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4 th Grade Science Unit: 4.PS.2a Exploring Heat Energy Unit Snapshot

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4 th Grade Science Unit: 4.PS.2a Exploring Heat Energy Unit Snapshot Topic: Electricity, Heat and Matter Duration: Grade Level: 4 15 Days Summary The following activities allow students to develop the
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4 th Grade Science Unit: 4.PS.2a Exploring Heat Energy Unit Snapshot Topic: Electricity, Heat and Matter Duration: Grade Level: 4 15 Days Summary The following activities allow students to develop the conceptual understanding that energy transfers from hot objects to cold objects as heat, resulting in a temperature change. Clear Learning Targets I can statements observe situations, conduct demonstrations and record data about the energy transfer from hot objects to cold objects as heat, resulting in a temperature change. make predictions about the heat conductivity of different materials. Activity Highlights and Suggested Timeframe Days 1-2 Days 3-6 Days 7-10 Days Day 13 (and on-going) Days Engagement: Students will be pre-assessed on knowledge of heat and conduction. Students will use a piece of paper to experience heat transfer and apply their understanding of heat transfer by melting an ice cube in the fastest way possible. Students will be introduced to the vocabulary: heat, conduction, energy transfer and temperature. Exploration: Part 1: Students are examining the concept of heat transfer from hotter to colder objects through a series of 4 stations. Part 2: Students are comparing the materials metal, wood and plastic to determine which materials are good conductors and which are good insulators. Explanation: Part 1: The purpose of the research is to help solidify conceptual understanding of heat related concepts. Students will research 6 topics and draw and label a diagram or picture to illustrate each concept. Part 2: The purpose of the True or False statements is to help students dispel common misconceptions in student understanding. Students must determine if the statements are true or false and must provide reasoning for their selection. Internet, text, or other resources can be used to provide evidence. Elaboration: A chain note is an assessment strategy that provides an opportunity for students to examine others' ideas and compare them to their own thinking. In the process of examining others' ideas, students build upon them or add new ideas of their own. This activity promotes synthesis and evaluation. Evaluation: Conduct formative and summative assessments of student understanding of concepts related to energy transfer from hot objects to cold objects as heat, resulting in a temperature change. Results from the formative assessments should inform the teacher of instructional planning and decisionmaking. A teacher created short cycle assessment should be administered at the end of the unit to assess all learning targets. Extension/Intervention: Based on the results short-cycle assessment, facilitate extension and/or intervention activities. 1 LESSON PLANS NEW LEARNING STANDARDS: 4.PS.2 Energy can be transformed from one form to another or can be transformed from one location to another. Energy Transfers from hot objects to cold objects as heat, resulting in a temperature change. CONTENT ELABORATION: (as stated in Ohio s New Learning Standards for Science The addition of heat may increase the temperature of an object. The removal of heat may decrease the temperature of an object. There are materials in which the entire object becomes hot when one part of the object is heated (e.g., in a metal pan, heat flows through the pan on the stove transferring the heat from the burner outside the pan to the food in the pan). There are other objects in which parts of the object remain cool even when another part of the object is heated (e.g., in a Styrofoam cup, very little of the warmth from the hot liquid inside the cup is transferred to the hand holding the cup). Note 1: Exploring heat transfer in terms of moving submicroscopic particles is not appropriate at this grade level. Note 2: The word heat is used loosely in everyday language, yet it has a very specific scientific meaning. Usually what is called heat is actually thermal or radiant energy. An object has thermal energy due to the random movement of the particles that make up the object. Radiant energy is that which is given off by objects through space (e.g., warmth from a fire, solar energy from the sun). Heating is used to describe the transfer of thermal or radiant energy to another object or place. Differentiating between these concepts is inappropriate at this grade level. This document uses the same conventions as noted in the NAEP 2009 Science Framework (see page 29) where heat is used in lower grades. However, the word heat has been used with care so it refers to a transfer of thermal or radiant energy. The concept of thermal energy, as it relates to particle motion, is introduced in grade 6. SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY and APPLICATION PRACTICES: During the years of grades K-12, all students must use the following scientific inquiry and application practices with appropriate laboratory safety techniques to construct their knowledge and understanding in all science content areas: Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering) that guide scientific investigations Developing descriptions, models, explanations and predictions Planning and carrying out investigations Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering)that conclude scientific investigations Using appropriate mathematics, tools, and techniques to gather data/information, and analyze and interpret data Engaging in argument from evidence Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating scientific procedures and explanations *These practices are a combination of ODE Science Inquiry and Application and Frame-work for K-12 Science Education Scientific and Engineering Practices. COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS for LITERACY in SCIENCE: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RIT.4.7: Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions with diverse partners on grade topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly. CCSS.ELSA-Literacy.W.9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. *For more information: 2 STUDENT KNOWLEDGE: Prior Concepts PreK-2: Temperature is a property of objects. Sunlight affects the warming or cooling of air, water and land (ESS). Charged objects can attract uncharged objects and may either attract or repel other charged objects. Magnetic objects can attract things made of iron and may either attract or repel other magnetic objects. Grade 3: Objects that have energy can cause change. Heat, electrical energy, light, sound, and magnetic energy are all forms of energy. Future Application of Concepts Grade 5: Light and sound are explored further as forms of energy. Grades 6-8: Thermal energy is related to the atomic theory. Kinetic and potential energy are two ways objects can store energy. Conservation of energy and energy transfer through radiation, convection and conduction, and the transfer of electrical energy in circuits are introduced. MATERIALS: Engage Science journals Pre-Assessment: 1 sticky note per student; Part 1: one ice cube in a zip sealed bag per group (each cube should be the same size); Part 2: 1 cold penny for each student Explore Part 1: Lab sheet, Ouch Its Hot! science journals Station #1: Hot water in a plastic cup surrounded by a sheet of aluminum foil Station #2: A metal spoon in a cup of hot (not boiling) water Station #3: Hot water in a plastic bag laying on the desk top Station #4: Hot water in a plastic cup with a craft stick Part 2: (per group) bowl of hot water, metal butter knife, plastic knife, wooden craft stick, 3 pats of butter, 3 sugar cubes, timer, lab sheet Butter Fingers Explain Part 1: Copy attached student worksheets, Heat Research Questions -Access to research materials such as text resources, picture books, videos and the internet Part 2: True or False Statements for each student -Access to research materials such as text resources, picture books, videos and the internet. Elaborate One class copy of the attached worksheet, Chain Note: What do you know about thermal energy? SAFETY VOCABULARY: Primary Conductor Energy Heat Insulator Temperature Transformation Review safety considerations when working with thermal energy: Know the locations and operating procedures of all safety equipment including the first aid kit, eyewash station, safety shower, fire extinguisher and fire blanket. Know where the fire alarm and the exits are located; Any time chemicals, heat, or glassware are used, students will wear laboratory goggles; Report any accident (spill, breakage, etc.) or injury (cut, burn, etc.) to the instructor immediately, no matter how trivial it may appear; Never leave anything that is being heated or is visibly reacting unattended. Always turn the burner or hot plate off when not in use; Heated metals and glass remain very hot for a long time. They should be set aside to cool and picked up with caution. Use tongs or heatprotective gloves if necessary. 3 ADVANCED PREPARATION Gather and organize all materials needed for the unit and copy student worksheets. Determine the best groupings of students. Some experiences may have students working in pairs or in slightly larger groups of 3 or 4. Heat is the name given to the transfer (flow of energy) from hotter to cooler objects. Temperature is used to measure the amount of heat energy. A temperature reading is the average amount of energy movement in a substance. The molecules in cold things move very slowly and the temperature smaller. The molecules in hot things move very quickly, and the temperature rises. Hot substances usually expand when heated. Teacher Background When a hot substance comes in contact with a cold substance, the heat energy will flow from hotter to colder until the objects