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A multiobjective variant of the Subdue graph mining algorithm based on the NSGA-II selection mechanism

A multiobjective variant of the Subdue graph mining algorithm based on the NSGA-II selection mechanism
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  A Multiobjective Variant of the Subdue Graph Mining Algorithmbased on the NSGA-II Selection Mechanism Prakash Shelokar, Arnaud Quirin and ´Oscar Cord´on  Abstract —In this work we propose a Pareto-based multi-objective search strategy for subgraph mining in structuraldatabases. The method is an extension of Subdue, a classicalgraph-based knowledge discovery algorithm, and it is thuscalled MultiObjective Subdue (MOSubdue). MOSubdue incor-porates the NSGA-II’s crowding selection mechanism in orderto retrieve a well distributed Pareto optimal set of meaningfulsubgraphs showing different optimal trade-offs between supportand complexity, in a single run. The good performance of theproposed approach is empirically demonstrated by using a real-life data set concerning the analysis of web sites. I. I NTRODUCTION The need of mining structural data to uncover objects orconcepts that relates objects (i.e., subgraphs that represent as-sociations of features) has increased in the last two decades,thus creating the area of   graph-based data mining  (GBDM)[1], [2]. A significant number of applications require a graph-based representation of structural information such as anal-ysis of microarray data in bioinformatics, pattern discoveryin a large graph representing a social network, analysis of transportation networks, and community discovery in Webdata, among many others [3].Mining graph-based data involves an effective and effi-cient manipulation of relational graphs, towards discoveringimportant patterns. Several approaches for knowledge dis-covery in graph data have been proposed in the literatureincluding Subdue, the apriori family of methods, frequentsubgraph discovery, Gaston, gSpan, MoFa/MoSS, JoinPath,CloseGraph, FFSM, Spin, CLOSECUT and SPLAT, gPrune,etc [3]. Roughly, all the existing methods work by performinga search in the lattice of all possible subgraphs. The under-lying search process is usually guided by a single objectivewhich represents a unique and specific user preference. Forexample, the extraction of those subgraphs satisfying someminimum frequency threshold or of those subgraphs whosesize is less than/equal to some given maximum integer valueare typical choices.On the other hand, Pareto-based multiobjective evolution-ary search strategies [4], [5] have recently gained muchimportance in data mining and machine learning commu-nities. This is due to one common benefit observed in thedifferent multiobjective learning approaches: a deeper insightinto the learning problem can be gained by analyzing a Prakash Shelokar, Arnaud Quirin, and ´Oscar Cord´on are withthe European Centre for Soft Computing, Mieres-33600, (Asturias),Spain. Email:  prakash.shelokar, arnaud.quirin, . This work has beenpartially supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation(MICINN) under project TIN2009-07727, including EDRF fundings. Pareto set composed of multiple nondominated solutions witha different trade-off in the satisfaction of the conflictinglearning problem objectives. Besides, some empirical studiesin [6], [7] have shown that Pareto-based learning approachesmay help the search process underlying the learning al-gorithm to escape from local optima, thus improving theaccuracy of the learning model. For a recent review onPareto-based multiobjective machine learning the interestedreader is referred to Jin and Sendhoff [8]. The edited book by Jin [9] also constitutes a very good snapshot of the area.In this paper we propose the incorporation of   Pareto-based multiobjective search strategies  [4], [5] to graph miningtechniques in order to allow them to handle the simultaneousoptimization of several conflicting goals representing differ-ent user preferences. To do so, we have selected Subdue [10],[11], the first and the most classical graph-based knowledgediscovery system, and have extended it to deal with thelatter scenario. This issue has been tackled by incorporatinga Pareto-based multiobjective component proposed in thenondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) [12] tothe selection strategy of Subdue in order to decide thesearch direction to be explored. This method has been calledMOSubdue (Multiobjective Subdue).The subgraph discovery process of MOSubdue evaluatesevery subgraph by jointly considering two preferences, and complexity, in order to explore different searchdirections within the multiobjective problem landscape. It isworth to note that MOSubdue is able