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  Issue 165 March/April 2010 Diary events April 2010 TAGSI Seminar  Structural integrity -challenges to new build Tue 20Great Abington 17th Technical Seminar  Institute of Rail Welding:Current developments in railwelding and repair Wed 28Wolverhampton Seminar  Stainless steel fabrication – focus on the energy sector Wed 28 Middlesbrough May 2010 International Meeting 8th Friction Stir WeldingSymposium Tue 18 - Thu 20Germany   June 2010 Materials Technical Group Meeting Materials issues in defence andsecurity Wed 9Venue TBA The WJS Conference SOS! Specification or Standard:Sink or Swim!An update on Directives andStandards Wed 23 - Thu 24Great Abington September 2010 Advanced StructuresTechnical Group Meeting Milau Viaduct September TBaGreat Abington Seminar   Joint TWI/EWI event  Mon 20 - Tue 21Cincinnati, USA  Workshops and seminarsare recognisedContinuous ProfessionalDevelopmentevents The magazine of TWI www.twi.co.uk e-mail:twi@twi.co.uk  Welding with Chocolate - thefusion of fun and engineering The BBC reporter was so excited by the ‘Welding with Chocolate’ experiment on The Welding Institute’s stand at the Big Bang Fair that she recorded her Radio 4Today programme interview next to it, then returned with a cameracrew to get right into the action. Rebecca Morelle wasn’t the only one to beattracted by the excitement of welding, asbetween 11 and 13 March, thousands of budding young engineers tried their skills atfusion welding chocolate box girders and tested them to destruction before eating their broken bridges.The welding simulator, kindly providedby Lincoln Electric, was an almost equally enthralling attraction, and again thousands of youngsters, and some not so young, pulledon the virtual reality face screen to try their handskills in creating a MAG (GMAW) filletweld.Over 22,500 people attended the Big Bang:UK Young Scientists’ and Engineers’ Fair inManchester which is thought to be thelargest single celebration of science andengineering aimed exclusively at children andyoung people.For other welding engineering outreachopportunities and educational information,contact twi_professional@twi.co.uk  Q  A  Join IT register now www.twi.co.uk  What are the principles of radiography in non-destructivetesting?Why is the Ti:N ratio specified insteel specifications?How can I avoid interface failuresin resistance spot welds?  2 March/April 2010 Connect January/February 2010 www.twi.co.uk e-mail:twi@twi.co.uk  TWI hosts high-level delegation fromMalaysia   2K Manufacturing UK Manufacture of plywoodsubstitute from waste plastics Amber Composites Ltd UK Prepreg manufacture and supply of associated materials Carpenter Technology   Corporation USASemi-finished metals Carville Ltd UK Sub contract manufacturing Eclipse Scientific CanadaNDT services, products and training ETA Technology PVT Ltd IndiaDesign and manufacture of special purpose machines,including those for solidphase welding GE Energy USASuppliers of power generationequipment GE Oil & Gas – Drilling & Production USAManufacture of drilling andproduction equipment HYDRO Exploitation SA SwitzerlandServices in the operation of electrical installations andhydroelectric facilities Network Rail UK Railway engineering Oil States Industries Inc USAManufacture of equipment for  the offshore oil and gas industry  Polysoude SAS FranceOrbital and mechanised weldingcladding solutions Rewinds and J Windsor & Sons(Engineers) Limited UK Electrical and mechanicalengineering RTI International Metals Inc USATitanium production Skoda Power AS Czech RepublicPower engineering - turbines andheat exchangers TADA Electric Co,Industrial Apparatus Works  JapanProduction of welding machines Thermacore Europe UK Electronic cooling systems Trelleborg Offshore UK Ltd UK Manufacturing Toyo Kanetsu KK  JapanManufacture of LNG and LPG tanks New Members of TWI TWI is pleased to welcome the following as Industrial Members In early March 2010, a party of senior Malaysian officials, led by Deputy Minister of DefenceYB Datuk Dr Abdul Latiff bin Ahmad visited TWI at GrantaPark, Great Abington. The Minister was accompanied by Laksamana Tan Sri llyas Bin HjDin, Chairman of PERHEBAT and Tuan Haji Hassan Bin Jantan, Director of PERHEBAT  The reason for the visit was to discussoptions for collaboration betweenTWI and Perbadanan Hal Ehwal BekasAngkatan Tentera (PERHEBAT) in thesupply of TWI’s technical educationand trainingand certificationprogrammesTWI already (through itsMalaysia subsidiary,TWISEA) offers training andcertification toindustry at itsheadquarters inKuala Lumpur and other venues throughout thecountry.This new venture will extend theprogramme to PERHEBAT, anorganisation established to provideskills training to retiring and retiredarmed forces personnel.As well as meeting the senior management team, the visitors weregiven a guided tour of TWI’s state-of- the-art facility and met some of the technical staff who undertake cuttingedge research into the technology of materials joining. The Malaysian visitors with TWI senior management at TWI headquarterson Granta Park   www.twi.co.uk e-mail:twi@twi.co.uk Connect March/April 2010 March/April 2010 3 TWI awarded funding to developinnovative fabrication route for windturbine foundations TWI has recently been awardeda £500k project (FabFound)funded by the Northern WindInnovation Programme alongwith project partners RCID atNewcastle University, SEtech, ParsonsBrinckerhoff, McNulty OffshoreConstruction, Vattenfall Wind Power,Scottish Power Renewables andClipper Windpower Marine.It is anticipated that there will shortly be a market for offshore turbines that significantly outstrips the currentmanufacturing capacity. FabFoundaims to use a new and innovativefabrication process for wind turbinefoundations to allow the necessary production capacity to be met.Currently, several foundation conceptsare being considered, includingmonopiles, tripods