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A Model for Internasional Nursing Collaboration

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_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Report Information from ProQuest 06 September 2014 10:57 _______________________________________________________________ 06 September 2014 ProQuest Table of contents 1. A Model for International Nursing Collaboration........................................................................................... 1 06 September 2014 ii ProQuest Document 1 of 1 A Mo
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   _______________________________________________________________     _______________________________________________________________    Report Information from ProQuest 06 September 2014 10:57  _______________________________________________________________    06 September 2014ProQuest   able of contents 1. A Model for International Nursing Collaboration...........................................................................................106 September 2014iiProQuest  Document 1 of 1   A Model for International Nursing Collaboration Author: Halabi, Jehad O, PhD, RN; Majali, Sawsan, PhD, RN; Carlsson, Lola, RN, NT, BScN; Bergbom,Ingegerd, PhD, RN   ProQuest document link   Abstract: This article describes arguments for the development of a model for exchange of experiences amongnurses, nurse managers, and nurse educators from two countries based on theories of reflection and practiceand Freire's theory of dialogical action and its characteristics. The collaboration focused on exchange of experiences within nursing practice, leadership and management, and nursing education. The model consists of several activities: careful selection of participants in the exchange program; participants' observations andstudies of caring in nursing practice in the other culture; keeping a diary about one's own reflections, thoughts,and questions; and participation in reflective dialogue and meetings with colleagues. The model includedselection and implementation of a subject and written assignments for planned change in nursing practice withinparticipants' own clinical nursing setting. After an implementation period of 6 months to 1 year, the outcome of the implemented change was reported in seminars and workshops. Full text: In a world of globalization, nurses deliver care to patients from different cultures and traditions. Thisdemands cultural sensitivity, knowledge, and competence ( Leininger, 1995  ). Nurses also need to continuouslyexpand their knowledge and develop nursing care. One way of gaining knowledge and competence is throughinternational nursing collaboration. This unique collaboration provides professionals with opportunities to shareand exchange experiences ( Casey, 1999  ; Ross, 2000  ). In the literature, the benefits of academic exchanges weredescribed by Zheng, Hinshaw, Yu, Guo, and Oakley ( 2001  ); Grimes ( 2003  ); Ogilvie, Allen, Laryea, and Opare ( 2003 ); and Lee ( 2004  ). However, descriptions of international collaboration between staff nurses and supervisors arefew, although Brooks ( 1989  ) and Ganske, Zerull, Guinn, Dowling, and Tagnesi ( 2007  ) described such collaborationprojects between the United States and the United Kingdom. Brooks ( 1989  ) described an exchange program of nursing staff between two hospitals. This type of programdraws attention to the hospital as an interesting workplace with opportunities for professional growth. Ganske etal. ( 2007  ) described a global exchange program between registered nurses in two countries (the United Statesand the United Kingdom) in which the goals were to promote nursing scholarship, reward bedside nursingexcellence, affirm nursing practice, provide a global perspective, and promote retention in the sponsoringorganization. This article describes an international exchange program and presents a collaborative model of exchanging experiences among Jordanian and Swedish staff nurses, head nurses, and faculty members in thehospital and academic settings. Background   Start of Collaboration  In 1993, the faculty of nursing held its First International Nursing Conference in Amman, Jordan. A dialogueabout nursing care started between a faculty member from the faculty of nursing and a faculty member from theInstitute of Health and Caring Science at a university in Sweden. These discussions resulted in exchange visitsto both countries in 1995 by representatives from the Jordanian faculty of nursing and the Swedish Institute of Health and Caring Science and the university hospitals affiliated with those universities in Jordan and Sweden.The Swedish Institute financially supported these visits. The purpose of the visits was to discuss future collaboration, become oriented to nursing practice in the twocountries, and get an idea about nursing practice, leadership and management, and nursing education in bothcountries. The visits resulted in a mutual agreement to start collaboration in three main areas: clinical nursingcare, nursing management and leadership, and nursing education. The collaborative parties determined from 06 September 2014Page 1 of 13ProQuest  the beginning that the project should involve nurse educators, faculty members, and staff nurses andsupervisors. This decision was based on the assumption that changes in practice involve cooperation andagreement among all those involved in providing education and health care. There was also an intention to startcollaborative clinical nursing research, but this goal was not pursued because at that time none of the partieshad established doctoral programs or research activities. The participants also wished to build on the foundationthat already existed in both countries with the eventual goal of developing doctoral programs and participating incollaborative research. Pilot Project  In recognition of the importance of collaboration, a pilot project was started in 1995 to create mutual confidence,build trust, and develop a structure for international collaboration. The goal of the project was to develop amodel with the ideas about reflection and exchange of experiences in nursing. The pilot project included fivestaff nurses from the university hospital in Jordan. These nurses attended a clinical course for 6 weeks, whichmeant that they would practice in different clinical areas with their Swedish counterparts. The outcomes of thepilot project were positive. The parties agreed to write a project proposal together and apply for funding. Nursing Collaboration Project  In 1998, the Swedish International Cooperation Development Agency, the Swedish Hospital Fund, and theintended university in Jordan approved an application for collaboration. The first phase of the project startedwith the overall goals of supporting the development of nursing care practice and nurse education;strengthening the independent role of nurses in practice; and promoting cultural exchange. These goals were reflected in three programs: nursing care in practice, nursing leadership and management,and nursing education. The first goal for the exchange of nurses' experiences was to strengthen nursing care inpractice, including knowledge and skills needed to care for patients from different cultures and traditions as wellas nursing leadership and management. The second goal, which focused on the exchange of educators andstudents, was to strengthen and develop the curriculum within the nursing courses and to focus on this aspectof nursing in clinical courses and not only on medical issues. The strategy for the project was process-oriented, and the project objectives and activities were adapted tocurrent needs and established with mutual agreement. Each of the collaborative parties appointed a projectgroup consisting of one person from the faculty and one from the hospital. These four project leaders wereresponsible for planning, implementation, evaluation, and reporting. One of the Swedish project leaders wasselected as project coordinator responsible for accounting, reporting, and responding to Swedish InternationalCooperation Development Agency correspondence. One part of the program included exchange visits by leaders from hospitals and faculties in both countries toestablish cooperation, mutual support, and acknowledgement of the project. The project paid for travel,accommodations, daily allowances, transportation, and sociocultural activities for the Jordanian participants'visit to Sweden. The university in Jordan funded the Swedish participants' accommodations, transportation, andsociocultural activities in Jordan. The collaboration was ongoing from 1998 to 2007 and was implemented infour phases (Table and Fig. 1).  A total of 32 nurses and head nurses or supervisors and 31 faculty members from Jordan participated in theexchange program, with as many Swedish nurses and supervisors participating. Approximately 20 facultymembers from Sweden have participated in the exchange program in Jordan since its inception. In 2001, thenurse education program, which involved exchange of educators, was expanded into an exchange of educatorsand students from both countries through the Linnaeus-Palme program. This program consisted of an exchangeof bachelor's- and master's-level students and educators between developing countries and Sweden.Government funding covers the cost of the exchange. The Linnaeus-Palme program provides financial supportfor a maximum of 7 years. After this period, it is assumed that other or new types of collaboration have beendeveloped. Currently (2010), a new phase of the Linnaeus-Palme program for students and educators is taking 06 September 2014Page 2 of 13ProQuest
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