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A meso-level conceptualization of CEO celebrity effectiveness

A meso-level conceptualization of CEO celebrity effectiveness
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  A meso-level conceptualization of CEO celebrity effectiveness ☆ Darren C. Treadway a, ⁎ , Garry L. Adams b , Annette L. Ranft c , Gerald R. Ferris c a State University of New York at Buffalo, United States b  Auburn University, United States c Florida State University, United States a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t The concept of celebrity has the potential to expand traditional views of leadership bysuggesting that, with the aid of the media,  󿬁 rms and CEOs can surpass their peers and developmarketable personas of their own. However, the research, to date, has focused on theemergence of CEO celebrity, rather than the critical question of how CEOs translate theircelebrity into personal and  󿬁 rm-related success. The present paper addresses this issue byarticulating a meso-level conceptualization focused on the role of CEO political skill in theconversion of celebrity to reputation and performance at the individual and  󿬁 rm levels of analysis. Implications of the proposed conceptualization and directions for future research arediscussed.© 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: CelebrityPolitical skillLeadershipCEOReputation Chief Executive Of  󿬁 cers (CEOs), such as Donald Trump, Oprah Winfrey, Martha Stewart, and Bill Gates, are sowell-known as tobe labeled  “ celebrities. ”  Whereas the connotation of celebrity may conjure images of glamour and paparazzi, celebrity CEOs havelasting and tangible impacton the 󿬁 rms they direct. Indeed,a 󿬁 rm'sreputation often is inextricably intertwinedwith the celebrityof their past or current CEOs, such as Disney (Walt Disney), Apple (Steven Jobs), and Dell (Michael Dell). Not surprisingly, thecelebrity attained by individual business leaders has garnered attention in the academic literature. This research has examinedcelebrityas appliedtoCEOs,theindividual leadersof  󿬁 rms (Graf  󿬁 n,Wade,Porac,&McNamee,2008;Hayward, Rindova,&Pollock,2004;Ranft,Ferris,&Perryman,2007;Ranft,Zinko,Ferris,&Buckley,2006;Wade,Porac,Pollock,&Graf  󿬁 n,2006),andtothe 󿬁 rmsthemselves (Rindova, Pollack, & Hayward, 2006).EarlyresearchhasexaminedhowCEOcelebrityin 󿬂 uencesoutcomesatboththe 󿬁 rmandindividuallevelsof analysis.Whereasthis literature is notable in its prediction of the emergence of CEO celebrities and the relationship between celebrity and  󿬁 rmoutcomes,it isremissinitsexplanationofhow thisprocesstransfers acrosstheselevels.Thequestionstill remainsastowhysomecelebrities areable to gain increased performance for their 󿬁 rm and others arenot (Wade, Porac, Pollock, & Graf  󿬁 n, 2008). Indeed,why do some celebrity CEOs experience continued success, while others  󿬂 ame out as  “ one hit wonders ” ? The present papersuggests that the awareness and skill of CEOs affect the likelihood that they are able to transform celebrity into reputation, andultimately personal and organizational success.The current paper agrees with Osborn, Hunt, and Jauch (2002) who suggested that  “ leadership is embedded in context … issociallyconstructedinandfromacontextwherepatternsovertimemustbeconsideredandwherehistorymatters ” (p.798).Thus,we view CEO celebrity as a  󿬂 eeting, socially constructed phenomenon that represents an important context upon which leadersconstructmeaning and drive value. Furtheracknowledging the temporality of context, we envision the leadership role of celebrityCEOs to be translating the attention and referent power afforded by their celebrity status into high-quality relations between the 󿬁 rm and its environment, and themselves and their various organizational stakeholders. We argue that these relations are built The Leadership Quarterly 20 (2009) 554 – 570 ☆  Paper for Special Issue of   The Leadership Quarterly  entitled  Meso-Modeling of Leadership: Integrating Micro- and Macro-Perspectives of Leadership . ⁎  Corresponding author. Department of Organization and Human Resources, School of Management, State University of New York at Buffalo, 280B JacobsManagement Center, Buffalo, NY 14260-4000, United States. Tel.: +1716 645 3244; fax: +1716 645 2863. E-mail address: (D.C. Treadway).1048-9843/$  –  see front matter © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.04.008 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect The Leadership Quarterly  journal homepage:  through the effective leveraging of opportunity and reputation. The ability to translate this social capital into long-termperformance and/or reputation is not universal, and thus, we view the political skill of the CEO to be paramount in facilitating theconversion of momentary celebrity into lasting reputation (Ketchen, Adams, & Shook, 2008). 