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A Cross-Sectional Study of High school and College Adolescents in their use of Self-regulation, Self-efficacy, Metacognition, and Achievement Goals

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The study investigated whether self-regulation, self-efficacy, and metacognition can predict achievement goal orientations. There were 153 high school students and 183 college students who participated and surveyed using the self-regulation interview, self-efficacy questionnaire, metacognitive performance assessment, and a goal orientation measure. In the regression model, the high school (early adolescence) and college students (late adolescence) were moderated in the prediction of achievement goals. It was found in the study that college students are higher in all self-regulation subscales (p
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  RUNNING HEAD: Self-regulation, Self-efficacy, Metacognition and Achievement GoalA Cross-Sectional Study of High school and College Adolescents in their use of Self-regulation, Self-efficacy, Metacognition, and Achievement GoalsCarlo MagnoJennifer Ann LajomDe La Salle University–Manila  Self-regulation, Self-efficacy, Metacognition and Achievement Goal 2 AbstractThe study investigated whether self-regulation, self-efficacy, and metacognition can predictachievement goal orientations. There were 153 high school students and 183 college studentswho participated and surveyed using the self-regulation interview, self-efficacy questionnaire,metacognitive performance assessment, and a goal orientation measure. In the regressionmodel, the high school (early adolescence) and college students (late adolescence) weremoderated in the prediction of achievement goals. It was found in the study that collegestudents are higher in all self-regulation subscales (p<.05). Mastery goal is significantly relatedwith all self-regulation subscales and self-efficacy. The contribution of self-efficacy onperformance orientation is significantly moderated by high school (early adolescence) andcollege (late adolescents) students. This means that high school students’ with high self-efficacyincreases their performance orientation. Self-efficacy, and self-regulation strategies such asself-consequencing, organizing, and environmental structuring are important characteristics of mastery oriented students.Key words: self-regulation, self-efficacy, metacognition, achievement goals  Self-regulation, Self-efficacy, Metacognition and Achievement Goal 3  A Cross-Sectional Study of High School and College Adolescents in their use of Self-regulation, Self-efficacy, Metacognition, and Achievement GoalsIt is notable that Filipino young adolescents in their high school years perform differentlywith college students. This is not only brought about by differences in cognitive functioning dueto maturation of age but also to the kind of social environment the adolescent is in. Thecognitive processes that adolescents use and adopt depend on the socialization process thatthey engage in. Such socialization process differs across the period between early and mid-adolescence because early adolescence is spent in high school and the later in college.According to Papalia, Olds, and Feldman (2004), adolescence is a stage where anindividual goes through developmental transition between childhood and adulthood entailingmajor physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes. The Society for Research onAdolescence defines the stage as the second decade of life (Dornbusch, 2000) and ranges fromage 11 until the late teens or early twenties. Authors of textbooks on developmental psychologysubdivide the stage into early, middle, and late adolescents. For instance, early adolescencefrom 11 to 14 years old poses opportunities for growth in cognitive and social competence,autonomy, and self-esteem. However, this period may be precarious as some youngadolescents may have difficulties in coping with many changes and may need help in dealingwith them.It was explained by Wintre, North, and Sugar (2000) that the sub stages of lateadolescence are identified from post secondary education. Early and middle adolescentsbelonging in a high school setting have a different academic and social situation as compared tothe college context. The social learning theory of Bandura (1986) explains the adolescentlearners’ cognition is influence by the instigation, direction, and persistence of achievement-related behaviors. In the process of attaining these achievement behaviors, learning occursfrom students’ self-generated behaviors. These self-generated behaviors are framed in this  Self-regulation, Self-efficacy, Metacognition and Achievement Goal 4 study as self-regulation strategies (Zimmerman, 2000), metacognition (Flavell, 1987), and self-efficacy (Bandura, 1986).It is evidenced mostly in previous studies that the use of cognitive strategies such asself-regulation and metacognition leads to specific achievement behaviors such as achievementgoals (Elliot, 1998). The adolescent acquires achievement-related skills and strategies that arefacilitated by age differences and specifically the context they are in (Dembo & Eaton, 2000).The factors self-regulation, metacognition, and self-efficacy are studied as they predictachievement goals. Age sublevels in adolescents is used to moderate the relationship betweenself-regulation, self-efficacy, and, metacognition with achievement goals in order to demonstratethe influence of the context between high school and college.There is a need to study these factors because previous research always couple self-regulation and metacognition with the outcome variable such as performance measured byachievement in model building studies (Blakey & Spencer, 1990; Kluwe, 1982; Lopez, Little,Oettingen, Baltes, 1998; Magno, 2005; Rock, 2005). However, the achievement model inprevious studies was not differentiated across different age levels using a cross-sectionaldesign.Previous studies usually show that achievement goals are used as predictors of performance. Few studies use achievement goals as an outcome considering its nature as aprelude to performance. Zimmerman (2002) explains that when learners use self-monitoringstrategies, it guides them to set goals. In the present study, achievement goal orientation isused as an outcome variable of self-regulation, self-efficacy, and metacognition. Earlyinvestigations on self-regulation, self-efficacy, and metacognition showed that such variablesare intercorrelated (Horn, Bruning, Schraw, Curry, & Katkanan, 1993; Joo, Bong, & Choi, 2000;Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1988; Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990) but they were not studied in together to predict achievement goal as an outcome.
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