Maximum Power Point Tracking has been using to enhance the capability of the power generation systems. There are two different power generation systems such as solar and wind which have been used by several researchers. Alternatively, in this paper,
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Transcript 33 International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET) Volume 9, Issue 4, July-August 2018, pp. 33  –  45, Article ID: IJEET_09_04_004 Available online at ISSN Print: 0976-6545 and ISSN Online: 0976-6553 Journal Impact Factor (2016): 8.1891 (Calculated by GISI) © IAEME Publication A FUZZY-BASED COMBINED MPPT TECHNIQUE FOR WIND AND SOLAR SYSTEM Dr Sudhir Sharma Associate Professor and Head of the Department, Electrical Engineering Department, DAV Institute of Engg. & Tech., Jalandhar, India Sandeep Kaur Student, Department of Electrical Engineering, DAV Institute of Engg. & Tech., Jalandhar, India ABSTRACT  Maximum Power Point Tracking has been using to enhance the capability of the  power generation systems. There are two different power generation systems such as  solar and wind which have been used by several researchers. Alternatively, in this  paper, hybridization of these systems is done which are controlled by the fuzzy logic. It has combined with the system to make a decision about the participation of MPPT in the model. The simulation analysis has performed using the MATLAB Simulink model where wind and solar both systems are operated. From the results analysis, it has  shown that the proposed system concludes fewer fluctuations as well as less distortion in the system. Key words: Maximum Power Point Tracking, Solar energy, Wind energy, Total Harmonic Distortion. Cite this Article: Dr Sudhir Sharma and Sandeep Kaur, A Fuzzy-Based Combined MPPT Technique for Wind and Solar System.  International Journal of Electrical  Engineering & Technology , 9(4), 2018, pp. 33  –  45. 1. INTRODUCTION 1   There is a variable source of energy that is available on earth such as coal, petroleum, natural gasses etc. These resources can be categorized into two types as follows:    Renewable Sources of Energy     Non-Renewable Sources of Energy Renewable Sources of Energy : The renewable sources of energy generation are solar, wind, rain, tides, geothermal heat etc [1]. These sources of energies generally opt the energy from natural resources.  A Fuzzy-Based Combined MPPT Technique for Wind and Solar System 34 Nonrenewable Source of Energy : The nonrenewable resources are such as coal, oil,  petroleum, etc. which can be exhausted totally if used in excess. There is a need to conserve nonrenewable sources of energy, therefore, these are also known as finite sources of energy [2]. The example of a non-renewable source of energy is minerals, ores that are extracted from the crust of earth by the time when the natural geographical process takes place which makes sources viable to extract for economical use. As the human being is overusing the energy sources such as petroleum, coal, a natural oil which will results in depletion of these resources within coming hundred years. Hence there is a need to shift the focus on the renewable source of energy in spite of nonrenewable sources of energy because; there is no risk of depletion of the renewable source of energy. In 2012, it was surveyed that 19% of energy was consumed in that year and this number observed to be increased in 2013 and 2014 as per renewable global status survey [3][4]. Given table depicts the summarized report generated by a survey that point to global rapid enhancement in renewable energy on the basis of last few years from 2010-2013. Table 1  Necessary global indicators for renewable energy S. No. Energy Sources (Gw) 2010 2011 2012 2013 1. Renewable power installed capacity with hydro 1,250 1355 1470 1560 2. Renewable power installed capacity without hydro 315 395 480 560 3. Solar PV installed capacity 40 71 100 139 4. Wind power installed capacity 198 238 283 318 5. Concentrating Solar Thermal Power installed capacity 1.1 1.6 2.5 3.4 From the above-defined tables and points, it is observed that the natural resources are depleting day by day for that reason in order to fulfil the required need of energy the power sector is researching for substitute of these resources.   By using the renewable energy, the carbon molecules that are available in the atmosphere can be decreased through which the issue of global warming can be overcome [5]. There are various renewable sources are available out of which solar PV systems or wind PV systems are most prominent sources due to its simple and easy implementable topology. PV system is a device which is made up of semiconductors which are in the solid state. These semiconductors are used to generate electric power when it comes in the touch with light [6]. A PV device can be created by interconnecting these solar cells either parallel or in a series. It is better to connect these solar cells in series to achieve the high output voltage. The features like long-lasting benefits and free of maintenance cost make PV systems more useful.  Dr Sudhir Sharma and Sandeep Kaur 35 Figure 1  PV generation System PV devices are mainly divided into categories as per their functionalities and operations  performed by the devices, modules, the configuration of the system [7]. Grid-connected and standalone systems are two main categories of PV systems. These systems are created to  produce DC and AC power energy to operate grid on an individual basis which is connected with other storage devices and energy sources. 2. MPPT (MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING) MPPT stands for maximum power point tracking. It is a control technique or method which is  basically employed with energy resources in order to extract the maximum capable energy of PV modules [8][9]. The objective behind employing MPPT is to enhance the efficiency of PV system. A large number of algorithms is created for MPPT control. 