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Who Planned the Siloam Tunnel, Provided Herod the Great with Hydraulic Pozzolanic Mortar for the Caesarea Harbor and Designed his Jerusalem Temple

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It is hereby proposed that the Romans were directly involved in several major engineering projects which were carried out in Judea. These projects included the Siloam Tunnel, the use of Hydraulic Pozzolanic Mortar in the Caesarea harbor and the
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  1 March , 14 th  ,2018 Who Planned the Siloam Tunnel, Provided Herod the Great with Hydraulic Pozzolanic Mortar for the Caesarea Harbor and Designed his Jerusalem Temple? Shlomo Guil It is hereby proposed that the Romans were directly involved in several major engineering projects which were carried out in Judea. These projects included the Siloam Tunnel, the use of Hydraulic Pozzolanic Mortar in the Caesarea harbor and the architectural planning of Herod’s  Temple in Jerusalem. I. The Siloam Tunnel I recently proposed in my ZDPV published article that the Romans have designed and planed the cutting of the Siloam Tunnel in Jerusalem (also known as Tunnel VIII or erroneously “Hezekiah Tunnel”) . The Siloam Tunnel was excavated simultaneously from both ends while maintaining a pre determined overall gradient. Notably, identical technology was applied while excavating the Roman water carrying tunnels of Brioratis (present day Briord, France) and of Saldae (present day Bejaia, Algeria). Furthermore, I am presently also proposing that the Siloam Tunnel was excavated during the period of Queen Salome Alexandra who was also known by the name of Shlomtzion. Salome Alexandra was a descendent of the Hasmonean lineage. She ruled over Judea from 76 BCE to 67 BCE following the death of her husband Alexander Jannaeus. The period of the rule of Shlomtzion is considered to have been  peaceful and of significant economic prosperity. The lack of Roman political intervention during her time may indicate that a positive relationship with Rome enabled access to Roman water technology. Her alliance, contrary to her husband ’s , was towards the Pharisees rather than towards the Sadducees. Her son, John Hyrcanus II, served during her time, as High Priest of the Jerusalem Temple. All considered, it is hereby proposed that the Siloam Tunnel was initiated by the contemporary Temple Pharisees priests in order to convey sheltered spring water to a specific southern pool in Jerusalem which served for ritual  purity purposes. This project was carried out under technological guidance and assistance provided by Roman engineers. Ref. : Shlomo Guil, 2017, A New Perspective on the Various Components of the Siloam Water System in Jerusalem, Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins, 133 (2), pp. 145-175. See list of selected readings hereunder. II. Hydraulic Pozzolanic Mortar Used in the Caesarea Marine Harbor Roman Hydraulic Pozzolanic Mortar is defined as lime based mortar, produced with an additive of volcanic Pozzolanic ash that provides for hardening underwater. This type of mortar is a composite  2 material which remains cohesive in the presence of water  . The Romans supplied Herod the Great with Hydraulic Pozzolanic Mortar technology which was utilized during the construction of the harbor of Caesarea. The Caesarea harbor was completed by Herod the Great between about 23 to 15 BCE. Brandon et al. (2014:163) indicate that about 35,000 m 3 concrete form the harbor structure and that “the computation by mass suggests that Caesarea harbor required about 14,730 to 20,400 metric tons of  pumiceous ash.” The Romans initiated shipments of pumiceous ash to the distant port of Caesarea (and Alexandria) in order to “ensure   the consolidation and longevity of the maritime concrete structures”. Ref. : Brandon C.J., Hohlfelder R.L., Jackson M.D. and Oleson J.P., 2014. Building for Eternity. The History and Technology of Roman Concrete Engineering in the Sea. Oxbow Books , Oxford & Philadelphia. See list of selected readings hereunder. III. Herod’s Temple in Jerusalem I hereby propose that Herod ’s Temple in Jerusalem was designed by Roman architects reflecting the style of the contemporary Roman temples. Herod had no availability of local professional architects who had  proper technical and scientific knowledge required for designing such an intricate structure. The Temple structure involved, among other architectural innovative issues, the enlargement and leveling of the top surface which was sustained by a supporting wall (known today as the “wailing Wall”). The general plan of the structure was quite similar to other contemporary Roman temples while being adapted to the Jewish religious architectural requirements. A. Segal (2013:276) stated that “The Temple Mount Sanctuary was not only the largest one in the Graeco- Roman world but also the most complex among them.”  