to retrieve a Paretoset of nondominated, meaningful subgraphs from a structuraldatabase in a single run of the algorithm, showing differentoptimal trade-offs between support and complexity. In thecurrent contribution we empirically demonstrate the goodperformance of the proposed approach by using a real-lifedata set concerning the analysis of web sites [13].The paper is organized as follows. Section II presentssome preliminaries, including the operation mode of Subduealgorithm for subgraph discovery, a brief literature survey,and some basic definitions on multiobjective optimizationrelated to our work. Section III describes the MOSubduemethodology. Section IV provides the results obtained by ouralgorithm when applied to a real-world web sites database.Finally, Section V concludes with some discussion.II. P RELIMINARIES This section provides the methodological and problembackground used in this work. First, we review the oper-ation mode of Subdue, and then describe some basics of multiobjective optimization (MOO) related to our work. CCI 2010 IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence July, 18-23, 2010 - CCIB, Barcelona, SpainCEC IEEE 978-1-4244-8126-2/10/$26.00 c  2010 IEEE 463   A. The Subdue Algorithm Subdue [10], [11] is the first algorithm proposed in GBDMfor discovering interesting and repetitive subgraphs in a struc-tural database. The algorithm uses the minimum descriptionlength (MDL) principle [14] to discover frequent subgraphs,extract them, and replace them by a single node in orderto compress the entire database. The maximization of thedescription length is considered and suggests how well asubgraph can compress the input graph. This measure isa combination of two objectives, support and complexity(or size), which are commonly used preferences in GBDMalgorithms. The description length of a subgraph  g  in graphdata  G  is computed as: value MDL ( g,G ) =  I  ( G ) / ( I  ( g ) +  I  ( G | g ))  (1)The description length of a graph is the necessary numberof bits to completely describe the graph;  I  ( G )  and  I  ( g ) are the number of bits required to encode the graph  G  andthe subgraph  g  respectively;  I  ( G | g )  is the number of bitsrequired to encode the graph obtained by compressing  G with g, i.e. substituting each occurrence of   g  in  G  by asingle node [15]. The extracted subgraphs represent structuralconcepts in the data. Subdue can be run several times in asequence in order to extract different meta-concepts from thepreviously simplified database. After multiple Subdue runson the database, we can discover a hierarchical descriptionof the structural regularities in the data [16]. Subdue canalso use background knowledge, such as domain-orientedexpert knowledge, to be guided and to discover subgraphsfor a particular domain goal. The algorithm performs thesubgraph discovery in polynomial time. In the last fifteenyears, it has been successfully applied for many real-worldproblems including, bioinformatics [17], counter-terrorism[2], web data mining [18], geology [19], and aviation andchemistry [20], among others. 1)  SUBDUE  (Graph database  G , BeamWidth, MaxBest, Limit)2) ParentList =  { Vertex  v  —  v  has a unique label in graph } 3) Evaluate all the unique vertices4) BestList = UpdateBestList(ParentList) //Restrict to size  MaxBest  5) ProcessedParents = 06)  while  ProcessedParents  ≤  Limit and ParentList   =  ∅  do 7) ChildList =  {} 8)  while  ParentList   =  ∅  do 9) Parent = RemoveHead(ParentList)10) CandidateList = ExtendSubgraph(Parent)11) Evaluate subgraphs in CandidateList12) ChildList = UpdateChildList(CandidateList) // Restrict to size  BeamWidth 13) ProcessedParents = ProcessedParents+114)  end while 15) BestList = UpdateBestList(ChildList) //Restrict to size  MaxBest  16) ParentList = ChildList17)  end while 18)  Return  BestList // Discovered subgraphs Fig. 1. The outline of Subdue algorithm. Like many GBDM algorithms, Subdue models the searchprocess in the lattice of all possible subgraphs. In orderto conceptually arrange all the subgraphs in this lattice, itbegins with the set of subgraphs (ParentList) containing alluniquely labeled vertices (that is, each subgraph representsone uniquely labeled vertex). To traverse the lattice, Subdueextends each subgraph from ParentList in all possible wayseither by a single edge and a vertex or by a single edge onlyif both vertices are already in the subgraph. These subgraphsare kept on a queue (ChildList) and are ordered based on theirability to compress the graph, measured by the MDL index.This queue can grow exponentially as the search progresses.In order to avoid that exponential explosion, Subdue usesa variant of beam search [21] based on selecting and onlystoring the top  BeamWidth  subgraphs in ChildList. Thesearch terminates either upon reaching a user specified limiton the number of subgraphs extended, or upon exhaustionof the search space. Once the search process terminates, thealgorithm returns a list of the best subgraphs, BestList, whichcan store a maximum of   MaxBest   subgraphs. Fig. 1 showsthe outline of the Subdue system. Subdue takes as input agraphical database  G , and then three parameters to controlthe search process.  