become the same temperature. Insulators are materials that block the flow of heat, while conductors are materials that allow heat to flow easily. Sometimes students believe that insulators are really heat sources, because they seem to make things warm, or heat things up. Insulators will stop the heat from flowing, so things that are warm tend to say warm. Insulators are not a heat source. Good insulators include plastics, air, fabrics that hold air, feathers, or other similar materials. Taken from: ENGAGE (2 Days) (What will draw students into the learning? How will you determine what your students already know about the topic? What can be done at this point to identify and address misconceptions? Where can connections be made to the real world?) Objective: Students will engage in situations, conduct demonstrations and record data about the conduction of heat energy between two objects. After administering a pre-assessment, the initial demonstrations will allow students to connect the concept of heat transfer to actual experiences. Students will summarize and trace the transfer/flow of thermal energy during conduction using paper, ice and a cold penny. What is the teacher doing? Sticky Note Pre-Assessment (Day 1) See attached Engage Activity Teacher Directions. Use the provided probing questions and facilitate a discussion. Distribute sticky-notes to students. Conduction Engage Activities: Part I & 2 (Days 1-2) See attached Engage Activity Teacher Directions Distribute materials and facilitate the activities. What are the students doing? Sticky Note Pre-Assessment (Day 1) 1. Discuss the question prompts with a partner. 2. Participate in the class discussion related to the question prompts. 3. On a sticky note answer, Why do objects get warm? Conduction Engage Activities:(Days 1-2) Part I: 1. Students should be actively engaged in the teacher directions. 2. Write the definition of conduction in their science journal and an example. 3. Draw the model diagram of hands being rubbed together and a piece of paper and their face. Draw arrows to show thermal energy moving from (transferring) their hands to the paper then from the 4 EXPLORE (4 Days) (How will the concept be developed? How is this relevant to students lives? What can be done at this point to identify and address misconceptions?) paper to their face. 4. Work in a small group to determine the fastest method to melt the ice. Test the method after the signal from the teacher. 5. Draw a diagram showing the flow (transfer) of energy from the heat source to the ice (hot to cold) Part 2: 1. Students should describe in their science journal what they observe when they hold the cold penny in their hands. 2. Students should draw and label the transfer of the heat energy from their hand to the penny. 3. Record the definitions of heat and temperature in their science journal. Objective: Part 1: Students are examining the concept of heat transfer from hotter to colder objects through a series of 4 stations. Part 2: Students are comparing the materials metal, wood and plastic to determine which materials are good conductors and which are good insulators. What is the teacher doing? Ouch It s Hot! - Heat Transfer Stations (Days 3-6) Part 1 and 2: See attached Explain Activity Teacher Directions Distribute materials and facilitate the activities. Follow-up with a class discussion. What are the students doing? Ouch It s Hot! - Heat Transfer Stations (Days 3-6) Part 1: 1. Students should follow all safety precautions. 2. Students will investigate 4 stations and follow the directions and complete the attached worksheets. Students should include examples and draw a diagram for each example from the investigation. 3. Work together in small groups to write a summary in a science journal answering the following questions: What is conduction? Draw two additional real world examples showing the flow of heat energy from one object to another. Part 2: 1. Students will examine the affect that heat energy has on different materials. 2. Follow all safety precautions. 3. Follow the procedures on the student worksheet. 4. Record 2-3 observations for each material. 5. Record results and answer the questions that follow. 6. Clean lab area according to 5 teacher directions. EXPLAIN (4 Days) (What products could the students develop and share? How will students share what they have learned? What can be done at this point to identify and address misconceptions?) Objective: Part 1: The purpose of the research to help solidify conceptual understanding of heat related concepts. Students will research 6 topics and draw and label a diagram or picture to illustrate each concept. Part 2: The purpose of the True or False statements is to help students dispel common misconceptions in student understanding. Students must determine if the statements are true or false and must provide reasoning for their selection. Internet, text, or other resources can be used to provide evidence. What is the teacher doing? Heat Research (Days 7-10) Part 1: Copy and distribute the attached