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A NEW CRYPTIC SPECIES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA: MOLECULAR AND MORPHOLOGICAL INSIGHTS INTO BLADED SPECIES OF THE BANGIALES

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A NEW CRYPTIC SPECIES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA: MOLECULAR AND MORPHOLOGICAL INSIGHTS INTO BLADED SPECIES OF THE BANGIALES
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  European Journal of Phycology Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tejp20 To cite this article:  (2011): Oral Papers, European Journal of Phycology, 46:sup1, 45-107 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09670262.2011.613190  groups as we expand our sampling, at both local(e.g., habitat exploration) and global scales. Ourpreliminary results strongly indicate that the spe-cies-level diversity of brown algal crusts is clearlyunderappreciated. 3A.10TESTING FOR SPECIES AND GENUSCONCEPTS AND ENDEMISM INFILAMENTOUS XANTHOPHYCEAE(STRAMEOPILES) Nataliya Rybalka 1 (nrybalk@uni-goettingen.de),Igor Y. Kostikov 2 (kost@univ.kiev.ua), AndrzejMassalski 3 (andrzej.massalski@ujk.edu.pl),Ru ¨diger Schulz 1 (rschulz@bot.uni-kiel.de) andThomas Friedl 4 (tfriedl@uni-goettingen.de) 1 Physiology and Biotechnology of Plant Cell,Christian-Albrechts-University, 24118 Kiel,Germany;  2 Taras Shevchenko National University,Department of Botany, 01017 Kiev, Ukraine; 3 Jan Kochanowski University of Art and Natural Sciences, Biology Institute, Department of Botany,25-406 Kielce, Poland and   4 ExperimentellePhykologie und Sammlung von Algenkulturen,Georg-August-Universita ¨ t, 37073 Go ¨ ttingen,Germany Species of unbranched filamentous Xanthophyceae(Tribonemataceae), described from environmentalsamples, are difficult to identify due to the insuffi-ciency of morphological characters and extensivemorphological plasticity. Identification of speciesof the branched filamentous genus  Heterococcus ,described from cultures, requires long-term obser-vation on different culture media. To test for genusand species boundaries we employed molecularmarkers to study a large sample of culture strainsfrom different regions of the world (e.g., Ukraine,Germany, Antarctica). FilamentousXanthophyceae are abundant in soils inAntarctica. Therefore, the genetic diversity of most available culture strains of Tribonemataceaefrom Antarctica was assessed to test for endemismwhen compared with their closest temperate rela-tives. Phylogenies based on complete rbcL andsequence comparisons of the psbA/rbcL spacer, ahighly variable region unique for chloroplasts of Xanthophyceae, marker, clearly showed that cur-rent morphospecies were inadequate to describethe actual biodiversity of the group. The morpho-genera  Xanthonema ,  Tribonema  and  Bumilleriopsis were found paraphyletic in the rbcL phylogeniesand split into several lineages which may corre-spond to genera. Only in  Bumilleriopsis  the split-ting corresponded to ultrustructural features,i.e. presence/absence of the girdle lamellae and apyrenoid-like structure in the chloroplast.Fortunately, the presence of distinctive sequenceregions within the psbA/rbcL spacer provided sig-nificant autoapomorphic criteria to redefine spe-cies in the Tribonemataceae.  Heterococcus  (withsolid cell walls) was phylogenetically rather sepa-rated from the Tribonemataceae which have bipar-tite cell walls. Chloroplast-encoded psbA/rbcLspacer as well as nuclear-encoded ITS rDNAsequences agreed on dividing the studied Heterococcus  strains into two major groups(genera?) and several subgroups (species?). Therewas no Tribonemataceae species endemic forAntarctica, and no phylogenetic clade corre-sponded to a limited geographical region.However, because the Antarctic strain spacersequences were not identical to sequences fromtemperate regions there may be TribonemataceaeAntarctic populations that are distinct from thoseof other regions. 3A.11A NEW CRYPTIC SPECIES IN THEMEDITERRANEAN SEA: MOLECULAR ANDMORPHOLOGICAL INSIGHTS INTOBLADED SPECIES OF THE BANGIALES Noemı´  Sa´ nchez 1 (noemı ´.sanchez@udg.edu), AlbaVerge ´s 1 , Ce ´sar Peteiro 2 , Lluı ´s Polo 1 and JulietBrodie 3 1 Universitat de Girona, Facultat de Cie `ncies, 17071Girona, Spain;  2 Instituto Espan ˜ ol de Oceanografı´ a(IEO), Centro Oceanogra´  fico de Santander, 39080Santander, Spain and   3 Natural History Museum,Department of Botany, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom The Mediterranean is an enclosed sea that hasundergone a varied geological history, includingits isolation around six million years ago duringthe Messinian crisis, and its definitive re-openingto the Atlantic through the Strait of Gibraltar atthe beginning of the Pliocene, around 5.3 millionyears ago. This relatively recent history is a keyfactor necessary for our understanding of its evo-lution and present biodiversity. Currently, theMediterranean Sea is considered a hot spot of bio-diversity, and despite its small dimensions (0.82%of the ocean surface), it is known that it hosts morethan 7.5% of global biodiversity with a uniquelyhigh percentage of endemic species. In recent years,the application of molecular techniques hasrevealed that the taxonomic group  Porphyrasensu lato  ( Bangia  and  Porphyra ) has considerablymore species diversity than was thought, and Oral Papers  67  although detailed studies on  Porphyra  have beenundertaken in different parts of the world, theMediterranean basin has been little studied todate. Hence, focused in the framework of a taxo-nomic review of   Porphyra  in the Iberian Peninsula(Spanish government project CGL2008-00932/BOS), based on molecular and morphologicalstudies, we present: (1) a new cryptic species tothe Bangiales that, to date, seems to present avery restricted distribution, limited to theMediterranean Sea, and could be considered a pos-sible endemism, (2) new data that modify the flor-istic composition of   Porphyra  in the SpanishMediterranean coast, and moreover evidence thatquestions the occurrence of   P. leucosticta  Thuret inLe Jolis,  P. linearis  Greville and  P. umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Ku ¨tzing in the Mediterranean Sea.Finally, (3) we demonstrate the molecular relation-ship between the new species and other bladedBangiales. Oral Papers  68
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