History

A conjointly narrated European History

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T he great diversity of cultures and identities in Europe implies many challenges for the future – one of the most important of which is the task of creating a united future without stifling different memory cultures and marginalising areas of
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  NICOSIA: MEMORY, DIGNITY, DIVERSITYINDIVIDUAL LIFE SPACE AND FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION SEMINAR PAPERS HUMAN RIGHTS AS REFLECTED IN THE HISTORY OF ART 11 HUMAN RIGHTS IN PRACTICEBACK TOMAIN TEXTCONTENTSUSER GUIDE A CONJOINTLY NARRATED EUROPEAN HISTORY Kerstin Schwedes Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook ResearchGermany  VISUAL NARRATIVES OF THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADEA CONJOINTLY NARRATED EUROPEAN HISTORY‘MY GRANNY’S LIFE IS PART OF EUROPEAN HISTORY’ 1  THE ROLE OF THE ICONOGRAPHIC AND HISTORICAL PATTERNS IN THE ARTISTIC EUROPEAN PRODUCTION IMAGES AS HISTORICAL EVIDENCEINDIVIDUAL AUTONOMY AND FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION“IMAGINING THE BALKANS”“CLASH ON THE LEFT” (1928-1952) T he great diversity of cultures and identities in Europe implies many challenges for the future – one of the most important of which is the task of creating a united future without stifling different memory cultures and marginalising areas of society by excluding them as ‘the others’. ■ I n my contribution I focus on one of the main objectives of the project Shared Histories for a Europe without Dividing Lines : suggesting how to increase awareness of different interpretations of European history within a global context. ■ M y supposition is that attempting to agree on narrating a common European history in a written book – struggling to reach an agreement between represent- atives of the old member states – disregards the fact that because of migration, most of the nations in Europe are already globalised. This requires narrating an innovative European history to include most inhabitants of today’s Europe.   3 Firstly, I will therefore concentrate on the subject of European identity and attempts to strengthen it by publicising a written History of Europe. 3 Secondly, a small exemplary study shows how the concept of some of the social ‘others’ in one of the core member states is still built up. Relating to the item Gastarbeiter  , visual images of the past are still repeated in some of today’s German textbooks. 3 Finally, I would like to draw attention to a research project called EurViews of the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research. Its collection of critically commented sources may also be deployed for creating additional teaching materials that allows concepts and interpretations of Europe and Europeanness conveyed in textbooks worldwide during the 20th and 21st centuries to be put side by side.    A CONJOINTLY NARRATED EUROPEAN HISTORY 33  NICOSIA: MEMORY, DIGNITY, DIVERSITYINDIVIDUAL LIFE SPACE AND FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION SEMINAR PAPERS HUMAN RIGHTS AS REFLECTED IN THE HISTORY OF ART 11 HUMAN RIGHTS IN PRACTICEBACK TOMAIN TEXTCONTENTSUSER GUIDE CREATING EUROPEAN IDENTITY WITH A CONJOINTLY NARRATED HISTORY P ropagating European identity has been a task for European international organisations like the Council of Europe for many decades. As of 1973, nine member states of the European Communities had already tried to define the European identity in their Declaration on European Identity   (Copenhagen, 14 December 1973). Their aim was nothing less than to ensure the “survival of the civilisation which they have in common.” 1 ■ T hey declared the following from the beginning:  The Nine wish to ensure that the cherished values of their legal, political and moral order are respected, and to preserve the rich variety of their national cultures. Sharing as they do the same attitudes to life, based on a determination to build a society which measures up to the needs of the individual, they are determined to defend the principles of representative democracy, of the rule of law, of social  justice — which is the ultimate goal of economic progress — and of respect for human rights. All of these are fundamental elements of the European identity.” ■ I n fact since 1973, the construct of Europe – and also the construct of its identity – has altered a lot, especially because of the eastward enlargement of the EU. From a present-day perspective paragraph 22 of the mentioned Declaration  from 1973 sounds like a prophecy:  The European identity will evolve as a function of the dynamic construction of a United Europe.” ■ A lso the Europäisches Geschichtsbuch/ Histoire de l’Europe , which was first pub- lished in 1992 in France and Germany, intended to narrate the history of a United Europe for pupils, their parents and teachers. To do so, in 1988 Frédéric Delouche had gathered a team of 12 historians of different European countries to write the 12 chapters of a history book. Its content was translated and published in several European languages in the following years. The aim of this privately initiated ambi- tious project is formulated in the foreword: “To distill from the past what is meaning-ful for the concept of Europe  to give pupils, their parents and teachers an orientation.” 