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  Vipassanā Handbook  A Vipassanā Handbook  (Insight Meditation Guide) byLedi Sayadaw Aggamahāpaņ ditaTranslated byMiss Molly Ni Ni Win Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato SammāsambuddhassaChapter on Corporeality (Rūpa)1. Let us give homage to the Buddha, who teaches us (rational being) Vipassana in the whole view, before we started with his teaching.2. The basic natures of the four elements: earth (Pathavī), water (Āpo), temperature (Tejo), and air (Vāyo).3. Whenever the four elements arises, Vaņņa, Gandha, Rasa and Ojā, always follows.4. These eight elements are so small and delegate, that they cannot be separated from one another. Therefore always take it as one.5. When thousand, ten of thousand and more than that are compiled together, hardness, softness, lightness, heavy, small, and big are formed in many ways and means.6. When four elements are formed, if Pathavi is strong, then it will be hard, if weak, then it will be soft. If Āpo is strong, then it will be water, if weak, then it will be coagulated. If Tejo is strong, then it will be hot or cold, if weak, then it will be average temperature. If Vāyo is strong, then it there will be much movements, if weak, then will be steadied.7. It is the four elements, Kāmma, Citta, Utu, and Āhāra, that arises and subsides on the body,(Rūpakandhā) like the flow of the river, without a moment  break.8. The formation of Rūpakandhā of earth, water, trees, etc that can be seen are all caused  by the Ututejo.9. Shapes, & forms, which are convented by the worldly people, are called Paññatti.10. Ānicca can only be realised,when one understood Paññat and Paramat comprehandsivily by wisdom.END OF RŪPA Nāma Chapter 11. Cakkhu, Sota, Ghāna, Jiva and Kāya which are eye, ear, nose, tongue,and body consciousnes are, called in other word , Mano consciousness or substratum of the mind.a  Vipassanā Handbook 12. Appearance = Rūpa, Sadda = Sound, Smell = Ghāna, Rasa = Taste, Feelings = Phoţţabbā, are the five factors which can be seen as Dhamma, if concentration is made by Mano Viññāna.13. When six pairs of consciousnessess contact on its relevant six bases, the six Viññāna will be arised like a lighting on Nāmakandhā, and subsided.14. When Cakkhu (eye), came into contact with Rūpa (appearance), Cakkhu Viññāņa willdefinitly be arise and subside.15. When Sota (ear) and sound came into contact, Sota Viññāņa will be definitly arise andsubside.16. When Ghāna (nose), and smell came into contact, Ghānāviññāņa will be definitly arise and subside.17. When Jīvhā (tongue) and taste, came into contact, Jīvhaviññāņa will be definitly be arise and subside.18. When Kāya (body) and (sensual feelings) Phoţţabbā came into contact, Kāyaviññāņa will be definitly arise and subside.19. When Mano (mind, thoughts) and immaterial objects, came into contact, Manoviññāņa will definitly be arise and subside.20. Except five Viññāņa,the rest of all are Mano Viññāņa.These six Cittas, are not the same, they differ from each other.End of NāmaExhoration21. If, man, woman, atta and jīvā are viewed by wisdom, it is nothing but, Nāmma and Rūpa. 22. Without truely comprehending the Nāmma and Rūpa, the obsession (attachment) of I , such as I stand, I sit, I touch, I go, I hear, I look, Iknow, I see and etc are attached (obsessed) 23. Buddha had taught, that until you are truely dispelled from Sakkāyadiţţhi, you will have to be suffered in the four stages of Apāya, therefore without any hesitation or turning back you must maditate (practice) like a man struck with a spear in the heart, or a man with a fire on his head, Sattiyā Viya Omaţţho24. The nature of, the base root causes can be understood by the Nāmma and Rūpa separately.25. One will definitly see Anicca, when he Practice with wisdom, if the appearance or form is defencing.26. When the six consciosnessess contact on its relavant six bases, practicewith wisdom on the Viññāņa that occurs, then only Anicca can definitly be seen.27. Only when Anicca of Nāma and Rūpa Dhamma are definitly viewed or understood, Anatta, which is not I but only the Nāma and Rūpa can be widely viewed, thus it will dispelled Sakkāya.28. If sakkāyadiţţhi is dispelled for a moment one will become Sotāpaŋ. If dispelled for Samcchedapphāŋ ( the relinquishment which consists of extirpation), the doors of the four stagesof Apāya will be clossed, and he will happily be rebirth again and again in all the six plans of devas till he reach Nibbānna.  