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A 32-volume work on The Origin of Sciences and Civilization in China

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I have accumulated and analyzed primary unearthed materials on marked and symbolized objects from over four hundreds of Pre-Qin sites in China, while learning from the advances in the Western archaeology and anthropology. I have classified all the
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  A 32-volume work on The Origin of Sciences and Civilization in China   40 ears of human cognition-artifact coevolution research in m lifeSince the !"#0s when $ studied the %eriodic law of the develo%ment of sciences in writing m &ew Agricultural 'evolution( $ have resolved to devote m life tothe research on the srcin of science and civilization in China) *% to now( $ have +een striving %erseveringl for realizing this ideal without an regret or +lame) ,h $) .ackgrounds /egel in his hiloso%h of /istor concludes1 $f we com%are these kingdoms in the light of their various fates( we find the em%ire of the two Chinese river +asins the onl dura+le kingdoms in the world) ,h and how did the Chineseculture cultivate the onl dura+le civilization in the world These have +een long-standing( huge and arduous uestions( while Chinese have +een searchingfor answers( the academic circles at all times and all over the world have +een %uzzled + them) 5ven modern academic masters still em%hasize these uestions) 6or e7am%le( &eedham asks1 wh did the Chinese take a leading %osition in the science and technolog in the ancient world Su .ing-i summarizes the Chinese historic studies into his two themes1 how did the evolution of Chinese culture and civilization kee% their continuit and how did Chinese %eo%le form a unified multi-ethnic nation8Since the source of Chinese civilization has 9ust traced to late Shang :nast ;!300 .)C)< with the unearthed oracle +one inscri%tions rather than the legendar =ellow 5m%eror 5ra ;3000 .)C)<( the %eo%le>s thirst for solving these uestions is getting urgent) As a result( ,ang ,ei( director of the $nstitute of Archeolog of Chinese Academ of Social Sciences( %oints out( it is a critical task for the Chinese nation to continue to write its genealog) All the uestions in searching the roots of their culture and e7%loring the srcin of their sciences and civilization have +een left unsolved in front of the Chinese %eo%le for more than 2?00 ears) ,h This is +ecause of the lack of sstematic studies of the unearthed materials from all the im%ortant e7cavated sites over the countr)To fill these ga%s( $ have accumulated and analzed %rimar unearthed materials on marked and sm+olized o+9ects from over four hundreds of %re-@in sites in China( while learning from the advances in the ,estern archeologand anthro%olog) $ have classified all the o+9ects into four ma9or categories and twent-eight su+categories and constructed their genealogies for tracing the evolutional %rocess of each of them) Their genealogies can +e used( as evidence chains in com%arison with homologs of the cultures of the rest of world in the same %eriod( to trace the evolution of ancient Chinese cognitive a+ilities in the relevant scientific and civilization fields) The results of these 1  studies are %resented in a work of 32 volumes totall titled The Origin of Chinese Sciences and Civilization ) Ⅱ ) $ntroduction Bust like Charles :arwin>s tracing the evolution of organisms from srcinal to highest + sstematizing %aleontological materials( this work traces the co-evolution of various artifacts and artificial sm+ols attached to them from the sim%lest o+servation of the natural %henomena to the ancient China>s four great inventions + sstematizing the unearthed materials) $ts data+ase has accumulated so man materials that the worldwide a%%lication of the cross-cultural com%arative method +ecame %ossi+le and at the same time indis%ensa+le for verifing the uniue continuit of Chinese cultural evolution).ased on this data+ase( more and more the ga%s in the %re-@in record have +een filled u%( com%elling us to acknowledge the striking %arallelism +etween the historical seuence of the evolutionar %rocess of ancient Chinese cognitivea+ilit and the logical seuence in which Shang %eo%le thought with the oracle +one inscri%tions( 9ust as the evolution of an organism in %aleontolog is related to its develo%ment in em+rolog) As the information %rocessing means in ancient China( the counting items( the num+ers and the numeral grou%s( and the %ictogra%hic characters indicted three ma9or ccles of this %rocess going on continuousl through a million ears( each %roceeding along the logic of the develo%ment of human thought from concrete to a+stract and vice versa1!) $n the first ccle from the vague