B. Multiobjective Optimization Basics As follows, we describe some MOO basics and generalnotations used throughout the paper. A general MOO prob-lem can be described as a vector function  f   that maps a tupleof   l  parameters (decision variables) to a tuple of   o  objectives[4], [5]. Formally:min./max.  y  =  f  ( x ) = ( f  1 ( x ) ,f  2 ( x ) ,...,f  o ( x )) subject to  x  = ( x 1 ,x 2 ,...,x l )  ∈  X   (2) y  = ( y 1 ,y 2 ,...,y o )  ∈  Y  where  x  is called the decision vector,  X   is the parameterspace,  y  is the objective vector, and  Y   is the objectivespace. To compare any two solutions, we apply the wellknown concept of Pareto dominance: assume, without lossof generality, a maximization problem, and consider twosolutions  x 1 and  x 2 with vector-valued objective functions y 1 and  y 2 respectively. An objective vector  y 1 is said toweakly dominate another objective vector  y 2 ( y 1 ≻  y 2 )if no component of   y 1 is smaller than the correspondingcomponent of   y 2 and at least one component is greater.Accordingly, we can say that a solution  x 1 is better toanother solution  x 2 , i.e.,  x 1 dominates  x 2 ( x 1 ≻  x 2 ),if   f  ( x 1 )  dominates  f  ( x 2 ) . Mathematically, the concept of Pareto optimality is defined as follows: ∀ i  ∈ { 1 , 2 ,...,o }  :  f  i ( x 1 )  ≥  f  i ( x 2 ) ∧∃  j  ∈ { 1 , 2 ,...,o }  :  f  j ( x 1 )  > f  j ( x 2 )  (3)Hence, optimal solutions, i.e., solutions not dominated byany other solution, may be mapped to different objectivevectors. In other words, there may exist several optimal 464  objective vectors representing different trade-offs betweenthe objectives.In a typical MOO problem there is not usually a singleoptimal solution to solve the problem, (i.e., being betterthan the remainder with respect to every objective, as insingle objective optimization) but a set of optimal solutionsthat are superior to the remainder (are not dominated bythem) when all the objectives are jointly considered. Thesesolution vectors are known as nondominated, efficient orPareto optimal and constitute the so-called nondominated,efficient or Pareto optimal solutions set. Their set of objectivevectors is called nondominated, efficient or Pareto front.III. M ULTIOBJECTIVE  S UBDUE  S TRUCTURE AND O PERATION  M ODE This section justifies the need of handling several pref-erences simultaneously in any GBDM algorithm and laterdescribes the implementation of Subdue for multiobjectivesubgraph discovery.  A. Justification for MOO in GBDM  The fact that the existing GBDM techniques apply asingle objective search has many limitations such as werisk a huge (very few) subgraphs in the case of weak (strict) preference value. For example, the formulation of the search problem considering a single criterion like theusual subgraph occurrence frequency (i.e., the support) wouldnormally result in the generation of small subgraphs with alarge extent. These subgraphs may not be very informativeand as a consequence of being very basic a user may not beable to uncover any new knowledge from them. Moreover, inreal-life applications a user is generally interested in mininga graph-based repository with several preferences whichare actually meaningful to her/him. These preferences areoften conflicting in nature. For example, users are normallyinterested in the discovery of subgraphs with high supportand complexity. These objectives are conflicting, as simplerdescriptions are usually the most frequent ones and  viceversa . One simple approach to apply an existing GBDMalgorithm to the latter scenario is to combine several criteriainto a single-objective function by any kind of objectiveaggregation scheme. However, the aggregation of two con-flicting criteria ( e.g. , subgraph support and size) in a single-objective scalar function would result in a similar behaviorwhere only the specific subgraphs showing the specifictrade-off between the two objectives, explicitly or implicitlyspecified in the aggregation function, would be retrieved.In view of the reasons stated above, any successful GBDMmethodology should not only rely on the optimization of asingle criterion but also consider simultaneously additional,conflicting criteria to extract better defined concepts basedon the size of the subgraph being explained, the numberof retrieved