Vipassanā Handbook 29. Be careful, not to follow the fools who have doubts in Vipassana. Continous  practicing Vipassana is the only means, that will free you from Saŋsārā.30. I, who reside in White Sand Ledi Village Monestary had sucessfully finished this Vipassanā manual with thirty verses in the month of Tawthalin (September) 1270.Remarks Learn this thirty verses by heart and try to memorise it in details.End of ExhortationAnswers to the Thirty Verses Answer to Rūpa1. The four elementsQuestion.What are the four elements?Answer.The four elements are, earth element [Pathavī], water element [Āpo], fire element [Tejo], and wind element [Vāyo].Question. What are the natures of the four elements?Answer.Pathavī, has the quality or property of hardness or softness. This property is the earth element in the ultimate sense.Āpo, has the property of cohesion and liquidity. These properties are the water element in the ultimate sense.Tejo, has the property of heat and cold. This thermal property is the fire element in ultimate sense.Vāyo, has the property of support and motion. These properties are the wind element in the ultimate sense.[Verse ommited here]Remarks. Nature: is the faculties of elements.Action: is the natures of happenings.2. Rūpa, concomitant of the four elements.Question.Show rūpa which is the concomitant of the four elements?Answer.Light can be arisen by the flame, likewise, the four Rūpa, Vaņņa, Gandha, Rasa and Ojā concomitate whenever the four elements occur.[Verse]Remarks.Vaņņa means apperance. Gandha means smell or adour.Rasa means taste and Ojā means fuel.3. Eight Rūpa  Vipassanā Handbook Question.Which Rūpa are called Athakalāp Rūpa'?Answer.The taste of the soup cannot be differentiate into its ingredients, such as this is the taste of fish, this is the taste of the oil, this is the taste of the sault, etc. Likewise, Pathavī, Āpo, Tejo, Vāyo, Vaņņa, Gandha, Rasa and Ojā which stick together are called eight Rūpas.Question. Can you illustrate the size of the eight Rūpas?Answer.They are too subtle to illustrate their size.[Verse]Remarks.Since they are very subtle they can be seen, only when many of them are conceived together as a group such as colour can be seen, hardness, hot, cold, motion etc can be felt. For example, a pile of sand can be seen from a distance, but cannot see the colour of each and every dust of sand. Only the pile of white sand dust can be seen. If thet can be seen separately by Cakkhu Viñña , then every arising and subsiding of it can also be seen. But it cannot be seen, therefore, for all Vipassanā Yogī, there is a big defence of Cakkhu Viñña [ seeing].4. Compilation of Elements Rūpa Dātu.QuestionWhat will happened if hundreds and thousands of Aţhakalāpa eight elements arecompiled?Answer.It can be formed into so, many ways, such as, hard, soft, light, heavy, small, big, liquid, solid, chemical etc.[Verse]5. Faculties of the four elements.Question.Which element's faculty makes things hard?Answer.The earth ‘Pathavī’ element's faculty.Question.How can it be known that it is ‘Pathavī’ element's faculty?Answer.The earth element Pathavī tends the organs to hardness, so when one feels the hardness, one knows that it is the Pathavī element's faculty.Question.Which element's faculty makes the fluid flows?Answer.The water element's faculty, Āpo.Question.How can it be known that it is Āpo element's faculty?Answer.Since the nature of the Āpo element is fluid, it can be said that it is the faculty of Āpo element, when one see those which are fluid.Remarks.Actually, Āpo element can not be seen only pathavī element can be seen, even though Āpo element is fluidPathavī is gum.

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