worksheet for each student entitled, Heat Research Questions. Using the internet, text resources, videos, picture books or other resources, allow students to research the concepts on the worksheet. Encourage students to visit interactive websites. Students are to draw a picture modeling the concepts on the second worksheet. Part 2: Copy and distribute the attached worksheet for each student entitled, True or False Statements. The worksheet contains 5 statements that are common misconceptions students have about heat energy. Students must individually, with a partner or in a small group decide whether the statement is true or false and explain/defend their selection using evidence from data, prior knowledge or other sources to analyze their selection. What are the students doing? Heat Research (Days 7-10) Part 1: 1. Complete the worksheet, Heat Research Questions using the internet, text resources, videos, picture books or other resources, research the concepts on the worksheet. Encourage students to visit interactive websites. 2. Draw and label a picture or diagram of each concept. Part 2: 1. Complete the worksheet, True or False Statements. The worksheet contains 5 statements that are common misconceptions students have about heat energy. Students must individually, with a partner or in a small group decide whether each statement is true or false and explain/defend their selection using evidence from data, prior knowledge or other sources to analyze their selection. 6 Objective: A chain note is an assessment strategy that provides an opportunity for students to examine others' ideas and compare them to their own thinking. In the process of examining others' ideas, students build upon them or add new ideas of their own. This promotes synthesis and evaluation. What is the teacher doing? Chain Note (Days 11-12) Pass around a Chain Note worksheet. This is a formative assessment strategy to determine student understanding. At the top of the worksheet is the question: What do you know about heat energy? The worksheet gets passed from student to student. Each student responds with one or two sentences related to the question and passes it on to the next students. What are the students doing? Chain Note (Days 11-12) 1. When the Chain Note is received by the student, the student should add a new thought or build upon a prior statement. Students can add facts, definitions, specific ideas, big ideas, analogies, illustrative examples and evidence from their own or class experiences to contribute to building the chain. 2. Participate in a discussion related to the chain note and give feedback on the statements made by their peers. ELABORATE (2 Days) (How will the new knowledge be reinforced, transferred to new and unique situations, or integrated with related concepts?) When students receive the paper they must add a new thought or build on a prior statement. Chain notes provide an opportunity for students to examine others ideas and compare them to their own thinking. Students can add facts, definitions, specific ideas, big ideas, analogies, illustrative examples, and evidence from their own or class experiences to contribute to building the chain. When completed, the chain notes can be read aloud or projected, allowing for students to give feedback on the statements made by their peers. Students should discuss whether they agree or disagree with the statements and defend their reasoning. This will also help to determine what misconceptions are still occurring. 7 EVALUATE (on-going) (What opportunities will students have to express their thinking? When will students reflect on what they have learned? How will you measure learning as it occurs? What evidence of student learning will you be looking for and/or collecting?) EXTENSION/ INTERVENTION (2 days or as needed) Objective: To conduct formative and summative assessments of student understanding of concepts related to energy transfer from hot objects to cold objects as heat, resulting in a temperature change. Results from the formative assessments should inform the teacher of instructional planning and decision-making. Formative How will you measure learning as it occurs? 1. Consider developing a teacher created formative assessment. 2. The sticky-note pre-assessment can be used to assess prior knowledge related to heat/transfer. 3. Student knowledge and skill will be assessed through completion of student journal assignments, completed lab worksheets, and research. EXTENSION 1. Harcourt School Publishers Reading Support and Homework Ancillary, Grade 4 (Wolf on Cover): pp. RS 41A-D; This is a Take Home book that has information, activities and puzzles related to Insulation. 2. The resource, Even More Picture Perfect Science Lessons K-5, NSTA Press, Chapter 9, Harnessing the Wind lesson. Summative What evidence of learning will demonstrate to you that a student has met the learning objectives? 1. Students understanding can be assessed by completion of the Heat Assessment attached wor
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