subgraphs, and their diversity. With that aim inmind, in this paper we propose the incorporating of Pareto-based search strategies to graph mining techniques in orderto allow them to handle the simultaneous optimization of several conflicting goals representing different user prefer-ences.To do so, we have selected Subdue [10], [11], the firstand the most classical graph-based knowledge discoverysystem, and have extended it to deal with the latter scenarioby incorporating a Pareto-based evolutionary multiobjectivecomponent [22], [23] to the selection strategy of Subdue inorder to decide the search direction to be explored, i.e., tothe decision on which of the subgraphs in ChildList willcompose ParentList in the next iteration (see Section II).In the next subsection we provide the novel MultiObjectiveSubdue (MOSubdue) proposal.  B. Proposal Towards applying preferences in subgraph discovery usingSubdue, every subgraph can be jointly evaluated consideringtwo objective functions: (i) the support (the occurrencefrequency of the subgraph  g  in the whole graph data  G ),and (ii) the complexity or size (the number of vertices andedges present in the subgraph  g ). These objectives can becalculated as: value support ( g,G ) =  #subgraphs in  G  matching  g  (4) value complexity ( g,G ) =  #vertices ( g ) +  #edges ( g )  (5)The higher the support and size of a subgraph, the larger itsimportance since more frequent subgraphs represent sounderinsights while larger subgraphs are associated to moreconcise (and thus more difficult to uncover) descriptions.Therefore, the best possible subgraphs are the ones thatare maximized both in support and size. Nevertheless, theproblem is that both objectives are conflicting, as simplerdescriptions are usually the most frequent ones and  viceversa . Thanks to the proposed extension, we will be able toretrieve a Pareto set of nondominated, meaningful subgraphsfrom a structural database in a single run of the algorithm,showing different optimal trade-offs between support andcomplexity. Hence, MOSubdue will allow us to uncovercohesive subgraphs comprising even a moderate number of observations (and not only the most frequent ones, as usual)which describe the underlying phenomena from differentangles, revealing novel information that otherwise would beconcealed by uninformative frequent descriptions.Fig. 2 shows the outline of the MOSubdue algorithm.MOSubdue considers a Pareto-based multiobjective selec-tion strategy on the opposite to the usual Subdue’s singleobjective operation mode for subgraph discovery. BasicallyMOSubdue replicates all the processes of srcinal Subduesuch as initial parent generation, parent expansion, andchild generation. Besides, MOSubdue applies Subdue’s beamsearch in order to constrain the search space of subgraphs.As in classical Subdue, the beam search limits the size of ChildList using the parameter  BeamWidth . However, in ourcase the selection of subgraphs in ChildList is performedby implementing the well known concept of Pareto domi-nance in order to guide the search towards discovery of the 465  1)  MOSUBDUE  (Graph, BeamWidth, ParetoArchiveSize, Limit)2) ParentList =  { Vertex  v  —  v  has a unique label in graph } 3) Estimate support and complexity of all the unique vertices4) ParetoArchiveList = UpdateParetoArchive(ParentList) //stores only nondom-inated subgraphs5) ProcessedParents = 06)  while  ProcessedParents  ≤  Limit and ParentList   =  ∅  do 7) ChildList =  {} 8)  while  ParentList   =  ∅  do 9) Parent = RemoveHead(ParentList)10) CandidateList = ExtendSubgraph(Parent)11) Estimate support and complexity of subgraphs in CandidateList12) ChildList = UpdateChildList(CandidateList)13) ProcessedParents = ProcessedParents+114)  end while 15) Rank subgraphs in ChildList using nondominated sorting16) ParetoArchiveList = UpdateParetoArchive(ChildList)17) Select  BeamWidth  subgraphs on queue ChildList using dominance rank and density estimation18) ParentList = ChildList19)  end while 20)  Return  ParetoArchiveList // Discovered nondominated subgraphs Fig. 2. The outline of MOSubdue algorithm. nondominated subgraphs, the Pareto set. After terminatingthe search, the algorithm reports a set of nondominatedsubgraphs stored in an external list, ParetoArchiveList, whosesize is controlled by the parameter ParetoArchiveSize. Pare-toArchiveList is updated at the end of each iteration usingthe nondominance criteria (eq. (3)).The idea of calculating an individual’s fitness in thepopulation on the basis of Pareto dominance to achievean efficient set of solutions has been very successful inthe area of evolutionary multiobjective optimization (EMO)[22], [23]. The nondominated sorting genetic algorithm,NSGA-II [12], is one of the most popular