Surely Herod’s indigenous architects, even if such local professionals were readily available to him, could not have overshadowed the experienced Roman counterparts. Ref.; Segal A. 2013. Temples and Sanctuaries in the Roman East. Oxbow Books, Oxford and Oakville. See list of selected readings hereunder. Selected readings for “ The Siloam Tunnel ”. Birebent J. 1962, Aquae Romanae. Recherches D’Hydraulique Romaine dans L’Est Algerien.  Service des antiquites de l’Algerie.   Boucher J.P. 1983. Journées D’Etudes sur les Aqueducs Romains. Les belles lettres. Paris. Burdy J. 2002. Les Aqueducs Romains de Lyon. Presses Universitaires de Lyon. Lyon. Djermoune H. 2016 , Le Librator Nonius Datus et l'Aqueduc de Saldae. Hal Archives-Ouvertes Fabre G. ,Fiches J.L. Paillet J.L. , 2000, L’Aqueduc de Nîmes et le Pont du Gard. CNRS Editions. Döring M. 2016 , Wasser für die Dekapolis: Römische Fernwasserleitung in Syrien und Jordanien. Christoph Ohlig. Siegburg.  3 Février P.A. 1979 , L’Armée Romaine et la Construction des Aqueducs. L’Archéologie. No.38, pp. 88 -93. Garbrecht G. 1995 , Meisterwerke Antiker Hydrotechnik. B.G. Teubner Verlagsgesellschaft. Stuttgart. Gebara C., Michel J.M. 2002, L’Aqueduc Romain de Fréjus.  Association de la Revue Archéologique de  Narbonnaise. Montpellier. Germain de Montauzan C. 1908. Les Aqueducs Antiques de Lyon. Ernest Leroux. Paris. Grewe K. 1998 Licht am Ende des Tunnels, Planung und Trassierung im antiken Tunnelbau .  Mainz am Rhein. 2008 Tunnel and Canal Engineering . In, The Oxford Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World. Ed. Oleson J.P. , Oxford, University Press. Guil S, 2017, A New Perspective on the Various Components of the Siloam Water System in Jerusalem, Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins, 133 (2), pp. 145-175. Haberey W. 1965, Die Romische Wasserleitung nach Koln. Bonner Jahrb. Laporte J.P. 1997 , Notes sur L’Aqueduc de Saldae. In, Les Aqueducs de la Gaule Romaine et des Région Voisines. Ed. Bedon R. 747-779. Limoges, Université de Limoges Centre de Recherches A. Piganiol. Liebowitz E. 2011. Queen Alexandra : The Anomaly of a Sovereign Jewish Queen in the Second Temple Period. PhD thesis. Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Provost A., Lepretre B., Philippe E. 2013. L’Aqueduc de Vorgium Carhaix. Gallia 61e Supplement . CNRS Editions. Paris. Regev E.,2013. The Hasmoneans, Ideology, Archaeology, Identity. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. Gottingen. Rogerson J. Davies R., 1996, Was the Siloam Tunnel Built by Hezekiah?  BA 50 No. 3, pp.138-149. Schwentzel C.G., 2013. Juifs et Nabateens . Presses Universitaires de Rennes. Trever Hodge A. 2011, Roman Aqueducts & Water Supply. Bristol Classical Press. Vincent H. 1911 , Jerusalem Sous Terre. London. Selected readings for “ Hydraulic Pozzolanic Mortar Used in the Caesarea Marine Harbor ” .  Brandon C.J., Hohlfelder R.L., Jackson M.D. and Oleson J.P., 2014. Building for Eternity. The History and Technology of Roman Concrete Engineering in the Sea. Oxbow Books ,Oxford & Philadelphia. Coutelas A. 2009, Le Mortier de Chaux. Errance. Paris.  4 Feneuille S., Letourneux J.P., Bouchar M. 2016, Protocoles D’Etude des Mortiers Anciens a L’Usage des Archéologues. Mergoil. Autun. Frizot M. 1975, Mortiers et Enduits Peints Antiques. Etude Technique et Archéologique. Universite de Dijon. Dijon. Gebhardt R.F. 1988, Rapid Methods for Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement. ASTM. Philadelphia. Hewlett P.C. 2004, Chemistry of Cement and Concrete. Elsevier Science & Technology Books. Amsterdam. Humphrey J., Oleson J.P., Sherwood A.N. 1998 ,Greek and Roman Technology: A sourcebook. Routledge. London and New York. Jackson M.D. , Mulcahy S.R. , Chen H., Li Y., Li Q. , Cappelletti P., Wenk H.R. 2017. Phillipsite and Al-tobermorite Mineral Cements Produced Through Low-Temperature Water-Rock Reactions in Roman Marine Concrete. American Mineralogist, Volume 102, pages 1435  –  1450. Selected readings for    “Herod’s Temple in Jerusalem “ .  De Vogüé M. 1865. Syrie Centrale. Architecture Civile et Religieuse du  I er    au VII e  Siècle. Noblet et Baudry. Paris. Ovadiah A., Turnheim Y. 2011. Roman Temples, Shrines and Temene in Israel. Giorgio Bretschneider editore. Roma. Segal A. 2013. Temples and Sanctuaries in the Roman East. Oxbow Books, Oxford and Oakville. Stamper J.W. 2005. The Architecture of Roman Temples. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Ulrich R.B., Quenemoen C.K. 2014. A Companion to Roman Architecture. Wiley Blackwell.
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