sense of num+ers - concrete counting - a+stract counting( ca) ! million ears ago  !00(000  20(000 .)C)( along with the develo%ment of lunar counting +ased lunar %hasing( there a%%eared a %roto-science( advance of concrete to a+stract counting and Chinese numerals)2) $n the second ccle from a+stract counting - concrete lore of %roto-sciences- %hiloso%hic a+stracting( ca) 20(000  D(000  #00 .)C)( with odd or even numerals +eing com+ined into numeral grou%s to re%resent the four directions and the four cardinal %oints through eight %eriod %oints of a solar ear( the eight trigrams and si7t-four he7agrams arose( and with them numeral grou%s were used as %roto-writings in formulating and transmitting astronomical( handicraft( agricultural and other techniues of =i-lore) . a%%ling and advancing =i-lore( more and more clan collective coo%eration started and develo%ed their civilization) ,ith the growth of Chinese civilization from elementar to mature during 2(E00-!(000 .)C)( numeral grou%s turned into %ictogra%hic characters and =i-lore was graduall deified and %hiloso%hized)3) $n the third ccle from =i-%hiloso%hic a+straction  concrete disci%lines of Chinese traditional science( ca) #00 .)C)  !(#00 A):)( with further transforming of numeral grou%s into in-ang sm+olic grou%s and the increasing a%%lications of =i-classic( =i-lore and +ronze civilization were converted into traditional science and civilization +ased on ironware and then their evolution finall stagnated in the late feudal societ) 2  As the main %roduct of a+stract counting evolution under the freuentl occurring disaster conditions of continental monsoon climate( the emergence of numeral grou%s in the earl &eolithic %eriod( ca) D(000-?(000 .)C)( constitute a monumental turning %oint) The %rovided a %eculiar manner of writing( of arithmetic( of seasoning and accounts) . using them in their a%%lication and develo%ment of =i-lore( Chinese ancestors created and %racticed an organic mode of thinking( including the induction from oddFeven dichotom to eight trigrams as its =i-lore %aradigm( for their learning to o+serve and reconstruct nature) Although it was their +rilliant intuition( under the domination of such amode of thinking their struggles for survival as a whole could o+9ectivel ada%tto the most general laws of develo%ment of nature( human societ and thought itself) Thus( with the accumulation of innumera+le clans> e7%eriences and new innovations within the framework of this %aradigm( the could continuousl make various inventions and then take a leading %osition in the science and technolog in the ancient world so that their civilization +ecame the most sustaina+le one) 6ollowing the %rinci%le of unit of o%%osites ;=inF=ang< as the core of this mode of thinking( the overcame over and over again risks of destroing each other and united increasingl wide multi-ethnic tri+es into a kingdom with the +iggest %o%ulation in the world) Ⅲ   The first D volumes of this work After the drafts of the thirt-two volumes were almost finished( $ com%leted the manuscri%ts of Chinese versions of the first eight volumes of this work) TheChinese versions of its first two volumes have +een %u+lished) Their titles are1 Golume ! 57%loring the Origin of Chinese Science1 The Hillion-=ear /istor of the Co-evolution of /uman Culture And S%herical ArtifactsGolume 2The Origin of Chinese Sciences of the /eavens1 The One /undred Thousand-ear /istor of the Co-evolution of /uman Culture and Astronomical $nstruments Golume 3The 6our Ireat $nventions of *%%er alaeolithic China1 The Twent-thousand =ear /istor of *%%er alaeolithic Chinese roto-ScienceGolume 4The &ew Honogenesis of Ancient ,riting Sstems in the ,orld1 The Ten-thousand =ear /istor of the 5volution of &umeral Irou%s Golume ?The Origin of =in-=ang Cosmolog and 5ight Trigrams1 6u Ji =i-lore and the 5arl eriod of the .eginning Stage of Chinese Civilization Golume EThe Origin of Chinese Agronom and Hedicine1 Shen &ong =i-lore and the Kate eriod of the .eginning Stage of Chinese CivilizationGolume # The Origin of the 6ive-%hase Ccling Theor1 /uang :i =i-lore and the 5arl eriod of the 5lementar Stage of 3   Chinese CivilizationGolume D The Transformation of rehistorical =i-lore $nto ,ritten =i-Classics1 6ive 5m%erors-Tree :nasties and Transforming from 5lementar to Hature of Chinese Civilization Ⅳ  ) :ifferences from the %re-@in research %ro9ects occurred so far *nlike the %re-@in research %ro9ects su%%orted officiall in mainland China(m research has inde%endentl concentrated on tracing the human cognition and culture co-evolution in China) There are main differences +etween them asfollows1 !) &ew research o+9ect1 it is different from their focus on the material cultural heritage that the main o+9ect of m research is the s%iritual