A Cycle of Copper Reactions

The purpose of this experiment was to observe different types of aqueous based chemical reactions, and relate the underlaying chemical changes to observable changes in the physical properties of the solution (or precipitate). In this experiment a weighed amount of copper metal is cycled in five different reactions. There were 2 oxidation-reduction reactions between a metal and non metal being oxidized or reduced resulting in a solution color change and gas formation. An acid based base reaction between sulphuric acid and solid copper(II) oxide, forming a soluble salt and water. A thermal decomposition reaction of copper(II) hydroxide in aqueous solution. Upon heating the solid decomposes to copper(II) oxide settling at bottom of reaction vessel, and lastly a precipitate reaction, in which a solid precipitate comes out of the aqueous solution mixture. In the final reaction the original copper is recovered. The percent recovery was 36.7%. The poor recovery yield was attributed predominantly to copper compound losses during decanting and incomplete reactions.
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  A Cycle of Copper Reactions Valentin Uzunov (author)  & Gavin Koenig (lab partner) PSU ID#: 96! $$ %' $ 6! (ue: *: + ! :, ) Abstract he purpo-e o. thi- e/peri0ent 1a- to ob-erve 2i..erent t3pe- o. a4ueou- ba-e2 5he0i5al rea5tion- an2 relate the un2erla3ing 5he0i5al 5hange- to ob-ervable 5hange- in the ph3-i5al propertie- o. the -olution (or pre5ipitate)7 In thi- e/peri0ent a 1eighe2 a0ount o. 5opper 0etal i- 535le2 in .ive 2i..erent rea5tion-7 here 1ere  o/i2ation8re2u5tion rea5tion- bet1een a 0etal an2 non 0etal  being o/i2ize2 or re2u5e2 re-ulting in a -olution 5olor 5hange an2 ga- .or0ation7 n a5i2 ba-e2  ba-e rea5tion bet1een -ulphuri5 a5i2 an2 -oli2 5opper(II) o/i2e .or0ing a -oluble -alt an2 1ater7  ther0al 2e5o0po-ition rea5tion o. 5opper(II) h32ro/i2e in a4ueou- -olution7 Upon heating the -oli2 2e5o0po-e- to 5opper(II) o/i2e -ettling at botto0 o. rea5tion ve--el an2 la-tl3 a pre5ipitate rea5tion in 1hi5h a -oli2 pre5ipitate 5o0e- out o. the a4ueou- -olution 0i/ture7 In the .inal rea5tion the srcinal 5opper i- re5overe27 he per5ent re5over3 1a- 67$7 he poor re5over3 3iel2 1a- attribute2 pre2o0inantl3 to 5opper 5o0poun2 lo--e- 2uring 2e5anting an2 in5o0plete rea5tion-7 INTRODUCTION 4ueou- -olution- provi2e an i2eal 0e2iu0 .or 0an3 5he0i5al rea5tion- to ta;e pla5e7 Su5h rea5tion are 5o00on an2 -tu2ent- nee2 to un2er-tan2 the un2erla3ing 5he0i-tr3 o. -u5h t3pe- rea5tion- an2 be able to a--o5iate un2erla3ing 5he0i5al 5hange- 1ith ob-ervable 5hange- in the  ph3-i5al propertie- o. the -olution (or pre5ipitate)7 In thi- e/peri0ent the-e 5on5ept- 1ere e/plore2  b3 535ling 5opper through a -erie- o. , 2i..erent a4ueou- rea5tion-7 U-ing a 1eighe2 a0ount o. pure ele0ental 5opper the rea5tion 535le o. thi- e/peri0ent  pro5ee2e2 b3 rea5ting ele0ental 5opper 0etal an2 5on5entrate2 a4ueou- nitri5 a5i2 -olution in an a4ueou- ba-e2 o/i2ation8re2u5tion (re2o/) rea5tion7 <=   (a4) > %u (-) ? %u(<=  )  (a4) >    = ( l  ) >  <=   (  g  )@r/n !AIn thi- thi- rea5tion 5opper 0etal 1a- o/i2ize2 to 5opper(II) ion- 2i--olving in -olution a- -i0ultanou-l3 the nitrate (<= 8 ) ion- .ro0 .ro0 the nitri5 a5i2 -olution are re2u5e2 to pro2u5e nitrogen 2io/i2e ga- an2 1ater7 Bea5tion  1a- a pre5ipitate rea5tion pro2u5e2 1ith the a22ition o. -o2iu0 h32ro/i2e to the  pro2u5t a4ueou- -olution .ro0 @r/n !A an2 re-ulting in the .or0ation o. an in-oluble pre5ipitate o. 5opper (II) h32ro/i2e 1hi5h 5o0e- out o. -olution a- a -oli27%u(<=  )   (a4) >  <a= (a4) ?C%u(=)   (-) >  <a<=   (a4)@r/n ABea5tion  1a- a 2e5o0po-ition rea5tion o. 5opper(II) h32ro/i2e to 5opper(II) o/i2e7he 5opper(II) h32ro/i2e pre5ipitate .or0e2 in @r/n A i- ther0all3 un-table 1hi5h 0ean- it 1oul2 -lo1l3 being to 2e5o0po-e overti0e to 5opper(II) o/i2e7 he rea5tion 1a- a55elerate2 b3 heating the pre5ipitate u-ing a hotplate a- a heat -our5e7   %u(=)   (-) > heat ?C%u= (-) >   = (l)@r/n ABea5tion  1a- an e/a0ple o. an a5i28ba-e 0etathe-i- rea5tion (a;a 2ouble 2i-pla5e0ent rea5tion)7%u= (-) >   S=  (a4) ?C%uS=   (a4) >   = (l)@r/n AIn thi- rea5tion 5opper o/i2e an2 -ulphuri5 a5i2 e/5hange bon2- bet1een rea5ting 5he0i5al -pe5ie-7 hi- re-ult- in the 5opper(II) o/i2e 4ui5;l3 2i--olving a- a blue -olution 2evelope27 %opper(II) -ulphate -oluble in 1ater an2 thu- the ion- -ta3 2i-a--o5iate in -olution7Bea5tion , 5o0plete- the 535le in a t1o -tep pro5e--7 in5 1a- a22e2 to the -olution .or0 @r/n A -tarting another re2o/ rea5tion 1ere zin5 an2 5opper e/5hange ph3-i5al (an2 o/i2ation) -tate-7 in5 began to be o/i2ize2 relea-ing -oluble zin5(II) ion- in -olution an2 the 5opper(II) ion- are re2u5e2 ba5; into the initial 5opper 0etal u-e2 1hi5h 5o0e out o. -olution an2 -ettle- a- 2epo-it at the botto0 the .la-; %uS=   (a4) > n (-) ?CnS=   (a4) > %u (-)@r/n ,aAo en-ure the rea5tion goe- to 5o0pletion h32ro5hlori5 a5i2 1a- a22e2 to the -olution in or2er to 2i--olve an3 re0aining zin5 1hi5h 0a3 not have rea5te2 1ith the 5opper(II) ion- le.t in -olution7n (-) >  %l (a4) ?Cn%l   (a4) >   (g)@r/n ,bAhe re5overe2 5opper 1a- .inall3 1a-he2 1ith 1ater an2 ethanol 2rie2 on a hot plate an2 1eight .or 5o0pari-on7  DATATable 1 - %opper 535le rea5tion ob-ervation- Reaction 1  <=   (a4) > %u (-) ? %u(<=  )  (a4) >    = ( l  ) >  <=   (  g  ) Observations Initial 0a-- o. %opper u-e2: 7, $ g %u=n 0i/ing 5opper 0etal an2 nitri5 a5i2I7Spontaneou- rea5tion .izzing -tart- an2 bro1n ga- i00e2iatel3 1a- .or0e2II7Solution turne2 green ? 2ar; greenEbro1n in 5olor III7Fotto0 o. .la-; heate2 up in2i5ating an e/other0i5 rea5tionIV7Ga- 5oul2 be poure2 out (2en-er than air)7 V7Solution turne2 gra2uall3 to 2ar; a4ua blue 5olor overti0eater a22e2I7Solution turn- to a 0u5h brighter blue 5olor t3pi5al o. 5opper(II) ion Reaction 2 %u(<=  )   (a4) >  <a= (a4) ?C%u(=)   (-) >  <a<=   (a4) Observations =n a22ing -o2iu0 h32ro/i2e to -olution .ro0 rea5tion !I7Hor0ation o. ligh blue gelatinou- -oli2 (pre5ipitate .or0-)II7Hla-; heate2 up Reaction 3 %u(=)   (-) > heat ?C%u= (-) >   = (l) Observations %opper(II) h32ro/i2e 1a- heate2 on a hot plate at  % over $0in I7Fla5; 5r3-tal- o. %opper(II) o/i2e being to .or0 -lo1l3 repla5ing the h32ro/i2e  pre5ipitateII7Fla5; 5r3-talline po12er -ettle2 at botto0 o. bea;er De5anting -upernatant li4ui2 (1ater) I72uring 2e5anting a .ine po12er o. %u= .loating in 1ater 1a- lo-t7 =ver ti0e in the 2e5ante2 li4ui2 noti5eable 4uantitie- o. %u= ha2 -ettle2 to the botto07 Poor 2e5anting te5hni4ue Reaction 4 %u= (-) >   S=  (a4) ?C%uS=   (a4) >   = (l) Observations =n a22ition o. -ulphuri5 a5i2I7%opper(II) o/i2e 2i--olve2 (5o0pletel3) II7Solution turne2 bright blue t3pi5al o. %u >  (a4) ionIII7Hla-; heate2 up (e/other0i5) (5are.ul to interpret 0a3 have been -till hot .or0 heating over hot plate 2uring @r/n A Reaction 5b %uS=   (a4) > n (-) ?CnS=   (a4) > %u (-) Observations =n 0i/ing zin5 an2 5opper -ulphate -olutionI7I00e2iate .izzing -pontaneou- rea5tionII7So0e .or0ation o. bro1n ga- li;e <=  III7Solution turne2 .ro0 blue ? gra3 0ur;3 5olor IV7Hla-; heate2 up (e/other0i5)V7Be2 bul;3 -oli2 .or0- an2 i- 2epo-ite2 at botto0 o. .la-;7De5anting -upernatant li4ui2 I7De5ante2 -olution 1a- pale blue in 5olor in2i5ating the pre-en5e o. %u >  (a4) ion722ition zin5 1a- a22e2 to 2e5ante2 li4ui2 an2 5o0bine27 %l a22e2 (!0J)7 Bea5tion per.or0e2 t1i5e -till blue in -olution pre-ent a.ter 2e5anting7 Bunning out o. ti0e le.t blue in -olution ('aor -our5e o. error in %opper 5olle5tion) he 5opper 5olle5te2 1a- pre2o0inantl3 in the .or0 o. bro1ni-hEre2 -oli27 So0e -hinn3 5opper pie5e- noti5eable7'a-- o. 5opper 5olle5te2: 7!*6 g %u Reaction 5b n (-) >  %l (a4) ?Cn%l   (a4) >   (g) Observations Upon a22ing h32ro5hlori5 a5i2 to rea5tion ,aI7Hizzing E bubblingII7Bea5tion -ee0e2 to go .a-ter   REU!T able  + =b-ervation- -ugge-ting a 5he0i5al 5hange too; pla5e in rea5tion Obser ationReactionE#planation$as pro%&ce% @r/n !A & @r/n ,A  <=  1a- pro2u5e2 2ue to the re2u5tion o. the nitrate ion o/i2ize2 b3 the 5opper 0etal Given b3 the hal. e4uation-7%u (-) ? %u >  (a4) >  e 8  <= 8 (a4) >  e 8 ?  <=  (g)@r/n ,A 32rogen ga- 1a- pro2u5e2 a55or2ing the balan5e2 5he0i5al rea5tion ho1ever it 1a- not ob-erveable7 he bubblingE.izzing o. the -olution 5oul2 be the re-ult .or the h32rogen ga- .or0ation or <=    Color c'an(e @r/n !A- the 5opper o/i2ize- the -olution 1a- intiall3 -aturate2 1ith %u > an2 <= 8  giving the -olution 2i-pla3ing at .ir-t- a green an2 then a 2ar;er greenEbro1n 5olor7 - the buil2 up o. 1ater a55u0ulate- nitrate ion- 5on5entration 1a- 2ilute27 he 1ater 0ole5ule- eventuall3 2i-pla5e the nitrate ion- .ro0 the 5oor2inate -ite- aroun2 the 5opper ion- an2 the -olution 5hange2 5olor to a  bright blue -olution@r/n A %u(=)   pre5ipitate 2e5o0po-e- in heat into 5opper(II) o/i2e 1hi5h i- in-oluble in 1ater an2 pre5ipitate- out a- a bla5; -oli27@r/n ASulphuri5 a5i2 -olution i- 5olourle-- 1hen rea5te2 1ith the %u= it turne2 blue in2i5ative o. the %u >  ion7 )eat (i en off  @r/n !A @r/n A @r/n A & @r/n ,A he .la-; be5o0e noti5eabll3 1ar0er 2uring the rea5tion-7 hi- i- believe2 to be 2ue to the brea;ing an2 .or0ing o. bon2- 1hi5h relea-e- ther0al energ3 into the -urroun2ing-7 *recipitate for+ation @r/n A <a=(a4) 2i--a-o5iate- in a4ueou- -olution to -o2iu0 an2 h32ro/i2e ion-7 he h32ro/i2e ion- 1hen rea5te2 1ith 5opper(II) ion- bin2 .or0ing 5opper(II) h32ro/i2e 1hi5h i- in-oluble in a a4ueou- -olution7 he pre5ipitate that .or0- 1a- 5opper(II) h32ro/i2e@r/n A %opper(II) h32ro/i2e 2e5o0po-e- 4ui5;l3 1ith heate2 to .or0 5opper(II) o/i2e 1hi5h i- an in-oluble bla5; -oli2 that 5o0e- out o. -olutionin5 0a-- u-e2 (total): !79*$ g *ercent of Copper Reco ere%  : 67$ DICUION n a4ueou- rea5tion- are 5he0i5al rea5tion that ta;e pla5e in an a4ueou- -olution (1ater i- -olvent)7 Su5h rea5tion- are o. parti5ular i0portan5e a- all 5he0i5al rea5tion- in living -3-te0- ta;e pla5e in an a4ueou- 0e2iu07 here are al-o a tre0en2ou- a0ount o. a4ueou- ba-e2 5he0i5al rea5tion .oun2 in nature out-i2e o. living -3-te0-7 he ;e3 to a4ueou- -olution- i- the 1ater 0e2iu0 1hi5h a5t- are a -olvent .or 0an3 o. the rea5tion to ta;e pla5e7 Su5h rea5tion- 5an al-o be 5la--i.ie2 into 2i..erent t3pe- 2epen2ing on their 5hara5teri-ti5 propertie-: pre5ipitation rea5tion-
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