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22288781 a SEMINAR REPORT on Third Generation Wireless Technology

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History 1G (First Generation) The 1G period began in the late 1970s and lasted through the 1980s. These systems featured the first true mobile phone systems, known at first as cellular mobile radio telephone. These networks used analog voice signaling, and were little more sophisticated than the repeater networks used by amateur radio operators. 2G (Second Generation) The 2G phase began in the 1990s and much of this technology is still in use. The 2G cell phone features digital voice encodin
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    History  1G (First Generation) The 1G period began in the late 1970s and lasted through the 1980s. Thesesystems featured the first true mobile phone systems, known at first as cellular mobile radio telephone. These networks used analog voicesignaling, and were little more sophisticated than the repeater networks used by amateur radio operators. 2G (Second Generation) The 2G phase began in the 1990s and much of this technology is still in use.The 2G cell phone features digital voice encoding. Examples include CDMAand GSM. Since its inception, 2G technology has steadily improved, withincreased bandwidth, packet routing, and the introduction of multimedia.3G includes capabilities and features such as:Enhanced multimedia (voice, data, video, and remote control ).Usability on all popular modes (cellular telephone, e-mail, paging, fax, videoconferencing, and Web browsing).Broad bandwidth and high speed (upwards of 2 Mbps).Roaming capability throughout Europe, Japan, and North America.While 3G is generally considered applicable mainly to mobile wireless, it isalso relevant to fixed wireless and portable wireless. A 3G system should beoperational from any location on, or over, the earth's surface, including usein homes, businesses, government offices, medical establishments, themilitary, personal and commercial land vehicles, private and commercialwatercraft and marine craft, private and commercial aircraft (except where passenger use restrictions apply), portable (pedestrians, hikers, cyclists,campers), and space stations and spacecraft.3G offers the potential to keep people connected at all times and in all places. Researchers, engineers, and marketers are faced with the challenge of accurately predicting how much technology consumers will actually bewilling to pay for. Another challenge faced by 3G services is competition  from other high-speed wireless technologies, especially mobile WiMAX,and ability to roam between different kinds of wireless networks. Speed The ITU has not provided a clear definition of the speeds users can expectfrom 3G equipment or providers. Thus users sold 3G service may not beable to point to a standard and say that the speeds it specifies are not beingmet. While stating in commentary that it is expected that IMT-2000 will provide higher transmission rates: a minimum speed of 2Mbit/s andmaximum of 14.4Mbit/s for stationary users, and 348 kbit/s in a movingvehicle, [3] the ITU does not actually clearly specify minimum or averagespeeds or what modes of the interfaces qualify as 3G, so various speeds aresold as 3G intended to meet customers expectations of broadband speed. It isoften suggested by industry sources that 3G can be expected to provide 384kbit/s at or below pedestrian speeds, but only 128 kbit/s in a moving car.While EDGE is part of the 3G standard, some phones report EDGE and 3Gnetwork availability as separate things.[edit] Security3G networks offer a greater degree of security than 2G predecessors. Byallowing the UE to authenticate the network it is attaching to, the user can besure the network is the intended one and not an impersonator. 3G networksuse the KASUMI block crypto instead of the older A5/1 stream cipher.However, a number of serious weaknesses in the KASUMI cipher have beenidentified.In addition to the 3G network infrastructure security, end to end security isoffered when application frameworks such as IMS are accessed, althoughthis is not strictly a 3G property.3G TechnologyHere is a simple introduction to some aspects of 3G radio transmissiontechnologies (RTTs). You will find the subjects covered in this sectionuseful if you later consider the more detailed discussions in the sections on3G Standards and 3G Spectrum.  Simplex vs. DuplexWhen people use walkie-talkie radios to communicate, only one person cantalk at a time (the person doing the talking has to press a button). This is because walkie-talkie radios only use one communication frequency - a formof communication known as simplex:Simplex: Using a walkie-talkie you have to push a button to talk one-way.Of course, this is not how mobile phones work. Mobile phones allowsimultaneous two-way transfer of data - a situation known as duplex (if morethan two data streams can be transmitted, it is called multiplex):Duplex: Allows simultaneous two-way data transfers.The communication channel from the base station to the mobile device iscalled the downlink, and the communication from the mobile device back tothe base station is called the uplink. How can duplex communication beachieved? Well, there are two possible methods which we will nowconsider: TDD and FDD.TDD vs. FDDWireless duplexing has been traditionally implemented by dedicating twoseparate frequency bands: one band for the uplink and one band for thedownlink (this arrangement of frequency bands is called paired spectrum).
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