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Workplace Commitment a Conceptual Model Developed From Integrative

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    http://hrd.sagepub.com/  Development ReviewHuman Resource  http://hrd.sagepub.com/content/7/3/339The online version of this article can be found at: DOI: 10.1177/15344843083187602008 2008 7: 339 srcinally published online 30 June Human Resource Development Review  Sandra L. Fornes, Tonette S. Rocco and Karen K. Wollard Review of the ResearchWorkplace Commitment: A Conceptual Model Developed From Integrative  Published by:  http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of:  Academy of Human Resource Development  can be found at: Human Resource Development Review  Additional services and information for http://hrd.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Email Alerts:  http://hrd.sagepub.com/subscriptions Subscriptions:  http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Reprints:  http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Permissions: http://hrd.sagepub.com/content/7/3/339.refs.html Citations: at FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIV on July 27, 2013hrd.sagepub.comDownloaded from    What is This? - Jun 30, 2008OnlineFirst Version of Record - Aug 18, 2008Version of Record >> at FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIV on July 27, 2013hrd.sagepub.comDownloaded from   AUTHORS’NOTE:An earlier version of this article was presented at the 2004 meeting of theAHRD Academy of Human Resource Development held in Austin, Texas.Human Resource Development Review Vol. 7, No. 3 September 2008 339-357DOI: 10.1177/1534484308318760© 2008 SAGEPublications  Workplace Commitment:AConceptual Model DevelopedFrom Integrative Review of theResearch SANDRA L. FORNES  Hidden Angel Foundation,Inc. TONETTE S. ROCCO Florida International University KAREN K. WOLLARD Kelly,Wollard & Associates This article investigates the previous research and theories of workplacecommitment using content analysis and concept mapping. It provides aconceptual model of workplace commitment,integrating the literature onorganizational commitment,occupational/career commitment,and individ-ual commitment. The significance of this article lies in the integration of the extant literature on commitment and the development of a conceptualmodel of workplace commitment and related propositions derived from theliterature. The article discusses interventions that can be used by humanresource development (HRD) researchers and practitioners to improveorganizational performance by developing workplace commitment in theorganization.  Keywords: workplace commitment; organizational commitment; performanceimprovement  Performance improvement in an organization goes beyond the commonlyaccepted principles of good management and effective leadership by engagingthe emotional commitment of the employee (Katzenbach, 2000). Commitmentis the differentiating factor between top-performing companies and those of average performance (Katzenbach, 2000). Emotionally engaged employees  at FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIV on July 27, 2013hrd.sagepub.comDownloaded from   are more productive and customer-focused (Callahan, 1998). High levels of employee commitment are positively correlated with superior financial per-formance in organizations as demonstrated by significant increases in operat-ing and net profit margins (Gallup Organizations Survey, 2002; InternationalSurvey Research, 2001; Watson Wyatt Global Consulting, 2003). Individualsand teams that are committed to the organization’s goals and values havehigher morale, lower turnover, increased job satisfaction, and increased pro-ductivity (Cohen, 2003; Meyer & Allen, 1997; Mowday, Porter, & Steers,1982). Yet, more than a third of employees worldwide admit to having lowlevels of commitment to the job or company (TNS Worldwide, 2002). Onlyone in twelve (8%) are “company-oriented” employees, predominantly com-mitted to their company (TNS Worldwide, 2002). Gallup (2002) estimates that uncommitted employees cost the U.S. economyup to $350 billion per year. Even though employee commitment has a positiveimpact on organizational and individual performance, productivity, turnover, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors; low levels of com-mitment exist in most industries (TNS Worldwide, 2002). Whereas downsizing,wage erosion, and productivity demands of recent years may have caused areduction in organizational and individual commitment, other contributingfactors may be a lack of focus by human resource development (HRD) andorganizational development (OD) practitioners to seek out and implement inter-ventions, programs, and strategies to improve organizational commitment. Problem Statement The field of industrial and organizational psychology (I/O psychology) pro-vides ample research that commitment in the workplace has demonstrated animprovement in employees’performance and ultimately the performance of theoverall organization (Katzenbach, 2000). The field ofI/O psychology iscon-cerned with human behavior in work contexts and defined as “the scientific studyof the relationship between man and the world of work” (Guion, 1965,p. 817). I/O psychology is concerned with utilizing knowledge gathered from sci-entific inquiry to solve problems in the world of work. Example problems includehiring better employees, reducing absenteeism, improving communication,increasing job satisfaction, productivity, and improved performance(Muchinsky,2002). Evident by the lack of published HRD articles around the topic of work-place commitment, HRD lags behind in constructing interventions, strategies,and practices to improve commitment in the workplace. Whereas I/O psycholo-gists have illustrated that workplace commitment leads to improved employeeand organizational performance, there is little research and understanding of howHRD practitioners can develop employees so that they are more committed totheir job and the organization. Thus there is a gap in understanding how commit-ment is to be created and supported by individuals within the organization.Because HRD’s purpose is to improve organizational performance throughincreased productivity, efficient work processes, and individual contributions 340Human Resource Development Review / September 2008  at FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIV on July 27, 2013hrd.sagepub.comDownloaded from 
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