1. CEO celebrity  In the traditional sense, a celebrity is a social actor whose name is well-known, garners large-scale, public attention, and haspro 󿬁 t-generating value (Gamson, 1994). Although pro 󿬁 ts are possible, celebrity does not insure long-term success, but ratherincreased economic opportunities. Moreover, celebrity generally elicits a positive emotional response from the public by ful 󿬁 llingbehavioral needs, such as fantasy and af  󿬁 liation (Gamson,1994). However, this need ful 󿬁 llment does not have to be grounded inthe basis of actual achievement (Gamson, 1994; Hayward et al., 2004). Celebrity is not a characteristic of the social actor inquestion, but a property of the actor's relationship with the audience (Rindova et al., 2006); speci 󿬁 cally, a relationship that isdocumented by the media.Although the traditional view of the role of the media is to provide facts and information (Gans,1979), contemporary views of the role of themedia aremulti-dimensional,andinclude factorssuchas the media'sownimageandpublicacceptance(Hall,1977;Swanson,1981). So, merely reporting the news is insuf  󿬁 cient. The media must engage its audience; it must tell a story. In order tomeet these goals while working under strict deadlines, journalists often use the most compelling evidence, cognitivesimpli 󿬁 cation, and dramatic narratives to focus on change rather than the status quo (Rindova et al., 2006). This can lead toCEOs or  󿬁 rms being viewed as responsible for all outcomes, as well as playing a role in shaping future expectations.Lastly, the media's audience is not passive (Swanson, 1981). The media must be aware of its audience's interests andconsumptions, and work to meet the audience's demands. Traditionally, these interests and demands have fallen in the realm of the entertainment industry, but recent interest has been demonstrated in the celebrity concept as it exists in the businesscommunity, with particular reference to corporate executives and leaders. 1.1. Antecedents of CEO celebrity For CEOs to be candidates for increased media attention, their actions and behaviors must stand out from others. Thisdifferentiation canbe achieved via behavioral consistency from 󿬁 rm to 󿬁 rm, and/ordiffering actions fromother CEOs operating inthe same (or a similar) environment (Hayward et al., 2004). Consistency of behavior suggests that one way for CEOs to achievecelebrity is to head multiple  󿬁 rms throughout their careers; that is, speci 󿬁 cally,  󿬁 rms with extreme performance, and to use thesame tactics and/or strategies regardless of setting. However, norm deviation is the more typical path to celebrity. Because onlyone single, shocking, successful action is needed, the need to head multiple  󿬁 rms does not exist. As such, the rationale behinddeviant or rebellious behavior falls more in line with the existence of an entrepreneurial spirit, and a presence in non-traditionalroles, such as advertising campaigns.Industry- and  󿬁 rm-level factors also impact media attention to  󿬁 rms and CEOs, as the primary representatives of these  󿬁 rms.Fombrun (1996) examined the relationship between industry advertising rates and public façade, noting that  “ constant exposurethroughadvertisinghasmade 󿬁 rmsaccustomedtopublicscrutiny,andhasencouraged 󿬁 rmstodevelopmoreextrovertedfacades ” (p.159). Industries with the highest advertising expenditures include the automobile, food, restaurant, retail, and entertainmentindustries. As part of their public images,  󿬁 rms operating in these industries may choose to utilize their CEOs as primaryadvertisingspokespersons,thusincreasingcelebritypossibilities.ExamplesofcurrentandformercelebrityCEOs,createdprimarilythrough corporate advertising, include Dave Thomas(Wendy's), Lee Iacocca (Chrysler), Frank Perdue (Perdue Farms), and MarthaStewart (Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia). Such advertising icons tend to draw increased media and public attention tothemselves and their  󿬁 rms. 1.2. The context of celebrity Our view differs slightly fromprevious researchthat implicitly views celebrityfroman entity perspective. We viewcelebrityasa context upon which CEOs generate action and leverage opportunities. Thus we adopt the view that  “ [l]eadership is unlike adecision or a discrete event that can we can observe directly and objectively. Leadership is a subjectively identi 󿬁 able pattern of in 󿬂 uence attempts ”  (Osborn et al., 2002, p. 805). The visibility afforded by celebrity presents opportunities for access and actionthat previously were unavailable to the CEO. As such, the context of celebrity resembles a weak managerial condition in which “ wide latitude in choices and actions exist ”  (Boal & Hooijberg, 2001, p.522) and in these situations, managerial wisdom and strategic leadership have pronounced impacts on  󿬁 rm viability (Boal & Hooijberg, 2001).This focus on managerial action extends the CEO celebrity literature toward explaining the role of CEOs in leveraging celebrity.Rindovaetal.