2.1. Types of MPPT Algorithms Various MPPT techniques have been developed form last few years. These techniques are divided as follows: 1. Online methods a. VMPPT  b. CMPPT c. Look up Table 2. Offline methods a. P & O  b. Incremental c. Temperature d. 3 Point MPPT 3. Indirect methods a. ANN  b. Load Parameter c. RCC Out of above-defined techniques, offline methods are solar cell dependable methods. Figure 2 depicts the categorization of MPPT techniques. In this the three main categorize are further subdivided into modules as online MPPT techniques have further 4 more techniques under its category, similarly, the offline technique consist 5 subcategories and indirect  A Fuzzy-Based Combined MPPT Technique for Wind and Solar System 36 technique is divided into three more types. Most of the MPPT techniques suffer from the  problem of slow tracking which directly degrades the utilization efficiency of the system [10]. 2.2. Need for MPPT The need for MPPT arises due to disadvantages of PV systems. By deploying PV system, if the system tries to extract more energy as compared to the amount of energy that is produced  by the system then there is a requirement of extra cost which is not feasible to implement. The MPPT is an electrical DC to DC converter or device that optimizes the similarities among PV devices, in this way it enhances the efficiency of power system [11]. To enhance the capability of power generation PV devices modifies the high voltage output that is received from the renewable source of energy to lower voltage power which is required to run the  batteries. In MPPT DSPs are used to handle the converters [12]. The working of MPPT starts  by receiving the input from PV systems then converts this power to high voltage DC voltage  power and then splits it to the various DC voltage currents 2.3. Fuzzy Logic Control based MPPT techniques. From last few years, fuzzy logic based MPPT mechanism is most popular among the research workers in this field. The fuzzy logic based MPPT technique operates on the basis of estimated inputs and it is also able to manage the non-linear functions and did not require an exact model or match for processing [13]. Above defined characteristics of the fuzzy logic system makes it more popular among the researchers in various fields. The working of the fuzzy logic system is divided into three various states such as Fuzzification, decision making and Defuzzification. Following figure 3 explains the working process of the fuzzy system in brief. Firstly a crisp value is added to the fuzzy system as an input. Then Fuzzification process is applied to the crisp fuzzy values. Fuzzification is a process which converts the crisp values into fuzzy sets [20]. Figure 2  Fuzzification [34] Then defined rules are applied to the fuzzy input set driven by applying fuzzification. On the basis of rules an intelligent decision is taken and then the fuzzy sets are converted to the crisp values back by applying the Defuzzification [14].  Dr Sudhir Sharma and Sandeep Kaur 37 Fuzzy Input Fuzzy Output Figure 3  Working of Fuzzy Logic Based System Fuzzification:  It is a process in which the numerical values are converted to linguistic variables. The input membership function is defined on the basis of any interval such as [-1 1]. In case of the power system, PV array and MPPT voltages are two inputs that are used to define the control values. Decision making phase: In this phase, the system generates output by using input functions on the basis of If-Then rules set. Fuzzy logic contains a fuzzy rule set which defines the rules in the form of If-Then. Defuzzification: It is a process in which to manage the power and to control the operating  point to MPP analogue signals are generated. 3. PROBLEM FORMULATION Energy is important for the human life and economy. Consequently, due to the increase in the industrial revolution, the world energy demand has also increased. In the later years, irritation about the energy crisis has been increased. Fossil fuels have started to be gradually depleted. It is a global challenge to generate a secure, available, and reliable energy and at the same time reduce the greenhouse gas emission. Energy saving was suggested by the researchers to meet the worldwide energy demand. But this method is a cost-effective solution. One of the most effective and suitable solutions is the renewable energy supplies. Recently an MPPT strategy was proposed to extract maximum power from a variable speed wind turbine based on squirrel cage induction machine drive by using a fuzzy logic control. The main issue that was analyzed in the previous model was that the till date most of the researchers work on the Pv array based MPPT systems only a few did work on wind-based power source but no one worked on combining both sources. Also if it will be done there will need to decide when it is to be switched so further work can be done in the proposed model. 4. PROPOSED WORK As per the study, it was analyzed that no work was done on combining the multi-source models as PV that is solar and the wind source. So in the proposed model, it is proposed that the model will have both the solar and the wind as a source and a hybridized model. Also, a new thing will be used that the switching will not be done manually that will be done using a fuzzy model that which source will be switched on. Finally, the rest MPPT will work on the fuzzy control based simulation. The whole working will be done using the MATLAB Simulink. Crisp Input Crisp Outp Rules Defuzzification Fuzzification Intelligence
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