2 1 Document on The European identity published by the Nine Foreign Ministers on 14 December 1973. In Copenhagen [http://www.cvce.eu/content/publication/1999/1/1/02798dc9-9c69-4b7d-b2c9-f03a8db7da32/publishable_en.pdf; 28/11/2012].2 Frédéric Delouche: Préface, in: Histoire de l’Europe, Paris, 1992, pp. IV, V.  VISUAL NARRATIVES OF THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADEA CONJOINTLY NARRATED EUROPEAN HISTORY‘MY GRANNY’S LIFE IS PART OF EUROPEAN HISTORY’ 1  THE ROLE OF THE ICONOGRAPHIC AND HISTORICAL PATTERNS IN THE ARTISTIC EUROPEAN PRODUCTION IMAGES AS HISTORICAL EVIDENCEINDIVIDUAL AUTONOMY AND FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION“IMAGINING THE BALKANS”“CLASH ON THE LEFT” (1928-1952) ■ I n fact, this book was not used in school education very often because it did not fit curricular and didactical requirements. 3  Its illustrations conjure the traditional imagery of Europe. In addition, the texts trace the difficulty in finding a version accepted by all historians of different nations. Sometimes the negotiation processes have led to the acceptance of the lowest common denominator. 4  This kind of leve- ling out the differences does not make clear the perception of European diversity. In contrast, by concealing the differences, neither are multiple perspectives imparted nor is the handling and understanding of contrasting concepts taught to pupils. 5  3 Dieter Offenäußer: Wer kennt Daniel O’Connor? Das Europäische Geschichtsbuch: ein Beispiel zur Entnationalisierung von Bildungsinhalten, in: UNESCO heute, 41/ 1994, pp. 294-297; Ben Smulders:Das Europäische Geschichtsbuch – Ansätze für ein identitätsstiftendes europäisches Geschichtsbild? In: Die europäische Dimension in Lehr- und Lernmitteln, Bonn 1995, pp. 147-158; Adrian Augustini: Das europäische Geschichtsbuch: visionär oder überflüssig? [http://www.uni-giessen.de/cms/ kultur/universum/geschichte/phaenomen-europa/geschichtsbuecher-1; 05/12/2012]. Jooke van der Leeuw-Roord: A common textbook for Europe? Utopia or a crucial challenge? In: Jan-Patrick Bauer, Johannes Meyer-Hamme and Andreas Körber (Ed.): Geschichtslernen – Innovationen und Reflexionen. Geschichtsdidaktik im Spannungs-feld von theoretischen Zuspitzungen, empirischen Erkundungen, normativen Überlegungen und pragmatischen Wendungen. Festschrift für Bodo von Borries zum 65. Geburtstag, Herbolzheim 2008, S. 43–60.4 Europäisches Geschichtsbuch,1992, Der Erste Weltkrieg, p. 324: Über die Schuld am Ausbruch des Krieges wird immer noch diskutiert […]. Dennoch bleibt die Frage nach dem Schuldanteil jedes beteiligten Landes offen.“5 Even in 2007 Annette Schawan formulated the wish that all pupils of the EU shall have a common history textbook [http://www.epochtimes.de/schavan-wuenscht-sich-gemeinsames-europaeisches-geschichtsbuch-90189.html; 05/12/2012]. The European textbook by Frederic Delouche.   A CONJOINTLY NARRATED EUROPEAN HISTORY 33  NICOSIA: MEMORY, DIGNITY, DIVERSITYINDIVIDUAL LIFE SPACE AND FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION SEMINAR PAPERS HUMAN RIGHTS AS REFLECTED IN THE HISTORY OF ART 11 HUMAN RIGHTS IN PRACTICEBACK TOMAIN TEXTCONTENTSUSER GUIDE EUROPEANNESS IN GLOBALISED NATIONAL CULTURES AND THE POWER OF TEXTBOOKS PRESENTATIONS I n fact, the diversity of today’s cultures in the European Communities has increased. On the one hand, different and even contrary cultural memories of shared history exist among the various European member states. On the other hand, even in Europe’s nation states homogeneity of collective memory is fiction. Cultural diversity does exist and is even fed by the increasing effects of globalisation and migration. ■ C aused by mobility within the EU, as well as by immigration from outside, Europe is a cultural melting pot. Art history – as a science of social-political rele- vance – has to pull its weight in order to create a climate of conscious respect and togetherness. Firstly, it must preserve the rich culture of Europe by giving all of its inhabitants the chance to acquire its history and cultural heritage; and secondly, it must take part in shaping tomorrow’s culture without being marginalised. This is not only a question of participation, but also of National Gallery of Matica Srpska, Novi Sad and of respect for human rights as Barbara Welzel has brought out. 1 1 Barbara Welzel: Kunstgeschichte und kulturelles Gedächtnis: Zur Integration historisches Kunstwerke in Bildungsprozesse. In: Klaus-Peter Busse and Karl-Josef Pazzini (Ed.): (Un)Vorhersehbares Lernen: Kunst - Kultur – Bild, , Norderstedt 2008, pp. 161-169 [= Dortmunder Schriften zur Kunst. Studien zur Kunstdidaktik, 6]. Barbara Welzel: Verantwortung für das kulturelle Erbe. In: Kunst + Unterricht, 333/ 2009, p. 42.
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