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Name: Eric Martins Cerqueira Grammar Exercise Source: A Game of Thrones, Pocket Edition, George R. R. Martin. UNIT 3 – Simple Past, Present Perfect, and Present Perfect Progressive 1. Use the simple past to talk about things that happened and were completed in the past. Ex: “Last year he unhorsed the Hound, and it was only four years ago that he was champion.”pg 256. 2. Use the present perfect and present perfect progressive to talk about things that started i
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   Name: Eric Martins Cerqueira Grammar Exercise Source: A Game of Thrones, Pocket Edition, George R. R. Martin. UNIT 3  –   Simple Past, Present Perfect, and Present Perfect Progressive 1.   Use the simple past to talk about things that happened and were completed in the past. Ex: “Last year he unhorsed  the Hound, and it was only four years ago that he was   champion.”pg 256.  2.   Use the present perfect and present perfect progressive to talk about things that started in the  past but were not completed. These things continue up to the present and may continue into the future. Ex: “The man had a hand down between her legs, and he must have been hurting  her there,  because the woman started to moan, low in her throat. ”  Pg 84. 3.   We often use the present perfect and the present perfect progressive with for and since. Ex: “You haven’t left  this room since   Bran was hurt.”pg 130 . 4.   Use the simple past with past time expressions. Ex: “Illyrio writes that they had  a plague last year , so the brothels are paying double for healthy young girls, and triple for boys under ten.”pg 667.  5.   Use the present perfect without time expressions to talk about things that happened some indefinite time in the past. Ex: “I take it you know what Catelyn has done ?”pg 428 . 6.   Use the present perfect or the simple past with unfinished time periods such as today, this week, this month, and this year. Ex: “If she has washed  sometime this year , I shall be glad.”pg 679.     UNIT 4  –   Past Perfect and Past Perfect Progressive 1.   Use the past perfect to show that something happened before a specific time in the past. Ex: “And one day fifteen years ago , this second father had become  a brother as well, as he and Ned …”pg 25.  2.   Use the past perfect progressive to talk about an action that was in progress before a specific time in the past. The progressive emphasizes the continuing activity, not the end result. Ex: “Ogo’s khalasar had been attacking  the town for four days by the time  Khal Drogo caught him.”  pg 667. 3.   We often use the past perfect progressive to draw conclusions based on evidence. Ex: “Her father had been fighting  again. Arya could see it on his face  when he came to table, late again, as he had been so often.”pg 215.  4.   Use the past perfect and past perfect progressive to show a relationship with a past time or another past event. Use the past perfect or the past perfect progressive for the earlier event. Use the simple past for the later time or event. Ex: Will had been  a hunter before he  joined   the Night’s Watch.”pg  3. 5.   Use already, yet, ever, never, and just with the past perfect to emphasize the event which occurred first. Ex: “ She had never seen  this land her brother said was theirs, this realm beyond the narrow sea.”  pg 30. 6.   When the time relationship between two past events is clear (as with before, after, and as soon as), we often use the simple past for both events. Ex: “ After  they carried  off the body, a boy with a spade ran  onto the field and shoveled dirt over the spot where he had fallen, to cover up t he blood.”pg 296.  7.   We often use the past perfect and the past perfect progressive with by (a certain time). Ex: “It seemed colder on the long ride back to Winterfell, though the wind had died   by  then and the sun was higher in the sky.”  pg 15.   
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