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A Gendered Analysis of Promotional Issues in Higher Education

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  Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ( nline)2225-#4$4 ( nline) %ol.4& No.'$& 2#'4 ! A Gendered Analysis of Promotional Issues in Higher Education: A Case Study of University of Ghana, Legon Hannah enedicta *a+lor-,dulai '&2  race Sintim-,dasi '  /oshua aa0a ' '.,ccra Pol+technic& P. . o1 5!'& ,ccra  hana 2.3epartment o0 Social and ehaioural Sciences& niersit+ o0 hana& 6egon 7 8orresponding author9 hta:#;gmail.com Astract *he aim o0 the stud+ was to dele into promotional issues o0 0acult+ in tertiar+ institutions using the niersit+ o0 hana& 6egon as a case stud+ with a 0ocus on ran< at recruitment and current position o0 0acult+. 3ata were collected using a comination o0 structured =uestionnaires and in-depth interiews among '42 0acult+ made up o0 :: women and '# men. *he 0indings o0 this stud+ indicate that the male 0acult+ were recruited with higher =uali0ication than their 0emale counterparts and the+ tend to rise up the academic ladder 0aster than their 0emale counterpart. >hat accounted 0or these di00erences are the role mentors hae pla+ed in their academic careers and the 0act that the+ hae stronger support networ<s than their 0emale 0acult+ and hae had mentors in the eginning o0 their pro0essional career through in0ormal mentors who mentored them. *he 0emale 0acult+ descried e1periences indicating that the+ were more ulnerale to sutle discrimination practices than male 0acult+. !eys ords:  ender& glass ceiling& ran<& recruitment& promotion& institutional arriers& leadership #$ Introduction hanaian women oer the last 0ew decades hae attained educational leels comparale to those o0 men in man+ countries. Prah?s (2##2) stud+ in niersit+ o0 8ape 8oast (88) reeals an increase in the enrolment o0 0emales in most 0aculties in the niersit+ o0 8ape 8oast and population o0 women 0acult+ in the uniersit+ o0 hana shows an increase in the numer o0 0emale 0acult+. *he introduction o0 a00irmation action in the niersit+ o0 hana& 6egon has e=uall+ seen an increase in 0emale enrolment in ma@orit+ o0 the 0aculties (8ongregation rochureA Barch 2##!). In spite o0 the strides achieed& women in the teaching pro0ession in higher education 0ace similar ostacles to those in other sectors in terms o0 academic preparation& training& recruitment& opportunit+ 0or  pulication& leadership and promotion descried in 8ann et al& ''A ?6ear+ and Bitchell& '#A agilhole& (':)A Prah (2##2)& >irth (2##2) and *a+lor?s (2##:) wor<. Prah (2##2) stud+ shows that women occup+ the ottom o0 the p+ramid& disproportionatel+ occup+ing the more @unior and less prestigious positions and this is no di00erent 0rom that o0 niersit+ o0 hana and other institutions o0 higher education in hana. In hana& until recentl+ no 0emale (apart 0rom 0ormer %ice 8hancellor o0 88) had risen to the %ice 8hancellorship position. *he aerage percentage o0 0emale academic sta00 in the three oldest hanaian uniersities in the '!#s& C#s& C$#s& and C#s was ''& & & and ': percent respectiel+ (Prah& 2##2). Studies concerning women in education hae 0ocused on teachers at the asic leel and tend to loo< at their con0licting roles as mothers and wor<ers& without loo<ing at institutional arriers that sti0le their progress. Dor instance& Prah?s (2##2) stud+ was on the isiilit+ o0 0emale 0acult+ and administratie sta00 and the  prolems the+ 0ace in 88. *he stud+ was limited to a sample siEe o0 '' and did not include male 0acult+ een though it was titled gender issues in higher education. *his stud+ there0ore augmented Prah?s wor< + deling into promotional issues and adopting a gendered anal+sis to identi0+ what might e descried as a Fglass ceilingG  + comparing the progress o0 oth women and men in their academic careers. 