(2006)suggestedthatfutureresearchinthisareaisneededtoinvestigatetheextenttowhichcelebrityissustainableas a  󿬁 rm asset. Whereas the present paper acknowledges the importance of understanding why celebrity CEOs emerge, we aremoreconcernedwiththecharacteristicsof celebrity CEOsthatallowthemtotransformthiscelebrityintoalong-termcompetitiveadvantagefor themselvesandtheir 󿬁 rms.Towardunderstandingthistransformationprocess,weaskthequestion: “ WhyaresomeCEO celebrities more successful than others? ” The emerging concept of celebrity expands traditional views of leadership by suggesting that, with the aid of the media,  󿬁 rmsand CEOs can surpass their peers and develop marketable personas of their own (Rindova et al., 2006). In turn, such personas can 555 D.C. Treadway et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 20 (2009) 554 – 570  enhance CEO ability to in 󿬂 uence others, and thus increase their leadership capacity (Ketchen et al., 2008). Thus, the concept of celebrityaffectshowleadersareconceptualized,andhow performance, at both the individual and 󿬁 rm level, maybeevaluated.Todate, research has not considered meso-level relationships between, and outcomes resulting from, celebrity of a  󿬁 rm's leader andthe celebrityof a leading 󿬁 rm. In this article, we develop a meso-model that addresses this gap in the literature, and elaborates onthe emerging concept of celebrity, and its in 󿬂 uence on the way leadership is perceived and interpreted. 1.3. Distinguishing celebrity from reputation Although the celebrity and reputation constructs would appear to share considerable construct domain space (i.e., they mostlikely are related at a modest level), the two constructs are suf  󿬁 ciently distinct as to be considered separate constructs. Forexample, in the public relations literature, the concept of reputation management is of growing concern. This literature clearlyrecognizes CEO celebrity as a construct distinct from reputation. This is most clearly evident in the work of scholars who havequestioned whether celebrity drives reputation, or vice versa (Hutton, Goodman, Alexander, & Genest, 2001).PerhapsthebestdiscussionofthedistinctionbetweencelebrityandreputationwasofferedbyRindovaandhercolleagues(2006),whoproposedthreeareasinwhichcelebrity,asanintangibleasset,differedfromreputation.First,reputationisgroundedinsignalingtheory, and celebrity is based on theories of mass communication. As such, reputation acknowledges a strategic orientation to theactor. Second, as an intangible asset, reputation is based on the perception of an ability to create value for the  󿬁 rm. In contrast,celebrity is based on the perception that individuals can build an attractive social identity. Third, because of the bases listed above,reputation is developed through strategic action, and celebrity is a product of media creation.Weagreewiththepremisethatcelebrityandreputationoperateasfundamentallydifferentconcepts,yet,weofferafourthareain which we believe the constructs can be viewed as distinct; that is, the temporal nature of each construct. We propose thatcelebrity represents a temporary distinction, but provides a powerful opportunity to  “ increase access to resources and … exploitopportunitiesthatmayincrease a 󿬁 rm'scompetitiveadvantage ” (Ranft etal., 2006, p.284).Whilecelebrityis often a 󿬂 eeting statedrivenbyCEO — mediaexchanges,reputationisamoreenduringtraitfueled,inlargepart,byahistoryofinteractionswithvariousstakeholders. In such a conceptualization, it is important to note that CEOs and their  󿬁 rms may have differential reputations withengaged stakeholders depending on the history, nature, and depth of their previous interactions (Agle, Mitchell, & Sonnenfeld,1999).The current model suggests that one such opportunity for creating a competitive advantage is through the enhancement of reputation.Wearguethatreputationismoredurableandlong-lastingthancelebrity,butthedevelopmentofCEOcelebritypro 󿬁 lescan directly impact both CEO and  󿬁 rm reputations. In contrast to celebrity, reputation is harder to achieve and more dif  󿬁 cult toerode. As such, the conversion of celebrity status into personal and  󿬁 rm reputation is critical to establishing a long-termcompetitive advantage. 