and braced jacket structures all of which aremanufactured from steel tubular sections.The largest of these are fabricatedby rolling thick plate and weldinglongitudinally. Rolling thick plate(>100mm) requires specialist rollersand hence incurs capital expense andlimits the number of facilities capableof carrying out the process. It is alsoa time consuming process and thelength of each ring is restricted by  the width of the rollers, commonly toapproximately three metres.The novel multi-faceted designproposed in FabFound is fabricatedfrom strips of flat plate welded together thus eliminating the rollingstep. This allows sub-assembliesof perhaps 10m in length to bemanufactured, reducing the number of on-site welds necessary in the tower construction. This approach is enabled through the use of rapid thick sectionwelding techniques for the longitudinalseams.Over the next 12 months, theproject will generate new foundationdesigns (optimised for rapidmanufacture) that can be fabricatedfrom readily available flat steel platewith only minimal processing requiredprior to joining by novel high speedwelding techniques. The designs willbe examined structurally and geo- technically and will be qualified for use.The entire production route will beexamined (facilities required, metalsupply, joining processes, materialshandling, etc) in terms of performance,logistics and economic viability.The aim of the project is to increase the foundation manufacturingcapacity of the UK, and specifically toposition the consortium and other fabrication/supply chain companiesin the Northern Way regions to beready to address the requirements of an emerging market for high power (>3.6MW) marine wind turbinefoundations.For further information, contactanita.buxton@twi.co.uk    LowdistortionlongitudinalseamsNo rolling -long stripsedge preparedAfter makingone sectionend preparedfor circular weld  A proposed novel design of wind tower foundation, fabricated from at plate. This multi-faceted approach to fabrication has the potential to meet the increasing capacity for wind farms at areduced cost.    Connect March/April 2010 www.twi.co.uk e-mail:twi@twi.co.uk    4 Technology Transfer  The name ‘duplex’ for this family of stainless steels derives from themicrostructure of the alloys whichcomprises approximately 50/50mixture of austenite and delta-ferrite.They are designed to provide better corrosion resistance, particularly chloride stress corrosion and chloridepitting corrosion, and higher strength than standard austenitic stainlesssteels such as Type 304 or 316. Themain differences in composition, whencompared with an austenitic stainlesssteel is that the duplex steels have ahigher chromium content, 20 - 28%;higher molybdenum, up to 5%; lower nickel, up to 9% and 0.05 - 0.5%nitrogen. Both the low nickel contentand the high strength (enabling thinner sections to be used) give significantcost benefits. They are therefore usedextensively in the offshore oil andgas industry for pipework systems,manifolds, risers, etc and in thepetrochemical industry in the form of pipelines and pressure vessels.In addition to the improved corrosionresistance compared with the 300series stainless steels duplex steels alsohave higher strength. For example, aType 304 stainless steel has a 0.2%proof strength in the region of 280N/mm 2 , a 22%Cr duplex stainless steel aminimum 0.2% proof strength of some450N/mm 2 and a superduplex grade aminimum of 550N/mm 2 .Although duplex stainless steelsare highly corrosion and oxidationresistant they cannot be used atelevated temperatures. This is due to the formation of brittle phases in theferrite at relatively low temperatures,see below, these phases having acatastrophic effect on the toughness of  the steels. The ASME pressure vesselcodes therefore restrict the service temperature of all grades to below315 0 C, other codes specify even lower service temperatures, perhaps as lowas 250 0 C for superduplex steels.Duplex alloys can be divided into three main groups; lean duplex, 22%Cr duplex and 25%Cr superduplex, andeven higher alloyed, hyperduplexgrades have been developed, thisdivision being based primarily on thealloy’s alloying level, eg in terms of ‘PREN’ (pitting resistance equivalencenumber), a measure of the alloy’sresistance to pitting corrosion. PRENis calculated from a simple formula:PREN = %Cr + 3.3%Mo +16%Nand an allowance for W is sometimesmade, having a factor of 1.65. A duplexsteel has a PREN less than 40; asuperduplex a PREN between 40 and45 and hyperduplex a PREN above 45,whilst the lean grades typically havelower nickel and hence lower price.The commonest shorthand method of identifying the individual alloys is by theuse of the trade name, particularly for  the superduplex grades, eg UR52N+,Zeron 100, 2507 or DP3W, whilst themost common 22%Cr grade, UNSS31803 has widely become knownas 2205 regardless of its supplier,although this is a trade name.The UNS numbering system offersan independentalternative. Typicalcompositions andminimum proof strengths of themore commonduplex alloys aregiven in the Table.Note that thecommonly used2205 applies to two UNS numbers,S31803 and S32205,with S32205 beinga more recentand controlledcomposition.The metallurgy  Job Knowledge 105 Duplex stainless steel.Part 1 CommonNameUNS NoBS ENNoSteelTypeTypical Chemical Composition %0.2%proof strengthN/mm 2  (min)%CCrNiMoNCu 2304 S32304 1.4362 duplex 0.015 23.0 4.0 0.055 0.13 4002205 S31803 1.4462 duplex 0.015 22.0 5.5 3.0 0.14 - 4502205 S32205 1.4462 duplex 0.015 22.5 5.5 3.3 0.17 450255(UR52N) S32520 1.4507 superduplex0.015 25.0 7.0 3-5 0.28 0.13 5502507 S32750 1.4410 superduplex0.015 25.0 7.0 4.5 0.28 0.3 550Zeron 100 S32760 1.4501 superduplex0.015 25.0 7.0 3.5 0.25 0.8 550Sandvik SAF3207S33207 - hyperduplex0.03 31 7.5 4.0 0.50 0.75 700 Typical compositions and proof strengths of common duplex stainless steels
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