IV.A. INVESTING IN HUMAN CAPITAL AND REFORMING AMERICAN EDUCATION HIGHLIGHTS Investments in children and young students will help members of the next generation maximize their human potential and further increase the Nation's human capital. As dis- cussed in this chapter and in Chapter IV.B., the budget includes several initiatives to assist the next generation. They are summarized below: Preparing Young Children for School ã Head Star
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  IV.A. INVESTING IN HUMAN CAPITAL AND REFORMING AMERICAN EDUCATION HIGHLIGHTS Investments in children and young students will help members of the next generation maximize their human potential and further increase the Nation's human capital. As dis-cussed in this chapter and in Chapter IV.B., the budget includes several initiatives to assist the next generation. They are summarized below: Preparing Young Children for School ã Head Start  gives poor and handicapped children a better chance to become healthy and ready for school. The budget requests an additional $100 million over the 1991 funding level. This brings the total to $2.05 billion, which will allow 633,000 youngsters to take advantage of this prov-en child development program. Head Start funding is supplemented by funding sup-port for early childhood development in the new  Child Care and Development Block Grant program. ã The  Supplemental Feeding Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)  helps low-income pregnant women and young children get the nutrition they need. Re-cent studies indicate that each dollar in-vested in WIC saves several in Medicaid spending. The budget increases WIC by $223 million, to $2.6 billion, 18 percent over 1991. ã Infant mortality  is a critical problem, par-ticularly in many large urban areas in the United States. Early and regular prenatal care reduces infant mortality, prematurity, Table A-l.  HIGHLIGHTS OF SPENDING ON EARLY CHILDHOOD, EDUCATION, AND TRAINING (Budget authority in millions of dollars) Actual 1990 Enacted 1991 Proposed 1992 Preparing young children for school: Head Start WIC Targeted infant mortality Immunizations 1,552 2,126 187 1,952 2,350 57 218 2,052 2,573 171 258 Reforming Elementary and secondary education: Proposed Educational Excellence Act (Certificate program support fund—non-add) Precollege math and science education 333 515 690 200 661 Increasing access to higher education: Pell grants Presidential achievement scholarships Guaranteed student loans 4,804 4,348 5,374 4,210 5,775 170 5,893 Improving workforce skills: Job Training Partnership Act adult initiative 1 Adult education 1,070 193 1,088 241 1,088 251 Total 14,613 16,005 19,582 1  Amounts for 1990 and 1991 are estimates of activity in those years comparable to the 1992 initiative. Part Two-3 1992  Part Two-4 THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 1992 and low birth-weight. To address this problem, the budget includes a new $171 million initiative for prevention activities targeted to the 10 cities with the highest infant mortality rates. Federal support for infant mortality prevention will increase by $676 million, 9 percent over 1991. ã Immunizations  help assure that children will not fall victim to many contagious dis-eases. The budget would increase Federal support for categorical immunization grants by $40 million, an 18.2 percent in-crease over the 1991 enacted level. Reforming Elementary and Secondary Education ã Encouraging excellence in education . Re-form of the education system will insure that the Nation's children are better pre-pared to enter adult life. The budget in-cludes $690 million for a new Educational Excellence Act to support bold new ini-tiatives by States and localities to reform and improve American education. ã Expanding opportunities for educational choice  is one element of the Educational Excellence Act that will make schools more responsive and stimulate improve-ments in educational performance. The proposed Act broadens opportunities for educational choice through a new $200 million educational certificate support fund, to encourage State and local efforts to expand parental choice in education. ã Improving mathematics and science edu-cation  is a key to maintaining the Nation's competitive edge in the rapidly changing world economy. The budget proposes to in-vest $1.9 billion in math and science edu-cation, which includes $661 million, a 28 percent increase over 1991, for precollege level activities. Increasing Access to Higher Education ã Pell grants  increase opportunities for stu-dents from low-income families to attend college. The Administration's proposals for the reauthorization of the Higher Edu-cation Act shift more of the Pell grant aid to the lowest income students to encourage and enable them to pursue postsecondary study. ã For the first time, the budget includes supplementary awards for Pell grant re-cipients tied to academic achievement. These  Presidential Achievement Scholar-ships  ($170 million) will be given to out-standing low-income students (Pell grant recipients) based on superior high school and college performance. ã In response to mushrooming default costs, weaknesses in the guarantee structure, and management problems, the Adminis-tration is overhauling program manage-ment and proposing a range of legislative improvements to restore integrity to the guaranteed student loan  program, to re-duce administrative costs, and to reduce government risk. Improving Workforce Skills ã The  Job Training Partnership Act  (JTPA) provides services to improve the skills of adults and make them more employable. The budget includes $1.1 billion for a new, better targeted JTPA program that will provide basic skills and occupational train-ing, job placement, and support services to more than 400,000 severely dis-advantaged adults. ã Improving the  literacy  skills of adults is essential for America to remain competi-tive internationally and to increase pro-ductivity. The budget provides $286 mil-lion for Department of Education literacy activities, including $251 million for pro-grams in the Adult Education Act. THE STATE OF EDUCATION TODAY There is near universal agreement that the educational system in this country, as pres-ently organized and operated, is failing to produce a sufficient number of graduates pre-pared to meet the demands of the changing workplace. The signs of trouble abound: ã The SAT scores of college bound seniors in 1990 remain a full 50 points below the scores of college bound seniors 20 years earlier. ã Results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) indicate that too many American students read only at a surface level, getting the gist of material 1992  IV.A. INVESTING IN HUMAN CAPITAL AND REFORMING AMERICAN EDUCATION Part Two-5 EDUCATION SPENDING RISES BUT ACHIEVEMENT STAYS LEVEL (A 2 o o c/> CO CO £ o c o 1.5 1- 4> CO CO < 04 S THOUSANDS -4.4 COSTS  PER  PUPIL READING SCORES MAJHSCORES SCI  ENCE  SCORES COSTS PER PUPIL (RIGHT SCALE) READING, SCIENCE, AND MATH SCORES (LEFT SCALE) (1970-71) i i i (74-76) i i i i (79-80) SCHOOL YEARS i i i i (83-84) -4 ã 3.6 ã   -3.2 IZ t. c e  ã |H =5 k.8 s 88« 2.4 89) without developing a deeper understand-ing of textual material; do not commu-nicate effectively in writing; do not grasp the four basic arithmetic operations in ele-mentary and junior high school; lack the specialized knowledge needed to address science-based problems; and do not under-stand the context or significance of events that have shaped American history. 