2. Aim of the study *he aim o0 this paper is to use a gendered lens to compare the progression o0 0acult+ and identi0+ the challenges  oth gender go through in pursuit o0 a career in higher education. 3. Methods   *he arious Daculties& Schools and Institutes in the niersit+ o0 hana were put into clusters& respondents were chosen 0rom all the clusters& through simple random sampling a0ter strati0+ing 0or genderA 2# percent o0 the  population o0 0acult+ was selected ased on the proportion o0 oth 0emale and male 0aculties. *he stud+ was descriptie cross sectional using a mi1ed method to collect data. uantitatie methods too< the 0orm o0 administration o0 =uestionnaires to '42 0acultiesA made up o0 :: 0emale and '# male 0aculties. ,nal+ses o0 these were purel+ descriptie using 0re=uencies. *he =ualitatie method too< the 0orm o0 in-depth interiews with '# 0acultiesA 0ie 0emales and 0ie male were purposiel+ selected 0or the interiew. sing content anal+sis& themes were deeloped ased on the research =uestions.  Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ( nline)2225-#4$4 ( nline) %ol.4& No.'$& 2#'4 # 4. Theoretical Framework *his stud+ 0ocuses on data that illustrates women?s inolement in uniersit+ li0e. It adapted /o+celin Bassiah?s (':) gender anal+sis 0ramewor< deeloped as the 0oundation 0or estalishing indicators 0or planning 0or women in the 8ariean. *he 0ramewor< loo<s at the isiilit+ o0 women& since the premise or underpinning is that women are not isile.Bassiah?s anal+tical 0ramewor< is ased on three assumptions9 '.   >omen and the roles the+ pla+ hae traditionall+ een accorded lower status than men. Related to the assumption is the proposition that women ear an une=ual share o0 social reproduction wor< in relation to menA and that productie wor< in e1change 0or cash& in which men are inoled to a greater e1tent than women& is accorded higher status than the social reproductie wor< o0 women. 2.   >omen?s wor< includes economic and non-economic actiities& oth o0 which tend to e downpla+ed or ignored. *hus women& their actiities& their prolems& and their concerns remain largel+ inisile to  polic+-ma<ers& planners& and o0ten& to women themseles. :.   *he inisiilit+ o0 women emanate directl+ 0rom a gender ideolog+ which adheres to a hierarchical and as+mmetrical diision o0 laour in 0aour o0 males which is mani0ested in arious wa+s and in di00erent spheres o0 actiit+ (Bassiah ': cited in Prah 2##2). *hese assumptions together produce 0ie interrelated t+pes o0 isiilit+& operatie at three di00erent leels& each o0 which is a precondition 0or achieing a higher leel. Boement 0rom lower to higher leels in not necessaril+ unilinear& ut the direction o0 the moement represents a moe 0rom recognition o0 the e1istence o0 gender disadantage to action designed to reduce or eliminate that disadantage. *he leels o0 isiilit+ and the relationships etween them are presented in Digure '9 Digure '9 Relationships etween 6eels o0 %isiilit+. Source9 Bassiah (':) cited in Prah (2##2). Level #: Conce%tual and Su&ective 'isiility Bassiah designated this phase as the 0irst and asic leel o0 isiilit+ and consists o0 two t+pes o0 isiilit+. ,ccording to Bassiah& and cited in Prah (2##2) conceptual isiilit+ represents the perception o0 e1ternal oserers that a particular se1 is su@ect to gender disadantage. *his is eident in what has come to e accepted as gender ideolog+ o0 societ+& the e1tent to which that ideolog+ is enunciated and the wa+ in which it operates. In our hanaian societ+ there is a perception out there that women are less superior than man at the wor< place. Su@ectie isiilit+ re0lects the recognition + indiiduals themseles o0 the e00ects o0 gender domination on their own attitudes& ehaiour& material and emotional circumstances. *he di00erence etween the two t+pes o0 isiilit+ is essentiall+ one o0 perceptions. Level (: )heoretical and Statistical 'isiility *he second leel Bassiah postulates as consisting o0 theoretical and statistical isiilit+ made possile + the generation and anal+sis o0 =uantitatie and =ualitatie data. *his leel o0 isiilit+ stems directl+ 0rom the  Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ( nline)2225-#4$4 ( nline) %ol.4& No.'