A History of Nationalism in Ethiopia 1941-2012

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    A HISTORY OF NATIONALISM IN ETHIOPIA: 1941 TO 2012 TEWODROS HAILEMARIAM GEDLU A DISSERTATION Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Department of History 2013     iii ABSTRACT A History of Nationalism in Ethiopia: 1941 to 2012 Tewodros Hailemariam Ph.D. in History Addis Ababa University, 2013 This dissertation investigates the history of nationalism in Ethiopia since 1941. Based primarily on government archives, newspapers, magazines, student papers and other publications of the period and oral informants, it traces the genesis and evolution of the different conceptions regarding the Ethiopian nation. It also attempts to see how the Imperial, the Military and EPRDF regimes had accommodated the national question. This dissertation argues that in spite of the major ideological and power shifts of the period, Ethiopian nationalism is more widespread and resilient than it was commonly believed. It also underlines that state nationalism could create either an integrative national culture and sentiment or a violent and militant reaction towards the state based on political, social and economic factors. Nationalism for the historian is of interest not merely as a problem in the history of ideas, but also as an urgent issue in current affairs. Therefore, this study will be a contribution to the scholarly dialogue on the national question in Ethiopia. The study may also benefit scholars from various disciplines and future researchers on the subject as a starting point. Statesmen, social workers, policy makers may utilize the findings for public benefit. Above all, this study is hoped to assist Ethiopians to understand and arbitrate themselves with their past, and draw useful lessons to fashion their future for the better.  iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I must begin by admitting that my srcinal interest to investigate the history of nationalism in Ethiopia from every possible angle was too ambitious, to say the least. It would have been done in conditions of better financial and logistic support, less politicized and suspicious atmosphere, and outside the rigidities of an academic calendar. If I had achieved in this dissertation only a fraction of what I dreamt, the credit goes to many individuals. First and foremost would be to Professor Bahru Zewde, whom I cannot thank enough for bearing all my irregularities and painstakingly honing my professional standards. I doubt if I could have handled this without you. Professor James Mccann, I am very grateful to you, not only for saving this project in the first place but also for courageously contributing in a very difficult arrangement. Dear Sirs, I thank you both, respectfully! I am also grateful to all my informants, named and unnamed, my hosts at various localities and, most of all, to the librarians of the Ethiopian National Archives and Library Agency, Archives and Legal Deposits sections. Above all to my family, who were the ultimate bearers of the effects of a faulty education and an ailing economy. My wife Tijo, my daughter Meqdelawit and my son Zeleul: Hurrah, it is over!
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