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A Fluid Dynamics Approach to Determine the Aerobiological Sampling Efficiency of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

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Page 1. A Fluid Dynamics Approach to Determine the Aerobiological Sampling Efficiency of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Aaron J. Prussin II1,2*, Mark A. Stremler2, and David G.
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  A Fluid Dynamics Approach to Determine the Aerobiological Sampling Efficiency of AutonomousUnmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Aaron J. PrussinII 1,2* , Mark A. Stremler  2 , and David G. Schmale III 1 1 Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, 24061, USA 2 Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, 24061, USA*Corresponding author: Graduate Student in Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, 413 Latham Hall; PH: (540) 231-0733, Email: aprussin@vt.edu   INTRODUCTION  Studying the atmosphere for biological threat agents using autonomous (self-controlling)unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has become increasingly popular over the past decade  UAV sampling efficiency is important when trying to determine population density  We took both a biological and mathematical approach to determine sampling efficiency of UAV  Previous work done to determine sampling efficiency only considered Stokesianmotionand drag coefficient and did not give full consideration to inertia  Our approach took into account Maxey-Riley equations, the principal equations for inertia REFERENCES 1.PrussinII, A. J., Stremler, M. A., and Schmale III, D. G. (2011). A Fluid Dynamics Approach to Determine the Aerobiological Sampling Efficiency of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. In Preparation .2.Techy, L., Schmale, D. G., & Woolsey, C. A. (2010). Coordinated Aerobiological Sampling of a Plant Pathogen in the Lower Atmosphere Using Two Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Journal of Field Robotics , 27(3) , 335-343. 3. Maxey, M. R., & Riley, J. J. (1983). Equation of motion for a small rigid sphere in a nonuniformFlow. Phys. Fluids , 28(4) , 883-889. Name of Organism ProducingSpore or PollenSettling Velocity(m/s)Effective ParticleDiameter (µm)SamplingEfficiency Zea mays 0.210 81.6 95%Conidiobolus obscures 0.0449 37.7 83%Picea mariana 0.0319 31.8 80%Pinus banksiana 0.0252 28.3 75%Lycopodium 0.0194 24.8 70%Conidiobolus thromboides 0.0139 21.0 62%Ambrosia elatior 0.0105 18.2 55%Uromyces phaseoli 0.00860 16.5 50%Phytophthora infestans 0.00850 16.4 48%Zoophthora radicans 0.00370 10.8 20%Venturia inaequalis 0.00200 7.97 <1% MATHEMATICAL MODEL RESULTS  Resultsfromthemathematicalmodelsuggestthatflightspeed,samplingdevicesize,particle(spore)size,andparticle(spore)densityhaveadramaticimpactonthesamplingefficiencyofUAVs U=flight speed; b=particle diameter; ν=fluid’s kinematic viscosity; a=sampler’s diameter; ρ f  =density of fluid; and Δρ =density difference of particle and fluid MATHEMATICAL MODEL ASSUMPTIONS  Steady,two-dimensional,incompressible,inviscidflowaroundastationaryflatplate  Forparticleinertiaparticlesunderconsiderationarerigidandspherical  TheparticlemotioncanbedescribedbytheMaxey-Rileyequation Stream LinesParticleTrajectory PathParticleImpaction SiteSide View of Sampling Plate SUMMARY  Created a model to measure sampling efficiency of microorganisms collected by UAVs  Lip height and plate position do not affect sampling efficiency  Sampling efficiencies range from <1% up to 95% depending on microorganism  Important to consider sampling efficiency when trying to determine populationdensities IMPORTANCE OF SAMPLING EFFICIENCY: A Theoretical Example • In this theoretical example it is clear that one must take into account UAVsampling efficiency to accurately assess population density in the atmosphere  Zea mays Zea mays Zoophthoraradicans Zoophthoraradicans Number of organisms collectedduring single UAV missionPopulation density in atmospheretaking into account sampling efficiency BIOLOGICAL EXPERIMENTS A Sig Rascal TM autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle(UAV) platform equippedwith eight samplingdevices. The top figureshows UAV with samplersclosed and the middlefigure shows UAV withsamplers open. Samplingplates contained differentlip heights as shown in thebottom figure. 02468101214162 4 7 9    T  o   t  a   l   N  u  m   b  e  r  o   f   C  o   l  o  n   i  e  s Lip Height (mm) F148F150F151F156  Total number of  Fusarium colonies collected over four sampling flights containing sampling plates with different lip heights  Results Suggest depth and position of sampling devices does notimpact sampling efficiency Collection Media Example of samplingplate used showing lip height   Flight 1Flight 2Flight 3Flight 4 Π 1    S  a  m  p   l   i  n  g   E   f   f   i  c   i  e  n  c  y
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