EMO algorithm.NSGA-II makes use of Pareto dominance approach, wherethe population is divided into several fronts and the depthreflects to which front an individual belongs to. An individualis assigned a pseudo-dominance rank equal to the frontnumber. The selection of an individual in the population isperformed using this dominance rank value. In this work,our MOSubdue implementation utilizes this dominance depthapproach to perform selection of subgraphs in ChildList.MOSubdue implements Pareto dominance based fitness pro-cedure in order to assign a scalar fitness value to all thesubgraphs in ChildList. This is done by identifying differentnondominated fronts in ChildList. Initially, for each subgraphwe calculate two elements: a) domination count  n g , thenumber of subgraphs which dominate the subgraph  g , andb)  Z  g  a set of subgraphs that the subgraph dominates. Allthe subgraphs with domination count zero compose the firstnondominated front  F  1 . Then, for each subgraph with  n g  =0 , we visit each member ( q  ) of its set  Z  g  and reduce itsdomination count by one. In doing so, if for any member  q  the domination count becomes zero, we put it in a separatelist  Q . These members belong to the second nondominatedfront  F  2 . The above procedure is repeated with each member 1)  Begin  : ChildList subgraphs with support and complexity values.2)  for  each subgraph  g  ∈  ChildList  do 3)  Z  g  =  ∅  and  n g  = 0 4)  for  each subgraph  g ′ ∈  ChildList,  g   =  g ′ do 5)  if   g  ≻  g ′ then  //   g  dominates  g ′ 6)  Z  g  =  Z  g  ∪{ g ′ }  // Add  g ′ to the dominated set of   g 7)  else if   g ′ ≻  g  then  //   g ′ dominates  g 8)  n g  =  n g  + 1 // Increment domination counter of   g 9)  end if  10)  end for 11)  if   n g  = 0  then  //   g  belongs to the first front12)  g rank   = 1  // Assign dominance rank to  g 13)  F  1  ∪{ g }  // Add  g  to the first front14)  end if  15)  end for 16)  r  = 1 17)  while  F  r   =  ∅  do 18)  Q  =  ∅ 19)  for  each  g  ∈  F  r  do 20)  for  each  g ′ ∈  Z  g  do 21)  n g ′  =  n g ′  − 1 22)  if   n g ′  = 0  then 23)  g ′ rank   =  r  + 1 24)  Q  =  Q ∪{ g ′ } 25)  end if  26)  end for 27)  end for 28)  r  =  r  + 1 29)  F  r  =  Q 30)  end while 31)  output  : subgraphs in ChildList sorted into different nondominated fronts Fig. 3. Nondominated sorting in MOSubdue algorithm. of   Q  and the third front is identified. This process continuesuntil all the fronts are identified. The steps involved inidentifying nondominated fronts in ChildList are shown inFig. 3. Once the fronts are identified, each subgraph isassigned a scalar fitness (or rank) equal to its nondominationlevel and ChildList is sorted based on nondomination level inthe ascending order of magnitude. The algorithm considerssubgraphs with rank 1 are the best; subgraphs with rank 2are the second-best; and so on.Most state-of-the-art algorithms in EMO take into accountdensity information in addition to the dominance criterion toobtain a well distributed set of Pareto optimal solutions. Toguide the search towards a good spread of solutions in thePareto set approximation, MOSubdue incorporates densityinformation into the selection process of population individ-uals: an individual’s chance of being selected is decreasedaccording to the density of individuals in its neighborhood.In this study we use density information in addition to thedominance criterion to select subgraphs in ChildList in orderto compose ParentList for the next extention step. The densityinformation is calculated among the subgraphs belong to anyparticular nondominated front, i.e. having identical domi-nance rank. This additional density information representsthe diversity of subgraphs belonging to that nondominatedfront and it is used to select the most diversified subgraphs.For this purpose, we employ the density estimation methodproposed in the NSGA-II algorithm [12]. This method does 466  1)  Begin  : Nondominated set  F  2)  n  =  | F  |  // Number of subgraphs in  F  3)  for  each subgraph  g  do 4)  F  [ g ] distance  = 0  // Initialize distance5)  end for 6)  for  objective  k  ∈ { Support, Complexity }  do 7)  F   =  sort ( F,k ) 8)  F  [1] distance  =  F  [ n ] distance  =  ∞  // Assign maximum distance value9)  for  g  = 2  to  ( n − 1)  do 10)  F  [ g ] distance  =  F  [ g ] distance +( F  [ g +1] .k − F  [ g − 1] .k ) / ( f  max k  − f  min k  ) 11)  end for 12)  end for Fig. 4. Density estimation. not require  any  user-defined parameter for calculating thediversity of subgraphs. The density of subgraphs surroundinga particular subgraph in ChildList is calculated as the averagedistance of the subgraphs on either side of this subgraphalong both the preferences, i.e. support and complexity. Thisdistance