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    Alphabet --------Vowel Pronunciation Key-----------------------a : u in but aa : a in far e : e in bed i : i in fit ee : ee in feet o : o in code u : u in put oo : oo in booed au : ow in how ai : ei in neighbor  Notes: 1. ' indicates a glottal stop (pronounced like uh ) in very careful----- speech. Normally, however, it is not pronounced at the beginning of a word and in other positions it represents 'aa'.2. The combination 'ah' at the end of a word is pronounced like 'aa' or 'e'. For example: 'jagah' could be 'jagaa' or 'jage', i.e., the h is silent.3. The combination 'ah' or 'aH' in the middle of a word is pronounced like 'e'.4. n. (n period) indicates nasalization.5. a - is used to distinguish between sh and s+h, kh and k+h, etc. Letter Transcription Remarks------ ------------- ------- 'alif : a Could also stand for an unspecified initial vowelbe : bpe : p Does not occur in Arabicte : t Used in native wordsTe : T Does not occur in Arabic and Persianse : s Used in loan wordsjeem : jche : ch Does not occur in ArabicbaRi he : H Used in loan wordskhe : khdaal : dDaal : D Does not occur in Arabic and Persianzaal : z Used in loan wordsre : rRe : R Does not occur in Arabic and Persianze : z Used in native wordszhe : zh Does not occur in Arabicseen : ssheen : shsaad : s Used in loan wordszaad : z Used in loan wordsto-e : t Used in loan wordszo-e : z Used in loan wordsain : ' Could also stand for an unspecified initial vowelghain : ghfe : fqaaf : qkaaf : kgaaf : g Does not occur in Arabiclaam : l  meem : mnoon : nvaa-o : w Stands for oo/o/au at the end of a word. In the middle it could stand for w/oo/o/auchhoTi he: h Used in native wordschhoTi ye: y Stand for ee/e/ai at the end of a word. In the middle it could stand for y/ee/e/aibaRi ye : y Occurs only at the end of a word and stands for e or ai ################################################################################ Abbreviations ------------- Grammatical Word Origin----------- -----------n.f. : noun feminine P : Persiann.m. : noun masculine A : Arabicpron. : pronoun T : Turkishadj. : adjective H : Hindiv. : verb S : Sanskritadv. : adverb G : Greekconj. : conjunctionintj. : interjectionprep. : prepositionsuff. : suffixpref. : prefixfig. : figurativeplu. : plurallit. : literalpoet. : poetic ################################################################################ Vocabulary ---------- 'alif (long) ------------aab: P n.m. wateraab: P n.f. splendor/elegance/polish/brightness/temper(steel)/lustre(gems)/sharpness(sword)aab-e-aa'inah: n.f. polish of a mirroraab-e-talkh: n.m. bitter water/tears/wineaab-e-chashm: n.m. tearsaabaad: P adj. populated/inhabited/peopled/prosperous/happyaabru: P n.f. honor/fame/good name/dignityaap: H pron. self/selves/respectful term of addressaatish: P n.f. fireaatmaa: S n.f. soul/spirit/mindaasim: A n.m. sinner/culpritaakhir: A adj. last/finalaadaab: A n.m. manners (plu. of adab)aadmi: P n.m. man (lit. offspring of Adam)aadmiyyat: A n.f. humanity/human nature/civilityaaraa: P adj. embellishing/adorningaaraam: P n.m. rest/repose/respite/relief/ease/comfortaara'ish P n.f. decoration/adornment/beautyaarzoo: P n.f. yearning/desire/wish/longing  aaz: P n.f. ardent desire/lust/covetousnessaazaad: P n.f. free/unrestrainedaazardah: P adj. annoyed/dejected/uneasy/gloomy/sadaazmaa'ish: P n.f. trial/experiment/testing/provingaas: H n.f. longing/desire/hope/faith/shelter/refugeaasaan: P adj. light/facile/easyaasraa: H n.m. means of subsistence/protection/shelteraasmaan: P n.m. heaven/skyaasmaani: P adj. heavenly/celestial/azureaasoodah: P adj. opulent/rich/satisfiedaashaa: S n.f. desire/hope/longingaashuftah: P adj. perplexed/careworn/distracted/confusedaashnaa: P n.m. aquaintance/friend/loveraashiyaan.: P n.m. nest/houseaakhaaz: P n.m. commencement/outset/beginningaaghosh: P