cultural heritage( es%eciall the marked and sm+olized materials from re-@in sites-- artificial memor sstems left + ancient %eo%le for their remem+ering)2) &ew research fields1 in contrast to the studies of the histor of Chinese thought %u+lished in China so far that were almost a+out individual thinkers> ideologies( the main task of this work is to trace the whole evolutionar %rocessof ancient Chinese cognitive a+ilities)3) &ew research sco%e1 the studies of the histor of Chinese sciences occurredso far( including &eedham>s Science and Civilization in China( dealt with tracing the evolution of scientific thought to the earliest te7tual source( at the +est( to oracle +one inscri%tionsL whereas an aim of m research is to trace this %rocess to its earliest srcin + tracking Chinese ancestors> counting and lunar %hasing relies to aleolithic antiuit) 4) &ew research method1 in addition to the regular method and the dual evidence method( which are commonl used in current studies of Chinese histor( the co-evolution research method has +een used in this work>s multidisci%linar analses of non-writing materials to achieve adeuate verification of h%otheses) As %roven in .iolog( a co-evolution stud has an efficient and more accurate verification function than a user-defined verification)  Ⅴ  ) 57%erts> comments:r) ,ang 'usong( an academician of Chinese Academ of 5ngineering and senior research fellow of 'esearch Center for 5co-5nvironmental Sciences of Academia Sinica( wrote in his recommend1 :eng>s work %rovided overwhelming and sstematical evidence for the whole %rocess of co-evolution of human cognition and culture going continuousl on through a million of ears in China) The +reakthrough contri+utions of his work to the su+stantial knowledge and understanding of our human>s most dura+le civilization can +e summed u% in three %oints1;!< /e conducted the %ositive research on the srcin of science and civilization in China for the first time with his %roof that all cardinal roots and +asic elements of Chinese traditional culture and civilization( including their material relics such as neoliths( %otter( agriculture( medicine( 9ades( cities( 4  states( +ronze( etc)( and their s%iritual relics such as counting-rods( counting-+oards( a+acus( calendars( eight trigrams and si7t-four he7agrams( =in-=ang cosmolog( five-%hase ccling theor( religion( =i-classics( =i-%hiloso%h( etc)( are the %roducts of this %rocess) ;2< /e has verified and returned the old legendar Chinese chronolog recorded in the e7tant transmitted te7ts into the true histor for the first time with tracing the evolution of numeral grou%s into %ictogra%hic characters( %articularl + using the series of %re-Shang writings of succession from numeral grou%s to oracle +one inscri%tions found in this tracing) ;3< /e has not onl given serious answers to &eedham>s uestions +ut also continued and develo%ed his course to go far +ack +eond his vision with tracking +ack the whole %rocess of Chinese scientific thought to aleolithic antiuit) :r) Mhang Buzhong( archaeologist and %rofessor of :e%artment of Archaeologin Chinese Scio-Tech *niversit( wrote in his recommend1 :eng>s work sstemized a vast amount of archaeologicall e7cavated material and ancient literature materials( including relevant materials from ,est and the other continents( o%ening u% a new and international field of vision of the histor of sciences and civilization) $ +elieve the %u+lication of his work will have the e7treme interest within academic communities and %la a %ositive role in develo%ing the research on the histor of +oth Chinese civilization and 5asternsciences in de%th):r) :enise Schmandt-.essrat( archaeologist and %rofessor of the :e%artment of Archaeolog at *niversit of Te7as( %ointed out1 $ had great %leasure in reading the manuscri%t which ver clearl stated the theories and methodologies of great academic im%ortance and ma9or %ioneering significance for e7%loring the evolutionar %rocesses of various t%es of artifacts) G$) A+out the author ,ith degrees from *niversit of /u+ei and Sichuan Academ of AgriculturalSciences( $ was a senior research fellow of Chinese Academ of Social Sciences and visiting %rofessor of the *niversit of Al+erta( conducted a series of multidisci%linar studies of 5co-econom( Scio-Tech econom( Scio-Tech %hiloso%h and Scio-Tech histor( and %u+lished ten +ooks and more than one hundred fift %a%ers in Chinese and 5nglish)G$$) Ask for hel% So far without an su%%ort( it is hard for m research to kee% u% so that $ am longing for funding aids( academic su%%ort( and colla+oration( information e7changes for com%leting the writing and %u+lication of this work)/onghai :eng resident of the Canada Societ of =i9ing ;the .ook of 5
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