1 ã Results from the Second International Mathematics Study, which obtained achievement test results from eighth-grad-ers in 20 countries and from students in their final year of high school in 15 coun-tries, showed that U.S. students performed poorly in every grade and in every aspect of mathematics tested. 2 These results may reflect the many dif-ferences between the school policies in the U.S. and those of other industrialized nations. For 1  The National Assessment of Educational Progress, Accelerating Academic Achievement: A Summary of Findings from 20 Years of NAEP, September 1990. 2  Cited in Linn and Dunbar, The Nation's Report Card Goes Home: Good News and Bad About Trends in Achievement, in  Phi Delta Kappa October 1990. example, the typical American school year is short, a remnant of a 19th century agrarian past: 180 days of instruction, beginning in Sep-tember and ending in June. By contrast, the Japanese Ministry of Education (which sets the minimum for all schools) requires 210 days of instruction; local Japanese school systems add, on average, another 30 days. West Ger-man schools are in session for 226-240 days; those in South Korea, for 220 days. The United Kingdom, France, Finland, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands all have school years that are longer than in the U.S. 3  High school students in other industrialized nations often spend 8 hours a day in class, while American students typically spend only 6 hours. By ninth grade, more than 47 percent of Japanese students re-ceive an additional 5 hours of instruction per week outside the regular school day. Moreover, recent studies have shown that, on average, American students do not work very hard. In a study of the educational experi-ences of a nationally representative sample of 3  Cited in Michael J. Barrett, The Case for More School Days, th e  tlantic  Monthly November 1990. 1992  Part Two-6 THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 1992 eighth graders, one out of five students re-ported they usually or often do no homework; almost half reported they are bored at school. 4 NAEP found that 56 percent of 12th graders reported reading 10 or fewer pages a day for all curriculum areas and that 71 percent spent an hour a day or less on homework. Educational achievement is not simply a re-sult of what students learn in school; home support and parental involvement is essential. Watching television has become an important pastime for most American families, so much so that students spend nearly as much time watching television each week as they do in school. In 1989, public high school students spent, on average, 25.7 hours in class per week, while children ages 12 to 17 spent an average of 22 hours each week watching tele-vision. Younger children spent even more time watching TV, with children ages 2 to 5 watch-ing nearly 26 hours each week. This pattern has obvious and disturbing implications for the Nation's educational performance that are con-firmed by NAEP findings which show that stu-dents who watched an average of 6 or more hours of television each day performed consid-erably below their peers who reported less TV viewing. The existence of these problems has not dulled public support for education. Each year, public expenditures per pupil rise, while gains in achievement do not, as the chart on edu-cation spending illustrates. THE NATION RESPONDS Report after report has documented the failings of the education system, beginning with  A Nation At Risk  published in 1983. Groups from all parts of American society— parents and teachers, the business community, public officials at every level of government— are calling for change. Signs that the system is beginning to respond can be found in com-munities throughout the country. States, which today provide more than half the funding for public education, are undertak-ing a variety of interesting reforms. Some ex-amples of State activities include: 4  Data from the National Center for Education Statistics's Na-tional Educational Longitudinal Survey of 8th graders. ã Missouri s  Parents as Teachers program, which is being replicated in many States, aims to educate parents to stimulate their preschool children's intellectual develop-ment. The program begins with prenatal training, includes home visits, periodic screening of the children, and group meet-ings of parents and community-based advi-sory committees. ã New Jersey  has been a pioneer in the use of alternative certification of principals and teachers, in order to utilize in edu-cation the skills and knowledge of individ-uals who have pursued other careers. ã At least seven States, led by  Minnesota, have passed laws allowing interdistrict choice, which enables students to attend the public school of their choice outside their own districts. ã Connecticut and South Carolina  are two States that have adopted comprehensive education reforms, including revamped curricula to emphasize the mastery of more demanding skills by children in all grades and augmented training for teach-ers and administrators. ã Schools for the 21st century is the State of  Washington s  6-year pilot grant program designed to determine whether increasing local decisionmaking authority will produce more effective learning. ã Tennessee, Arizona, Utah, and California are some of the States that have adopted career ladder programs which encourage teachers to take on new and different roles and to receive compensation tied to those differentiated roles. ã Kentucky  is completely revising the way its schools are funded. At the same time the State is restructuring the curriculum, establishing performance goals for elemen-tary and secondary education, and adopt-ing measures for determining whether those goals have been met. Individual school systems are also seeking ways to engage students in learning, to keep them in school, to improve their performance, and to encourage and expand parental involve-ment in education. Some systems, such as Dade County (Miami), Florida and Rochester, 1992


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Jul 26, 2017
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