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What can contemporary architects and engineers learn from the classical language of architecture?

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An essay on the Classical Architectural Language and its contemporary remaining s.
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  CULTURAL STUDIES 1 ESSAY TOPIC : What can contemporary architects and engineers learn from the classical language of architecture? CHATZITHEODORIDIS VASILEIOS  Introduction By the term “C lassical Architecture ”  we refer to the architecture that started in Greece during the 5 th  century B.C and it had a huge impact on the evolution of the architecture of the following centuries. During this period of time, Athens after a victorious naval battle at Salamis against the Persian fleet, manage to gain the leadership of the Delian League which was composed by the most powerful Greek city-states of this period. After gaining the leadership, Athens transferred the Leagues treasury from Delos to Athens. That resulted in the development of Athens in cultural and political level in such a way that the impact of this development is still visible on the modern Western civilisation. This period is also known as the Golden Age of Pericles [pic.1] who was one of the most important statesmen of this period and it was him who with a series of modifications in every possible level led to this cultural blast. Pic. 1. Pericles’ Funeral Oration    Architecture This whole cultural development had to be expressed in a monumental way. Pericles’s response was to build a temple dedicated to the goddess from which Athens was named after, known as the Parthenon. Its construction began in 447 BCE and was completed in 438 BCE. Due to the fact that this project was being funded by the league’s treasury, Iktinos  and Kallikratis, the architects of the project, had to design a magnificent temple in order to enlarge Athens’s impact and keep it modest in a way that would it would not attract negative attention from the rest of the city-states of the league. These qualifications were met by designing a rectangular shaped structure surrounded by supportive columns in proportions based on the Golden Section [pic 2] along with some of the most impressive sculptures that were created by Phidias [pic 3] and with the help of the location of the building, which was the Acropolis hill. The final result was the construction of one of the most iconic buildings that influenced the architecture of the Western civilization the last 2500 years. Pic. 2. The Golden Section in Greek art   Pic 3. Parthenon’s  pediment sculptured by Phidias. A familiar façade From the Roman era since the beginning of the Gothic style Parthenon’s façade was the most adaptable and familiar shape in the world of Architecture. Even after the discovery of the arc which was more efficient as a supportive mechanism for big openings, the architects tended to hide those openings behind classical facades, or even whole, column supported, structures [pic.4]. The reason for this was not that classical architecture was more efficient, but it was the ideals that a structure like Parthenon represented. Pic 4. The Pantheon, Rome

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