2. Meso-level conceptualization of celebrity leadership effectiveness Meso-level research connects micro and macro concepts across levels of analysis, and as such, represents a form of contextualization that re 󿬂 ects a critically important part of contemporary and future research in the organizational sciences(Klein, Dansereau, & Hall, 2004). Meso-level research involves the coincident examination of at least two levels of analysis (e.g.,individual and organization levels), and the analyses are connected across the individual/group and organization levels(House, Rousseau, & Thomas-Hunt,1995; Rousseau & House,1994). House et al. (1995) calledformeso-theory developmentin the organizational sciences, in an effort to provide more uniquely impactful and realistic contributions to new knowledge. Certainly,wearguethattheconceptofcelebrityisinherentlymeso-levelinnature,andweexaminehowitoperatesacrossenvironmental, 󿬁 rm,and CEO levels of analysis, and the current model identi 󿬁 es both within and between level effects of celebrity processes.The proposed meso-level conceptualization of CEO celebrity effectiveness is presented in Fig. 1, and it is built around three centralassumptions.First,celebrityandleadershiparesociallyconstructedphenomena.Thus,attributionsofleadershiparecriticaltostakeholders' responsestocelebrityCEOs.Second,celebrityultimately mustbe translated into CEO and 󿬁 rmreputation in orderto provide long-term performance bene 󿬁 ts such as competitive advantage. Third, because of its socially constructed nature,leadership processes involve the effective execution of political skill, which facilitates meaning management. In the followingsections, each of these assumptions is discussed, and testable propositions are formulated.  Assumption 1.  Leadership and celebrity as social constructions.Leadership lies at the core of effective organizational functioning. Yet, what is leadership? To the degree that it is a process of building high-quality relationships, leadership can be construed as a socially constructed phenomenon (Uhl-Bien, 2006). Indeed,Meindl, Ehrlich, and Dukerich (1985) suggested that leadership ultimately is a perception, and thus, much of a leader's job entailsgeneratingattributionsofleadershipbyavarietyofstakeholders.More explicitly, somescholarshavegone sofarastosuggestthatleadership is  “ the process of being perceived by others as a leader ”  (Lord & Maher, 1990, p.11).Inherent in this viewpoint is the role that attributions play in leadership processes. Calder (1977, p.186) introduced hisattribution theory of leadership to better understand  “ how people make inferences about and react to leadership. ”  The inferencesdiscussed in Calder's theory implicitly employs a social in 󿬂 uence perspective of leadership in that the management of meaning isan important aspect of effective leadership. This theory is further integrated into Meindl et al.'s (1985) view on the  “ romance of  556  D.C. Treadway et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 20 (2009) 554 – 570  leadership. ”  This view notes that attributions of leadership are likely when the performance or situation is extraordinary orextreme. Therefore, in situations in which  󿬁 rms are exceptionally successful, or in which they experience collapse, the media andstakeholders are likely to make internal attributions to the CEO's abilities and/or deeds (Chen & Meindl,1991).We argue that this romance of leadership concept plays a central role in the development of CEO celebrity. As previouslydiscussed,thecoreof theCEOcelebrityconceptreliesontheCEOsinteractionwiththemedia.Indeed, “ thecorporateidentityofanorganization is infused with the personal attributes of its leaders ”  (Bromley, 2001, p. 331). This echoes Chen and Meindl's (1991) work, which explicitly acknowledged the role of the media in developing leadership images. Their research found that after  󿬁 rmcollapse,themediaactivelyconstructsimagesofCEOsthataresimultaneouslyconsistent withtheir previouspositive imageof theCEO, yet still attribute this downfall to the CEOs themselves.From the literature to date on CEO celebrity and the romance of leadership, we see that the media re 󿬂 ects both an importantand an active rolein constructing celebrity. These views idealize CEOs as passiveparticipantsin the process of image construction.However, if the concept of celebrity CEO is viewed through a social in 󿬂 uence lens, there is considerable rationale supporting thatCEOswillnotbeapassiveparticipantinthiscontext,butwillactivelyseektoenhanceanddefendtheirownimageasacelebrityforboth personal and organizational gain. In fact, image defense and enhancement are seen as core elements of the willingness toengage in political behavior in general (Mintzberg, 1983), and in reputation management behaviors in particular (Ranft et al., 2006).  