...................776.2.2Mafuan ccretionary omplex.............. .............776.2.3 Oman byssal lain.........r......;.......... ............... 06.2.4Munay idge.... .............80  BGR 1t6&3 -3- 6.2.5lndus he1f......... ............836.2.6 ndus an........... ............ 36.3 Gravity nd magnetics............ ......,......... 76.3.1 Age and nature f the crust f the ndus an............ ........... 76.3.2T\e Murray Ridge rea........... .........906.3.3 The Oman Abyssal lain and he Makran helf ......... ........ 06.3.4The elation f the Murray Ridge o structures nshore akistan .........916.4 Hydroacoustics .....................916.4.1Data ecording nd quality .............. 16.4.2 Preliminary esultsAcknowledgements .... 105References .................. 06Press 1ippin9s............................. ................... 10 List of Tables Table 1. List of the profiles surveyed uring cruise SO-122Table 2. Summarized eismic ata volume ecorded uring cruise so-rzzTable 3. Observation eport on gravity connections n DjiboutiTable 4. Parameters or magnetic ines of cruise SO-122 List of Figures Fig. 1. Tectonic setting of the Arabian Sea and ts surroundings Coumes & Kolla,1984)Fig.2. The Makran accretionary wedge with the areas where during SO-90 detailedsurveys were carried out, and he profiles that were planned or cruise SO-122;the lines that were actually surveyed are shown n Fig. 4 on p. 30.Fig. 3. Configuration of the airgun system of BGRFig. 4. Map in mercator projection showing he profiles surveyed during cruise SO- r22 Fig. 5. Streamer configuration or profiles SOl22-03 andSOl22-04Fig. 6. Streamer configuration or profile SOL22-04AFig.7. Streamer onfiguration or profiles SO122-08 SOl22-23Fig. 8. Streamer configuration or profiles SOl22-14 - SOl22-23Fig. 9. Streamer onfiguration or profiles SOI22-24 SOl22-027Fig. 10. Port of Djibouti (from Admiralty Chart 262); (a) mooring site of RVSONNE at quay 13 from August 6 to 9, 1997; b) reference tation BGI 31434651l3t62630373839404T  BGR 116&3 -4-#798 at quay 13. The inset shows details of the gravity observation station atbollard 74 alongside R/V SONNE.Fig, I 1. Gravity Sensor GSS30 of the seagravimeter ystem KSS31Fig. 12. The configuration of the tow system of the magnetic gradiometer duringcruise SO-122Fig. 13. Mean gradient on SO-122lines plotted against he course. a) Lines wherethe sensor no. 805 was used and (b) lines without sensor no. 805.Fig. 14. Example for the reconstruction of the magnetic anomaly rom the measuredgradient (a) on line SOl22-04A. (b) shows he reconstructed nomaly(continuous curve) compared with the total intensity measured by the mastersensor dotted curve) when the linear trend (stippled ine in (a)) is removed.(c) is the result of the reconstruction f only the mean gradient s removed.(d) shows he difference between he two curves n (c).Fig. 15. Planetary magnetic hree-hour-range ndices (Kp) for the interval June 21-Oct3l, L997Fig. 16. Line SO122-01 across he Indus Fan, without reflection seismics. Uppermostpanel: Gravimetric and magnetic anomalies; entral panel: Hydrosweepswath; owermost panel: BathymebryFig. 17. Line SO122-02 across he Murray Ridge, without reflection seismics. Up-permost panel: Gravimetric and magnetic anomalies; entral panel: Hy-drosweep swath; owermost panel: BathymetryFig. 18. Line SO122-03 across he Murray Ridge, with reflection seismics. Upper-most panel: Gravimetric and magnetic anomalies; entral panel: Hy-drosweep swath; owermost panel: Line drawing of one channel of the re-flection seismic ecordFig. 19. Line Sol2z-Ml04{across Murray Ridge, Dalrymple Trough, Little MunayRidge, oman Abyssal Plain and he Makran accretionary wedge, with re-flection seismics. Uppermost panel: Gravimetric and magnetic anomalies;central panel: Hydrosweep swath; owermost panel: Line drawing of onechannel of the reflection seismic ecordFig. 20. Line SO122-05 on the Makran accretionary wedge,,without eflection seis-mics. Uppermost panel: Gravimetric and magnetic anomalies; entral panel:Hydrosweep swath; owermost panel: BathymetryFig.2l. Line SO122-05A across he Oman Abyssal Plain, without reflection seis-mics. Uppermost panel: Gravimetric and magnetic anomalies; entral panel:Hydrosweep swath; owermost panel: BathymetryFig.22. Line 50122-06 across he Oman Abyssal Plain and he Makran accretionarywedle, without reflection seismics. Uppermost panel: Gravimetric andmagnetic anomalies; central panel: Hydrosweep swath; owermost panel:BathymetryFig.23. Line SOl22-07 along he Makran accretionary wedge, without reflectionseismics. Uppermost panel: Gravimetric and magnetic anomalies; entralpanel: Hydrosweep swath; owermost panel: Bathymetry 4548 J) 575849 52 54585960606l62
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