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A Framework for Systems Analysis and Design

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Systems Analysis and Design
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    Dhanesha Senevirathne. ICT (2009/2010) Batch Collage of Technology Kandy [ A Framework for Systems Analysis and Design]   1 Dhanesha Senevirathne - University of Vocational Technology  –  2010-2013  A Framework for Systems Analysis and Design.    What is a System:    A system is a group of interrelated components that function together to achieve a desired result. E.g.:    The human body regarded as a functional physiological unit. An organism as a whole, especially with regard to its vital processes or functions. A group of  physiologically or anatomically complementary organs or parts:    the nervous system    the skeletal system    A group of interacting mechanical or electrical components.    A network of structures and channels, as for communication, travel, or distribution.    A network of related computer software, hardware, and data transmission devices.    A naturally occurring group of objects or phenomena.      the solar system      What is a Sub System: A unit or device that is part of a larger system.    Carries part of the system function.    Helped to handle system complexity & improve the system.    Sub system communicates each other by passing massage between them. E.g.:    A disk subsystem is a part of a computer system.    A bus is a part of the computer. A subsystem usually refers to hardware, but it may be used To describe software. However, module, subroutine and component are more typically Used to describe parts of software.    What is a System Environment: This means choosing which entities are inside the system and which are outside, which affect the system  behavior in the environment. E.g.:    The entire set of conditions under which one operates a computer, as it relates to the hardware, Operating platform, or operating system.    An area of a computer's memory used by the operating system and some programs to store certain Variables to which they need frequent access.    What is a System Boundary: The line between the inside & outside the system.     System Environment System Boundary   System    Dhanesha Senevirathne. ICT (2009/2010) Batch Collage of Technology Kandy [ A Framework for Systems Analysis and Design]   2 Dhanesha Senevirathne - University of Vocational Technology  –  2010-2013 System Open/Closed SystemOpen SystemClosed SystemSimple/Complex SystemSimple SystemComplex SystemNatural SystemMan maid SystemAutomated SystemInformation System      Elements of A System: Basically there are three major components in every system, namely input, processing and output .      Input: Whatever System task from its environment in order.    Output: Whatever System return to the environment.    Data & Information:    Data: Row facts about the organization and its business transaction.    Information: Is data that has been refine and organized by processing.    System Classification:     Processing Input Output Receive inputs & provide outputs to their environment. No transaction with the environment. Mechanical System. System with Sub System & they are interact with each other. They are exiting in nature & not created by man E.g.: solar system, living system  Designed & operated by human. Which are automated by using computer. Is an arrangement of people, data, processes, and information technology that interact to collect, process, store, and provide as output the information needed to support an organization.    Dhanesha Senevirathne. ICT (2009/2010) Batch Collage of Technology Kandy [ A Framework for Systems Analysis and Design]   3 Dhanesha Senevirathne - University of Vocational Technology  –  2010-2013    Information System:   Is an arrangement of people, data, processes, and information technology that interact to collect, process, store, and provide as output the information needed to support an organization.    Levels of Management & Organization:      Information System Classification: 1.   Transaction processing systems (TPS). ( Lower or Operational Level )    Process business transactions. E.g.:    Such as time carts ,  orders ,  payments and reservation e.t.c     Bank transactions: deposits & withdraw . 2.   Management information systems (MIS). ( Middle or Tactitial Level)    Use transaction data to produce information needed by managers to run the business.    Can present detact information & exception information. 3.   Decision support systems (DSS). ( Middle or Tactitial Level)      Helps various desertion makers identify & choose between option or decisions.    Analyst the information, already captured by a TPSs & MISs.      In order to support unstructured decision making management level. 4.   Executive Information system (EIS). (Top or Upper Level)      EIS  is a DSS maid specially for top managers.    Specifically support strategic desisition making also called Executive support systems (ESS) . 5.   Expert systems (ES).    Capture & reproduce the knowledge of & expert problem solver or decition maker & then simulate the “thinking” of that expert     -The Work System Framework- -Levels of Management & Organization- Top or Upper Level Middle or Tactitial Level Lower or Operational Level    Dhanesha Senevirathne. ICT (2009/2010) Batch Collage of Technology Kandy [ A Framework for Systems Analysis and Design]   4 Dhanesha Senevirathne - University of Vocational Technology  –  2010-2013 SystemStakeholders System owners One/MoreMiddle or Execute Manager System users Internal userExtrenal user   System builders Application ProgrammerDatabase ProgrammerSystem ProgrammerNetwork AdministratorSeciurity AdministratorWeb MasterSoftware Intergrater System DesignerSystems Analyst 6.   Office automation systems.    Information system that support the wide range of business office activities that work flow  between workers. E.g.:    Word process - MS Office Word.    Presentation  –   Power Point.    Accounting  –   Excel.    Database  –   Access.    E mail  –   Out Look Express, Websites.    System Stakeholders. Is any person who has an interest in an existing or proposed information system. Stakeholders can be technical or nontechnical workers. They may also include both internal and external workers.      Stems to be interested in, how much wills the system cost, how much  value or what benefits will that system return the system. E.g.: Critical service, workers, technical & professional staff, supervisors, managers ( Middle Level)   E.g.: Customers, suppliers, pertness, employees    Technical specialist who constructs information system & components based on the design specification generated By the system designer.    A specialist who studies the problems and needs of an organization to determine how people, data, processes, and information technology can best accomplish improvements for the business.      Technical specialist who translate system user’s business requirements & constrains in to technical solution.    He designs the computer database, inputs, outputs, screen, network & software that will meet the system user requirements. 1.    Application Programmer. 2.   Data Base Programmer. 3.   System Programmer. 4.   Network Administrator. 5.   Security Administrator. 6.   Web Master. 7.   Software Interator. Skills & Knowledge Of a system Analyst: 1.   System Analyzing & Designing skills. 2.   Working knowledge of information technologies. 3.   Computer Programming experiences. 4.   General Knowledge on business process terminology. 5.   General Problem solving skills. 6.   Good interpersonal communicational skills. 7.   Good interpersonal relational skills. 8.   Flexibility & Char actor.
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