Types of Languages

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  Rivera,Diether John T.BSME lA1. ArgotAn argot is a language primarily developed to disguise conversaon, srcinally because of a criminal enterprise, though the term is also used loosely to refer to informal jargon.2. CantCant is somewhat synonymous with argot and jargon and refers to the vocabulary of an in-group that uses it to deceive or exclude nonusers.3. Colloquial LanguageAnything not employed in formal wring or conversaon, including terms that might fall under one or more of most of the other categories in this list, is a colloquialism. Colloquial and colloquialism may be perceived to be pejorave terms, but they merely refer to informal terminology.Colloquial language — whether words, idiomac phrases, or aphorisms — is oen regionally specic; for example, variaons on the term “carbonated beverage” — including soda, pop, and coke — dier in various areas of the United States.4. CreoleA creole is a more sophiscated development of a pidgin, derived from two or more parent languages and used by people all ages as a nave language.5. DialectA dialect is a way of speaking based on geographical or social factors.6. JargonJargon is a body of words and phrases that apply to a specic acvity or profession, such as a parcular art form or athlec or recreaonal endeavor, or a medical or scienc subject. Jargon is oen necessary for precision when referring to procedures and materials integral to a certain pursuit.However, in some elds, jargon is employed to an excessive and gratuitous degree, oen to conceal the truth or deceive or exclude outsiders. Various types of jargon notorious for obstrucng rather than facilitang communicaon are given names oen appended with -ese or -speak, such as bureaucratese or corporate-speak.7. Lingo  This term vaguely refers to the speech of a parcular community or group and is therefore loosely synonymous with many of the other words in this list.8. Lingua FrancaA lingua franca is a language oen adopted as a common tongue to enable communicaon between speakers of separate languages, though pidgins and creoles, both admixtures of two or more languages, are also considered lingua francas.9. PatoisPatois refers loosely to a nonstandard language such as a creole, a dialect, or a pidgin, with a connotaon of the speakers’ social inferiority to those who speak the standard language.10. PidginA simplied language arising from the eorts of people speaking dierent languages to communicate is apidgin. These languages generally develop to facilitate trade between people without a common language. In me, pidgins oen evolve into creoles.11. SlangA vocabulary of terms (at least inially) employed in a specic subculture is slang. Slang terms, either invented words or those whose meanings are adapted to new senses, develop out of a subculture’s desire to disguise — or exclude others from — their conversaons. As US society becomes more youth oriented and more homogenous, slang becomes more widespread in usage, and subcultures connually invent new slang as older terms are appropriated by the mainstream populaon.12. VernacularA vernacular is a nave language or dialect, as opposed to another tongue also in use, such as Spanish, French, or Italian and their dialects as compared to their mother language, Lan. Alternavely, a vernacular is a dialect itself as compared to a standard language (though it should be remembered that astandard language is simply a dialect or combinaon of dialects that has come to predominate).
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