$& 2#'4 ' conceptual isiilit+ o0 the 0irst leel. It ma<es possile the identi0ication o0 trends& patterns o0 gender domination and e1plains the mechanisms which perpetuate that domination. *he process o0 understanding how the gender s+stem operates and what <inds o0 action ma+ e needed in order to minimiEe elements o0 disadantage egins here. Dindings 0rom stud+ hae een rought to ear on this leel o0 isiilit+. Level *: Socio+EconomicPolitical and -omestic 'isiility *he third and 0inal leel which consists o0 two t+pes o0 isiilit+ has een descried + Bassiah as the socio-economicpolitical and the domestic. ,ccording to Bassiah and cited in Prah (2##2)& socio-economic isiilit+ deries 0rom increasing the power resources o0 the disadantaged& 0rom the remoal o0 legal and political  arriers to adancement and 0rom the introduction o0 social policies designed to create an enironment 0ree o0 gender domination. *his t+pe o0 isiilit+ 0lows directl+ 0rom action at the indiidual and the household leel. It is re0lected in a changing s+stem o0 gender relations in which male and 0emale roles are structured in a more egalitarian manner than preiousl+. *his is what in academia is descried as meritorious enironment. *his leel o0 isiilit+ 0lows directl+ 0rom the conceptual and su@ectie and indirectl+ 0rom the theoretical and statistical. ,0ter the di00erent t+pes and leels o0 isiilit+ hae een identi0ied& the =uestion o0 distinguishing prolems arises. ,s Prah (2##2) indicates& some groups o0 women ma+ e readil+ identi0ied + conentional statistics. ut in the asence o0 micro-leel research& their prolems& needs and concerns remain inisile. In e00ect& a group ma+ hae achieed a limited amount o0 statistical isiilit+ (6eel 2) ut without the identi0ication and articulation o0 their prolems& and the introduction o0 mechanisms to sole them& the chances o0 moing up to 6eel : isiilit+ is slim (Bassiah ':9 2 cited in Prah 2##2). *o situate the conceptual 0ramewor< within the perspectie o0 the stud+& it has een argue that there are institutions in hana that hae tried through some polic+ direction to ridge the gender di00erential in education and that could e classi0ied to some e1tent as conceptual isiilit+. *he choice o0 the research topic and the 0act that some o0 the researched recogniEe the e00ects o0 gender domination in their lies correspond to su@ectie isiilit+. *his stud+ identi0ies the relationship etween the statistical isiilit+ and trends o0 gender domination at niersit+ o0 hana& 6egon through an e1amination and interpretation o0 releant statistics (6eel 2) in presenting the prolems and concerns o0 women and men academics. 5. Presentations of Findings *his paper loo<s at institutional arriers in the conte1t o0 promotion and leadership roles o0 0acult+ o0 the niersit+ o0 hana& 6egon. *he proceeding sections discuss the 0indings o0 the research. 5.1 ualification at recruitment In academia& recruitment is ased on merit and uniersities loo< out 0or potential 0acult+ who are poised 0or academic e1cellence and read+ 0or the rigorous nature o0 academic li0e. *o understand the wa+ 0aculties hae  progressed oer the period& the stud+ sought to 0ind out the =uali0ication at recruitment. 0 the :: 0emale 0acult+ memers& ::.: percent were 4 B,66BB,BD,BS8 holders as at the time o0 recruitment as compared to 2#.' percent male 0acult+A *he degree held + 0acult+ memers pea<s at B.Phil 0or oth genderA 0emale 0acult+ were 42.4 percent as compared to 4#.4 percent o0 their male counterpart. Respondents with the highest degree at recruitment which is Ph3& Ph3 with B3 and BPH was the ne1t highest 0re=uenc+ 0or oth genderA 0emale 0acult+ memers with Ph3 and male 0acult+ memers with the same =uali0ication were 2'.: and :$.5 percent respectiel+& an indication that there are more =uali0ied male than there are 0emale 0acult+ memers. , t+pical re0lection o0 what preails in hanaian higher institutions. *ale ' depicts the data o0 =uali0ication at recruitment. 