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Web 2.0 technologies to engage and support the professional development of ESL teachers in India

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This paper seeks to review the affordances of Web 2.0 technologies to support reflective and collaborative professional learning of ESL teachers in India. The review draws on a large corpus of literature and recent research evidence to identify the
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  Education India Journal: A Quarterly Refereed Journal of Dialogues on Education, ISSN 2278- 2435, Vol. 4, Issue-3, August-2015.  Page 38 Paper-4 Web 2.0 technologies to engage and support the professional development of ESL teachers in India Atiya Khan  Education India Journal: A Quarterly Refereed Journal of Dialogues on Education, ISSN 2278- 2435, Vol. 4, Issue-3, August-2015.  Page 39 Web 2.0 technologies to engage and support the professional development of ESL teachers in India Atiya Khan 5   Abstract This paper seeks to review the affordances of Web 2.0 technologies to support reflective and collaborative professional learning of ESL teachers in India. The review draws on a large corpus of literature and recent research evidence to identify the principal elements and features of teacher professional learning and the underlying affordances of Web 2.0 technologies and applications. It examines how professional learning for English teachers could be supported with Web 2.0 technologies in general, and blogs in particular, through ways that might have significant benefits over traditional face-to-face teacher professional development. The findings indicate that there is potential value in teacher professional learning with Web 2.0 technologies. Keywords-   Social learning, Web 2.0, Professional development, ESL teachers   Professional development using Web 2.0 reflection and collaboration: There have been online communities for over ten years now, so there has been much international research published on Web 2.0 discourse and how it influences those engaged in it (Friedman, 2005). Early studies on the use of professional discourse by teachers showed the promise of better interaction and collaborative professional development (DuFour & Eaker, 1998). Teachers using Web 2.0 networks for professional development are more engaged and express their pleasure in having an online tool to enable conversation beyond face-to-face 5   M.Ed. Researcher, RMIT University, School of Education, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia  Education India Journal: A Quarterly Refereed Journal of Dialogues on Education, ISSN 2278- 2435, Vol. 4, Issue-3, August-2015.  Page 40 meetings and formal face-to-face training (Walker, Recker, Robertshaw, Sellers, & Leary, 2012). Studies have shown that teachers exposed to Web 2.0 tools for professional interaction recognize the power of technology to create a learning environment (Lieberman & Miller, 2008; Lieberman & Pointer-Mace, 2010). The community features of Web 2 .0 technologies render obvious opportunities for collaborative professional learning: It connects individuals to form a community of learners, where all contribute and collaborate in what amounts to a comprehensive and large-scale discussion of ideas (Lemke, Coughlin, Garcia, Reifsneider & Baas, 2009). Web 2.0 tools promote teacher-centered, teacher-specific and continued experiences through personal learning context (Hall & Davison, 2007; Lunyal, 2012). They make easy professional communication and collaboration, provide chances for follow-up, stimulate social connections and communities, and develop collective learning with no associated costs (Lunyal, 2012; Toner, 2004). Moreover, research indicates that using Web 2.0 tools benefits both teaching and learning in educational settings (Lemke et al. 2009). However, an investigation by Chattopadhyay (2013), concerning 46 teachers of English from the different states of India, demonstrated that the application of web tools for socialisation invites more interest from Indian educators, than their usage for teaching and for professional development. The weekly standard use of web tools in teaching English is 11.4% compared to 24.5% in social lives of teachers in India. They have quite limited knowledge and understanding regarding the potential benefits of web-based professional development (Chattopadhyay, 2013). It is high time this rapid spur in the use of social networking and other Web 2.0 tools for personal communication should be taken advantage of, for influencing the professional practices of English teachers in India.  Education India Journal: A Quarterly Refereed Journal of Dialogues on Education, ISSN 2278- 2435, Vol. 4, Issue-3, August-2015.  Page 41 The social prospects of Web 2.0 technologies, such as wikis, blogs, and social networking for professional learning has gained attention from many researchers in developed nations (Henderson, 2007; Killen, 2009; Levin & Wadmany, 2005). But teacher professional development in most schools of India has a traditional and predictable look, feel and result (Bedadur, 2012). A study by Rahman and Borgohain (2014) of the continuing professional development practices of secondary schools English teachers in the Assam region in India shows that the teachers’ use of Internet for updating their professional competence in teaching English was found to be low. If schools in India wish to actualize effective learning, then they and their teachers need to reconsider their professional learning approaches and realign their learning with the pedagogical potentials that Web 2.0 technologies offer (Chattopadhyay, 2013). Khaniya (2006) claims that teachers need to reflect and communicate with each other about Web 2.0 tools to identify, consider, adapt their implications, and therefore influence their professional growth and their choice for how they will use it. Aware of the prospects offered by technological innovations, Menon (2012) provided an account of just how much Indian school teachers use a social network for their continuing professional development, concerned with four components of online professional development - reflection, peer networking, sharing of classroom practice and user generated content; and identified that social media is an effective instrument to facilitate teachers to transform into reflective professionals, and this takes place through peer networking and sharing of classroom practices. Yet much of teacher professional development in India focuses on the technical aspects of technology integration, hardware and operation: teachers in developing countries are rarely sharing, discussing, and negotiating  Education India Journal: A Quarterly Refereed Journal of Dialogues on Education, ISSN 2278- 2435, Vol. 4, Issue-3, August-2015.  Page 42 knowledge through Web 2.0 social networks, therefore underestimating the social nature of learning (Chattopadhyay, 2013). It has therefore become important for teachers in India to understand the benefits of Web 2.0 social learning for their effective professional development. Blogs as the Web 2.0 vehicle to empower reflective and collaborative professional development: A large body of international research points to the efficiency of professional development which is initiated, developed and controlled by the teachers (Gaible & Burns, 2005; Scott & Scott, 2010), and also which incorporates teacher reflection and collaboration (DuFour & Eaker, 1998). Moreover, recent study has acknowledged the potential of blogs to promote both teacher reflection and collaboration in India, techniques that are imperative in a teaching community (Khan, 2015). Blogs have the potential to be a useful Web 2.0 instrument for teachers to develop a private or public discussion space that supports teacher reflection and collaboration (Henderson, 2004). By online and collaborative reflection through blogging, the participants can be in control of their own professional development and establish possibilities for learning within their work and context. Ray and Hocutt (2006a) in a study focused on K-12 teachers’ use of blogs, found that blogs “functioned as reflective journals where teachers could write about and reflect on events occurring in their classrooms.…Entries demonstrated a process of continuous reflection about…students and about [teachers’] knowledge and understanding of…issues impacting practice” (p. 25). Also, in a study of middle school teacher bloggers, Ray and Hocutt (2006b) found that “a majority of entries
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