Assumption 2.  The importance of reputation.In response to growing accounting scandals in the insurance industry, Warren Buffett re-iterated  “ Berkshire can afford to losemoney, even lots of money; it can't afford to lose reputation, even a shred of reputation. You and I are the guardians of thatreputation. And in the long runwe will have whatever reputationwe deserve ”  (Buffett & Clark, 2006, p.13). In this directive to hisemployees, Buffett demonstrated the importance of   󿬁 rm and personal reputation in organizations. Surprisingly, reputation onlyrecently has received serious scholarly attention (e.g., Ferris, Blass, Douglas, Kolodinsky, & Treadway, 2003; Zinko, Ferris, Blass, &Laird, 2007). Given the importance of leadership, it is not surprising that recent work has evaluated the role of reputation inleadershipprocesses(Blass&Ferris,2007;Hall,Blass,Ferris,&Massengale,2004).Thepresentpaperextendsourunderstandingof reputation and leadership by considering the cross-level effects of   󿬁 rm and personal reputation.Firm reputation has been de 󿬁 ned as  “ a collective assessment of a  󿬁 rm's past behavior and outcomes that depict the  󿬁 rm'sability to render valued results to multiple stakeholders ”  (Bromley, 2002, p. 36). An especially salient aspect of this de 󿬁 nition isthat  󿬁 rm reputation is built primarily on assessments of past behaviors and outcomes. Included in these assessments areperceptions of the  󿬁 rm's product and service offerings, past  󿬁 rm  󿬁 scal performance, examinations of the performance and Fig.1.  Meso-level model of celebrity effectiveness.557 D.C. Treadway et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 20 (2009) 554 – 570  behavior of CEOs and other key  󿬁 rm representatives, and the nature of relationships between the  󿬁 rm and its various keystakeholders.Reputation is important at the  󿬁 rm level because it can produce a sustainable competitive advantage (Barney, 1991). Indeed,thereisevidencethat 󿬁 rmreputationplaysanimportantroleingeneratingthesocialcapitalnecessarytoperpetuate 󿬁 rmviability.Firmswithmorepositivereputationsaremorecapableofattractingstrategicpartners(Fombrun&Shanley,1990).Amorepositivereputation increases the likelihood that organizations will be able to attract (Turban & Cable, 2003) and retain ( Jones,1996) the human capital necessary to achieve optimum performance. Potential competitive advantage building bene 󿬁 ts of positive  󿬁 rmreputation include stronger consumerattraction to  󿬁 rm product and stock offerings, increased employee loyaltyand productivity,stronger leverage with supplier and distribution partners, and a decreased impact of crises on the  󿬁 rm's bottom line (Cravens,Oliver, & Ramamoorti, 2003; Fombrun, 1996). In such cases, the establishment of positive, reputation-based linkages withestablished stakeholders, such as employees, customers, customers, distributors, suppliers, and the local community, can bene 󿬁 tthe  󿬁 rm's bottom line (Mitchell, Agle, & Wood,1997).At the individual level, reputation has been de 󿬁 ned in several ways. For example, individual reputation can be considered  “ [a]nucleus of interconnected impressions shared and expressed by a high proportion of members of a de 󿬁 ned social network ” (Bromley, 1993, p. 42). More comprehensively, personal reputation can be viewed as a shared or collective  “ perceptual identityre 󿬂 ective of the complex combination of salient personal characteristics and accomplishments, demonstrated behavior, andintendedimagespresentedoversomeperiodoftimeasobserveddirectlyand/orasreportedfromsecondarysources ” (Ferrisetal.,2003, p. 215). Re 󿬂 ected in these de 󿬁 nitions aretwo important ideasfor the present conceptualization. First, personal reputation isdevelopedthroughrelationshipsindividualshaveformedwithothers,bothdirectlyandindirectly.Second,individualscanactivelymanage their own personal reputation, due to its inherently sociopolitical nature (e.g., Ferris et al., 2003; Tsui,1984).Although not extensive, some research has begun to demonstrate the importance of personal reputation in organizationalsettings. For