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With Affirmative Action

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AC on affirmative action
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     With Affirmative Action, we can give equal opportunities in education to the general public, which gives equality and fair competition. Without affirmative action, we create a disadvantage to minorities who do not have fair access to a good educational system and have a lesser preparation for standardized tests such as the SATs and ACTs. When Affirmative Action allows us to help historically disadvantaged groups and create equal access to education.    Contention o   When we do not give everybody the same challenges and opportunities, which creates a competition and gives equality. o   Peter McHugh, (Social Theorist, Yale University), Human Studies, Volume 28, p. 137, 2005 MUST HAVE SAME HARDSHIPS AND REWARDS TO HAVE EQUALITY Sharing equality is not simply a matter of sharing of objects, say hardships and rewards.   It is not a distributive standard. In fact many collectives which do share also believe it appropriate that hardship and reward maybe unevenly distributed.   To share freedom, emancipation, the kind of sharing that we will name shared being, is more elemental than that (even though it can of course affect distribution).   It is to recognize that human experience of the world is of an intersubjective space, an arc of encompassing language and history within which is formed a sense of tradition, of place, and of one’s self in that place .  In that respect shared being is substantial, really an experience of itself, of being within life’s substance as a particular living composition of the possible and impos sible. In that experience its space and language become objectified, objectified as unalterable form and structure and all possibility and limit.   It is a materialization of the real.   Shared being in our case is for white faces to extend that notion of a person to black faces, faces with the capacity to understand themselves, their evaluations, and their choices in some “reasonable” accord with the trajectory of the real.   The competitive environments that are for opportunities are not spread out equally. Without Affirmative action, disadvantaged groups would already know that they don’t have the opportunities that the “white man” has and would be less motivated to work hard and would be less successful in life. Barbara R Bergmann (Professor American University), In Defensive of Affirmative Action, Volume 83 p. 31-32, February 1997  How do the reasons for affirmative action stack up against the reason for special admission of athletes, alumni children, the Nebraskans, the wealthy well- connected, the dean’s friends’ children?   The reasons for affirmative action are far more compelling- helping to cure this country’s racial cleavage,  furthering the parity of blacks in the job market, getting blacks and whites to know each other on campus,   making an allowance for the bad environment and lack of feelings of self-worth that man black youngsters have had to battle through.  Kwame Anthony Appiah (lectured at many schools including Harvard, Yale, Cornell, Duke, Appiah graduated from Cambridge), “Group Rights” and Racial Affirmative Action, Volume 15, 2011 Since legal collective rights are extremely common, as I pointed out, it is hard to mount a principled objection against a legal collective right to outreach in virtue of its being a legal collective right. But there is a further reason why a collective right to outreach for blacks is uncontroversial: It does not seem to entail denying the individual rights of non-blacks.   That is because it is explicitly stated as granting the same collective right to other groups as it offers to the previously excluded groups. Even if an individual white person could show that a policy of outreach reduced his probability of employment  — which, of course, it often would — it is hard to see how, in these circumstances, he could claim that this reduction in probability amounted to denying him a right.   As we shall see below, it is often not the group right for the formerly excluded that opponents of affirmative action re ally object to,   it is the alleged denial of some individual right to members of historically privileged groups.   In this case there is no plausible argument of this form.
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