n.f/m. embrace/lap/bosomaafaat: A n.f. evils/disasters/misfortunes (plu. of aafat)aaftaab: P n.m. sunaag: H n.f. flame/fire (fig. anger/passion/love/lust)aalaap: H n.f. conversation/preparatory tuningaan.ch: H n.f. flame/warmth/fervor/loss/griefaan.chal: H n.m. corner of the 'dopaTTa' worn by womenaan.dhee: H n.f. dust-storm/hurricaneaan.soo: H n.m. tearsaawaarah: P adj. without homeaawaarah: P n.m. wanderer/vagrant/destituteaawaaz: P n.f. noise/sound/cry/shoutaawaazah: P n.m. rumor/fame/report/reputationaah: P n.f. sighaahistah: P adv. softly/leisurely/slowlyaa'inah: P n.m. mirroraayandah: P adj. hereafter/in the future ################################################################################ 'alif (short) -------------ab: H adv. now/presentlyubaal: H n.m. boiling/rage/angeribtidaa': A n.f. commencement/beginningabtar: P adj. ruined/scattered/worthlessibtisaam: A n.m. smile/cheerfulnessibtilaa: A n.m. trial/misfortune/sufferingabad: A n.f. eternityabr: P n.m. cloudabroo: P n.m. eyebrowabsaar: A n.m. eyes (plu. of basr)ibn: A n.m. sonabnaa': A n.m. sons (plu. of ibn)ittiHaad: A n.m. union/allianceittifaaq: A n.m. agreement/concord/chance/event/opportunityittifaaqaan: A adv. accidentallyittikaa': A n.m. dependence/relianceitlaaf: A n.m. loss/ruin/decayitmaam: A n.m. completion/perfectionittihaam: A n.m. charge/imputation/blameaTak: H n.f. obstacle/obstructionisbaat: A n.m. proofasar: A n.m. mark/sign/trace/effectujaaR: H adj. ruined/waste/abandoned  ijaazat: A n.f. permission/leave/sanctionajnabee: A n.m. stranger/foreigner/alieniHtiyaaj: A n.f. neediHtiyaat: A n.f. caution/heedaHzaan: A n.m. sorrows (plu. of huzn)iHsaas: A n.m. feeling/emotioniHsaan: A n.m. beneficence/favor/good deedakhbaar: A n.m. news/newspaperikhtiyaar: A n.m. choice/option/power/influence/control/authorityakhz: A n.m. grasping/seizing/takingikhlaas: A n.m. sincerity/purity/love/selfless worshipadaa: A n.f. payment of debt/settlementadaa: P n.f. charm/grace/beautyidraak: A n.m. perception/comprehensionadib: A n.m. learned, man of letters (plu. udabaa')iraadah: A n.m. aim/object/will/desirearjmand: P adj. exaltedurdoo: T n.f. army/campirshaad: A n.m. instruction/order/command/guidancearz: A n.f. land/region/eartharmaan: P n.m. desire/yearning/wishazal: A n.f. eternity/without beginningasaas: A n.f. foundationasbaab: A n.m. causes/motives/meansustaad: P n.m. master/professoristi'faa: A n.m. resignationisti'maal: A n.m. application/usage/useasad: A n.m. lionasraar: A n.m. secrets (plu. of sirr)israaf: A n.m. waste/extravaganceasfaar: A n.m. voyages/travels (plu. of safar)asqaam: A n.m. evils/weaknesses/defects (plu. of suqm)asir: A n.m. prisoner/captiveishaarah: P n.m. gesture/symbol/wink/signishtihaar: A n.m. notification/poster/reputation/renownishtiyaaq: A n.m. longing/craving/desireishraaq: A n.m. dawn/day break/lustreashfaaq: A n.m. favors (plu. of shafaq)ishfaaq: A n.m. compassion/kindnessashqiyaa': A n.m. cruel/heartless (plu. of shaqi)ashk: P n.m. tearSas-haab: A n.m. lords/masters (plu. of saahib)israar: A n.m. obduracy/persistence/obstinacyasl: A n.m. root/foundation/essence (plu. usool)asli: A adj. original/genuine/real/trueiztiraab: A n.m. restlessness/perturbation/anxietyiztiraar: A n.m. helplessness/agitation/constraintatfaal: A n.m. children/offspring (plu. of tifl)iz-haar: A n.m. disclosure/proclamation/statement/testimonyi'tibaar: A n.m. trust/confidence/faith/reliancei'tiraaz: A n.m. objection/criticism/protesti'jaaz: A n.m. miracle/marvel/wonderi'laam: A n.m announcing/notifyingaghlaat: A n.f. mistakes (plu. of ghalat)aghyaar: A n.m. strangers/rivals (plu. of ghair)uftaad: P n.f. misery/distress/mishap/foundationiftikhaar: A n.m. honor/glory/repute/distinctionifraat: A n.f. excess/exuberance/plentyafsaanah: P n.m. tale/legend/fictionafsurdah: P adj. melancholy/depressed
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