4   B,JBaster o0 ,rts& 66BJBaster o0 6aw& BS8JBasters in Science& B,JBasters in usiness ,dministration& B3JBedical 3octor& BPHJ Basters in Pulic Health  Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org ISSN (Paper)2224-5!! ISSN ( nline)2225-#4$4 ( nline) %ol.4& No.'$& 2#'4 2 )ale #: .ualification And /an0 ,6IDI8,*I N ,N3 R,NK Demale NJ:: Bale NJ'# PLR8LN* PLR8LN* -egree at recruitment B,66BBS8B,BD,B3MBPH B.PHI6 PH3B3MBPHMPH3 *HLRS ::.: 42.4 2'.: :.# 2#.' 4#.4 :$.5 '.4 /an0 at recruitment *utor ,ssistant lecturer 6ecturerRes. Dellow Senior 6ecturerSenior Res. Dellow '5.# !.# 5.$ :.# 2.$ .: $.2 2.2 Current degree held of res%ondents B,66BBS8B,BD,B3MBPH B.PHI6 PH3B3MBPHMPH3 thers Current ran0 *utor ,ssistant lecturer 6ecturerRes. Dellow Senior 6ecturerSenior Res. Dellow ,ssociate pro0essor Pro0essor 1o$ of years on current ran0 '5.# :#.: 4$.5 !.' !.' :.# 45.4 42.4 - :.# 5.5 :#.: !'.5 #. 2.$ #. 5.$ 2.5 5.5 5.5 ne  0our +ears Die  nine +ears *en and more +ears !#. 2$.! '#. 4#.! 4'.! '.$ 5.1.1 !ighest egree of res#ondents 3ata on this was collected to compare and contrast how oth gender hae progressed since eing recruited in the uniersit+. *he highest degree o0 respondents is indicated in *ale '& 0emale 0acult+ represents the highest  percentage in the lower degrees& e1cept in B3BPHPh3 where 0emale 0acult+ accounts 0or '5.# percent. Demale 0acult+ who held B,66BBS8B,BD,B3BPH at the time o0 recruitment was ::.: percent and currentl+ stands at '5 percent& whilst male 0acult+ accounted 0or 2#.' percent and currentl+ stands at 5.5 percent. *his shows that there has een improement in the =uali0ication as at the time the+ were recruited and the time o0 the stud+. *ale ' clearl+ depicts a remar<ale improement in the =uali0ication o0 0acult+ memers. Progression o0 0acult+ suggests that comparatiel+ male 0acult+ hae improed upon their degrees hence the highest degree o0 male 0acult+ memers oer the +ears. >hat account 0or more male 0acult+ pursuing higher degree compared to the 0emale 0acult+ was captured in the interiew with 0acult+. Some male 0acult+ opined that there are e=ual opportunities opened to oth genders. Demale 0acult+ howeer& were o0 the iew that the situation in which the+ 0ind themseles does not easil+ ma<e it possile to ta<e up certain challenges. *his is what a 0emale 0acult+ had to sa+ with respect to getting 0unding 0or 0urther education9 “it is not easy getting funding for PhD, you need to be highly connected and especially when you have  senior members as mentors.” *he+ claimed that lac< o0 mentors and related issues limit access and sometimes pose as a ig huddle to their adancement. n the other hand& some women in spite o0 the challenges hae een ale to rea< through the Cglass ceiling? with the support o0 spouses and 0amil+ memers. 5.2 Promotion $ssues   Promotion is the recognition o0 ones wor< through the tangile reward o0 moing 0rom a lower positionran< to a higher positionran<. ne o0 the issues as 0ar as the glass ceiling is concerned is the lac< o0 promotion o0 0emale wor<ers in organiEations that would propel them into leadership positions. ,cademic career demands that 0acult+ memers produce a certain numer o0 scienti0ic pulications and within a speci0ic numer o0 +ears  e0ore one is =uali0ied 0or promotion. Demale 0acult+ who indicated that the+ had een promoted e0ore was 4!. percent& whilst 42. percent male 0acult+ said that the+ had eer een promoted.   Len though more 0emale than male 0acult+ in the sample said the+ had een promoted& it does not seem to ma<e them as isile as their
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