computation is done by sorting ChildList accordingto the first objective function (i.e. support) value in ascendingorder of magnitude. The subgraphs with smallest and largestobjective function values are assigned an infinite distancevalue. All other intermediate subgraphs are assigned a dis-tance value equal to the absolute normalized difference inthe objective function values of two adjacent subgraphs. Thiscalculation is then continued with the other objective function(i.e. complexity). The overall distance value is calculated asthe sum of individual distance values corresponding to ourtwo objectives. The objective functions are normalized beforedoing distance computation.Fig. 4 gives the outline of density estimation in the set F  .  F  [ g ] .k ,  k  ∈ { support, complexity }  refers to the  k thpreference of subgraph  g  in set  F   and the parameters f  max k  and  f  min k  the maximum and minimum values of   k thpreference. After all the subgraphs in set  F   are assigneda distance metric, we can compare two subgraphs for theirextent of proximity with other subgraphs. A subgraph with asmaller value of this distance measure is considered to havea greater density of subgraphs in its neighborhood and  viceversa . To select subgraphs with good diversity in the set F  , we prefer subgraphs with higher distance metric value.The ties between subgraphs with equal distance values areresolved arbitrarily.IV. E XPERIMENTS In this section we analyze the behavior of MOSubduealgorithm by means of various unary and binary metrics pro-posed in the EMO literature [22], [23], [24], [25], and visualrepresentations of the obtained Pareto fronts. Besides, weapply Subdue using different objective functions to producean aggregated Pareto front which is then used for comparingthe performance of MOSubdue. Firstly, some introductorysubsections are included to define the experimental designby setting up parameters, describing the used database, andreporting the considered EMO metrics. Later, the wholeexperimental analysis is given.  A. Web sites analysis dataset  This database is available online at Subdue website 1 . Thedata were extracted from real World Wide Web pages andwere transformed to labeled graphs using a web robot [13].In this work, we have considered ProfStu graph data whichwas generated using professor and student web sites. Theinformation these graphs contain is hyperlink structure andpage’s content. The data consist of 47 graphs, which arequite complex containing several unique vertex labels. Weconsider this real world database as a challenging way toillustrate our multiobjective approach. Instead of dealingwith each of the huge graphs individually as done in [13],we selected five graphs (numbered 6, 19, 25, 43, and 45)from the ProfStu database and joined them into a singledatabase with a complexity of 832 vertices, 885 edges, and511 unique labels. For this database, the true Pareto setis not known due to its large complexity and real-worldnature. For comparison purposes, we have used a pseudo-optimal Pareto set, which is obtained as a fusion of allthe nondominated sets achieved by both the algorithms indifferent runs. This pseudo-optimal Pareto set contains 8nondominated subgraphs that are distinct in the objectivevector space.  B. Experimental setup Here, we first provide the use of the srcinal Subduealgorithm for generating a set of nondominated subgraphsin order to compare the performance with our MOSubdueproposal. Next the parameter values, and the consideredperformance metrics are presented. 1) Nondominated subgraphs using basic Subdue:  Thecurrent version of Subdue 2 supports three subgraph evalu-ation metrics, viz. MDL, support and size. We run Subduewith each evaluation metric on the database that outputsBestList (last line, Fig. 1), whose size is set to  MaxBest   =33. Later, we combine the three BestLists and remove anymultiple copied subgraphs in order to produce the aggregatedset. Finally, we apply the non dominance definition (seeEq. (3)) on the aggregated set to remove the dominatedsubgraphs and obtain a baseline nondominated solution setapproximation generated from the single-objective Subduealgorithm. 2) Parameter values:  MOSubdue algorithm has been runten times with ten different seeds during 1000 seconds. Be-sides, srcinal Subdue was run during 1000 seconds in whichsimulation of Subdue with each objective was performed for(333 seconds) 1/3 of the total running time. The maximumnumber of nondominated subgraphs that can be reported byMOSubdue was set to  ParetoArchiveSize  = 100. We usedthree different values of   BeamWidth , equal to 5, 10, and 20 toanalyze the behavior of our proposed MOSubdue approach. 1 2 467
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