example, Hochwarter, Ferris, Zinko, Arnell, and James (2007) argued that personal reputation represents a type of resource that provides for greatercontrol of information and credibility. Speci 󿬁 cally, andin supportof hypotheses, they found thatemployees with favorable personal reputations experienced less uncertainty and emotional exhaustion, and higher performanceratings, when they engaged in political behavior, than did employees with less favorable reputations.Whereas the studies above provide interesting insights into the nature of the  󿬁 rm and personal reputation constructs,reputation is a multi-level construct (Ferris et al., 2003). However, little scholarly effort has been invested in explaining therelationships between levels. The model presented in this paper provides an initial attempt to explain these dynamics. We arguethattheCEOisadrivingforceinthegenerationof  󿬁 rmreputation.Speci 󿬁 cally,CEOreputationisconstruedasoneelementofsocialcapital that, when effectively managed by the CEO, leads to greater  󿬁 rm performance and reputation.The proposed conceptualization agrees with Ferris et al. (2003), who argued that reputation is perceptual in nature, and thuscan be managed. Indeed, many  󿬁 rms actively seek to manage assessments of past performance and events to maximize positiveperceptions of   󿬁 rm reputation by stakeholders (Fombrun, 1996). As such, reputation is a characteristic of organizations thatrequires a great deal of attention from leaders (Ferris et al., 2003; Petrick, Scherer, Brodzinski, Quinn, & Ainina,1999). Such issuesand understandings helped shape the development of our proposed model of celebrity leadership. Critical to a celebrity CEO'sability to manage internal and external reputation is their relative level of political skill.  Assumption 3.  Leadership as skill-driven, meaning management.A  󿬁 nal assumption of our proposed model is that leadership is, at its core, a skill-driven, meaning management process. As asocially constructed relational phenomenon, leadership duly requires the active coordination of meaning (Ferris & Judge, 1991;Hosking,1999). This active coordination of meaning requires that leaders posses the ability to read the external environment, andthe key individuals and audiences within it, and to engage in behaviors that are likely to ful 󿬁 ll the implicit leadership theories of their constituents. However, questions remain as to whether individual traits lead to leader emergence, or if leader emergencemakes constituent attributions of leadership more likely (Haslam et al., 2001; Meindl, 1993). The present paper adopts theviewpointthatindividualtraits,namelypoliticalskill,notonlyresultinhigherpotentialofleaderemergence,butthatpoliticalskillmakes it more likelythat CEO celebrity will be attributed totheir own efforts, and thus more likelyto be translated into long-termadvantage for the  󿬁 rm and the CEO.Politicalskillis “ theabilitytoeffectivelyunderstandothersatwork,andtousesuchknowledgetoin 󿬂 uenceothersinwaysthatenhance one's personal and/or organizational objectives ”  (Ferris, Treadway et al., 2005, p. 127). Although most of the existingresearch has operationalized political skill as a unitary construct, extensive construct development (i.e., Ferris, Treadway et al.,2005; Ferris et al., 2007) has demonstrated that the political skill construct is comprised of four dimensions.The  󿬁 rst dimension, social astuteness, implies that politically skilled individuals are capable of accurately assessing themotivations of others within social settings. Second, politically skilled individuals possess the ability to easily adapt to the shiftingnature of socialinteractions.This 󿬂 exibilityprovidestheminterpersonalin 󿬂 uence overtheircolleaguesandenvironments.Athirddimension, apparent sincerity, implies that politically skilled individuals are seen as possessing altruistic motivations ininterpersonalinteractions.Finally,perhapsasaresultof thisability,politicallyskilledindividualsarecapableofbuildingbroadandstrong social networks (Ferris, Davidson, & Perrewé, 2005; Ferris et al., 2007).Emerging evidence suggests that political skill is an important leadership competency. Indeed, leader political skill positivelyaffects both individual ( Jawahar, Meurs, Ferris, & Hochwarter, 2008; Semadar, Robins, & Ferris, 2006) and team (Ahearn, Ferris, Hochwarter, Douglas, & Ammeter, 2004) performance. Adding to the distinction of political skill from other social effectiveness 558  D.C. Treadway et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 20 (2009) 554 – 570
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