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216632_216621_LBM 1 SKN SGD 13.docx

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  LBM 1 Step 1 1.   Outbreak Peningkatan insidensi kasus yg melebihi ekspektasi normal secara mendadak pada suatu komunitas di suatu tempat terbatas pada suatu periode waktu tertentu. 2.   Natural history Perkembangan suatu penyakit tanpa campur tangan medis atau intervensi lainnya dg maksud melihat perkembangan penyakit secara alamiah. 3.   Incidence rate Frekuensi penyakit atau kasus baru yang berjangkit dalam masyarakat di suatu tempat atau wilayah pada waktu tertentu. 4.   Epidemiologi Ilmu tentang terjadinya dan penyebaran suatu masalah kesehatan dan faktor yg mempengaruh dan upaya penanggulangannya Step 2 1.   What is the concept of epidemiology ? 2.   What are the classification of epidemiology ? 3.   What are the factors of epidemiology ? 4.   How to get source of data from epidemiologycal study ? 5.   What is the benefit of epidemiology ? 6.   What are different between outbreak,KLB, endemic, pandemic and epidemic? 7.   What are the factor of outbreak ? 8.   What are the causes of outbreak ? 9.   What are the criteria of outbreak ? 10.   What kind of prevention of outbreak ? 11.   What is step of natural history dissease ? Step 3 1.   What is the concept of epidemiology ? There is 3 : -   Benda mati (fomite ) : benda yang dapat menularkan penyakit. -   Vektor : organism that bring the dissease from one people to another -   Reservoir : like human, animals or plant that a place organism to grow 2.   What are the classification of epidemiology ? Descriptive epidemiology Analytical epidemiology -   Descriptive of dissease is describe in terms of 3 mayor variables : people, place and -   Same the descriptive but also describe the “why”  -   Pengumpulan, pengolahan dan  time -   The various characteristic needen to qualify the question : who,when,where -   Not to test the hypitheses -   Pengumpulan, pengolahan dan penyajian hanya dilakukan pada suatu kelompok penyajian serta interpretasi data dilakukan terhadap 2 kelompok masyarakat -   Can test the hypotheses Component epidemiologi -   Frekuensi : menemukan besar masalah -   Determinan : mencakup analitik epidemiologi meliputi uji hipotesa kemudian menarik kesimpulan -   Distribusi : penyebaran dari penyakit 3.   What are the factors of epidemiology ? 1.   Herd imunity 2.   Pathogenecity : kemampuan organisme menimbulkan penyakit 3.   Lingkungan yang buruk -   Agent : nutrition   vitamin, chemistry   pewarna pengawet, phisyc   radiasi, trauma, biology   microorganism    Primary causes : nutrition   vitamin, chemistry   pewarna pengawet, phisyc   radiasi, trauma, biology   microorganism    Secondary causes : risk factor -   Host : genetic , age, sex, imunology, physiologi    Definitif host : human    Intermediate host : vector -   Environment : physic   iklim, geografis   pantai dan pegunungan dan demografis, biology, social   migration, disaster, flood    Ketidakseimbangan ketiga komponen dapat menyebabkan masalah kesehatan 4.   How to get source of data from epidemiologycal study ? -   Data kependudukan    Sensus : 10th sekali, kita mendatangi di daerah    Survey -   Kelahiran dan kematian : pencatatan akta kelahiran dan surat keterangan meninggal -   Data kesakitan: di rumah sakit, praktek umum dan dari penelitian -   Data lainnya   penelitian tergantung dari kebutuhan    Data primer : langsung   sensus, survey    Data sekunder : dari penelitian sebelumnya 5.   What is the benefit of epidemiology ? -   Historycal study of the health of the community,we can monitor the raise and fall of dissease in the population, -   For community diagnosis   monitoring nature and distribution of health -   To study and working of health services : monitoring service, perlakuan  -   To estimate the individual chances and risk of dissease -   To help complite the clinical picture by relating clinical dissease to the subclinical, by observing secular changes in the character of dissease and its pictures in other countries -   Identyfyng syndrome for distribution of clinical phenomen among section of the population -   In the search for causes of dissease Tujuan utama : memecah rantai dari penyakitnya untuk mencegah outbreak 6.   What are different between outbreak,KLB, endemic, pandemic and epidemic?    Outbreak sama dg wabah : kejadian yg berlangsung cepat dan mendadak pada populasi sama di tahun yg sama    KLB : kejadian yg meningkat yg sebelumnya belum pernah terjadi di suatu wilayah, pernah terjadi namun tidak bermakna    Endemic : timbul suatu penyakit krn sumber tunggal, waktu sebentar    Epidemic : penyakitnya terus berlangsung pada tingkatan yg sama    Pandemic : lebih besar daripada epidemic 7.   What are the health problem of measles ? 8.   What are the causes of outbreak ? 9.   What are the criteria of outbreak ? 10.   What kind of prevention of outbreak ? 11.   What is step of natural history dissease and give example about preventive and promotive action for measles ? 12.   What do you know about comunicable dissease epidemiology ?
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