A new Dedication from Eastern Lokris, ZPE 178, 2011

A new Dedication from Eastern Lokris, ZPE 178, 2011
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  D ANIELA  S UMMA  – P ETROS  K OUNOUCLAS A N EW  D EDICATION   FROM  E ASTERN  L OKRIS aus: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 178 (2011) 203–206© Dr. Rudolf Habelt GmbH, Bonn  203 A N EW  D EDICATION   FROM  E ASTERN  L OKRIS 1 In the years 2001–2003 the 7th Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities undertook a rescue excavation at Make-doniká in the northern outskirts of the modern city of Atalánti (the site of ancient Opous, capital of Eastern Lokris), 2  where the remains of an Early Christian basilica had been revealed due to construction work. Among the artefacts found in this building was a rectangular pedestal of grey marble (0.20 m. × 0.585 m. × 0.50 m.). The stone was discovered in the destruction Þ ll that covered the narthex and had no doubt been used as building material for the construction of the church ( Þ g. 1). Shallow depressions on the upper surface and on the base of the pedestal suggest that, before being used as construction material, the stone served more than once to support a statue ( Þ gs. 1, 3). On the front face there is an engraved inscription. 3  The letter-forms (0.018 to 0.02 m. high) point to the mid-4th cent. BC ( Þ g. 2).   Ἀέ    ά   ∆   ώω , Ἀάν . Agelaos son of Epikrates, most likely a citizen of Opous, dedicated a statue to Zeus Patroios and Athena. According to archaic usage, the names of the two gods are juxtaposed without the copula  . The personal names Ἀέ   and  ά  are very common in central Greece: the Þ rst is well attested in Western Lokris, 4  the second also occurs in an Eastern Lokrian inscription of Halai dated to the late 3rd cent. BC. 5 Interestingly, the excavations conducted in 1970 by Theodoros Spyropoulos in Atalánti produced a similar dedication ( Þ g. 4): it was found on the property of Vasilios Tsápalis on the central square of the city, 6  in the foundations of a Roman building. It is a reused poros stone (0.86 m. × 1.07 m. × 0.42 m.), prob-ably an altar rather than a statue-base (Spyropoulos). The stone, now in the Museum of Thebes (inv. no. 32073), bears an inscription 7  on the front face (letter-heights 0.04 to 0.048 m.) and traces of lead on the top.  s. IV a. ∆   ώ , Ἀ [ άν ]   ∆   ωῆ , Ἀά [  ν ] Spyropoulos’ supplement Ἀ [ νά  was corrected by Jeanne and Louis Robert (  BE 1974, 288): ‘Nous supposons la mention d’ Ἀάν , suivie sans doute d’une épithète.’ The inscription presented in this paper, in which    ῶ  is associated with Athena, con Þ rms the Roberts’ conjecture, but it also shows that no epiklesis should be restored after Ἀάν . 1  We are grateful to Maria Papakonstantinou (14th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities), Vassilis Aravantinos (9th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities), Anna Yialouri (7th Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities) for permission to study the stones, to Yannis Kalliontzis for generous help in Thebes and for the picture of the second Opountian inscription, to Jaime Curbera, Klaus Hallof and Georg Petzl for many helpful comments. 2  On the identi Þ cation of ancient Opous as the modern Atalánti, and not as Kiparissi (as had been thought by C. Blegen, The Site of Opous,  AJA 30, 1926, 401–404; W. A. Oldfather, Opus,  RE XVIII 1 (1942), 812–818; and W. K. Pritchett, Stud-ies in Ancient Greek Topography  V (1985), 184  – 185), see R. Étienne and D. Knoep ß er,  Hyettos de Béotie et la chronologie des archontes fédéraux entre 250 et 171 avant J.-C.  (  BCH Suppl.  III), 1976, 331  – 337; J. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Opountian Lokris  (1990), 68–74; F. Dakoronia, Homeric Towns in East Lokris. Problems of Identi Þ cation,  Hesperia  62, 1993, 115–127; K. Braun, in S. Lauffer (ed.),  Lexikon der historischen Stätten  (1989), 491; and most recently T. H. Nielsen, East Lokris, in: M. H. Hansen and T. H. Nielsen (eds.),  An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis  (2004), 670–671. The de Þ ni-tion of Opountian Lokris (or Hypoknemidian Lokris) and Epiknemidian Lokris and the different ways the terms are used in inscriptions and ancient authors are analysed by G. Klaffenbach, Zur Geschichte von Ost-Lokris, Klio 20, 1926, 66–88; T. H. Nielsen, Epiknemidian, Hypoknemidian and Opountian Lokrians, in: P. Flensted-Jensen (ed.), Further Studies in the Ancient Greek Polis  (2000), 108–118; and id., loc. cit. 2004, 664. 3  Now IG IX 1², 5, 1926. 4    LGPN   III B, 7. 5  Now IG IX 1², 5, 1864 7 . See  LGPN   III B, 137. 6   Ἀχ  . ∆  .  26 B 1, 1971 (1974), 237 with plate 211 a (  BE 1974, 288); M. K. Christophorou,     ν              Αάν   (1990), 123. See also Fossey, loc. cit. (n. 2)   154. 7  Now IG IX 1², 5, 1927.  204  D. Summa – P. Kounouclas Testimonia for Zeus ῶ   as ‘ancestral’ are frequent in the Doric islands, 8  while the cult is attest-ed less often in the Ionic and Attic world. 9  In Attic drama, when applied to Zeus, the epithet ῶ   mostly seems to have the meaning of ‘father’, ‘grandfather’ or ‘protector of the family’. 10  In the Ionic tradi-tion, ῶ  is in fact usually associated with Apollon, father of Ion, 11  as Sokrates explains in Platon’s dialogue  Euthydemos  302c–d (c. 390 BC): the Ionians and the Athenians have an Apollon ῶ , rather than Zeus, because of Ion’s parentage. 12  Therefore, while in Attika we mainly Þ nd the triad Zeus Φά , Athena Φ  and Apollon ῶ , among the Dorians it is Zeus who usually has the epi-thet ῶ . Nonetheless, Zeus ῶ   does not appear often in Dorian documents from continental Greece either: apart from our two Eastern Lokrian inscriptions we Þ nd him in a Delphic   oath 13   h χμαι      ῦ   ∆ [  ]    ῦ   τώ ;  in a boundary-stone of Pieris (Macedonia) ∆       ώ   ⁝      ∆    14 ; with Athena Patroia in an oracular lamella from Dodona 15   ∆      ω    . . . .    χ   άν ,  Ἡῖ ,  χ (  ῖ ), Ἀάν       (  );  and, near to the Dorians, in a dedication from Arkadian Tegea: Ἀνχ   ὶ   ∆μ   ∆   ώῳ . 16 The Opountians may have perceived Zeus as particularly ῶ , 17  because Opous, eponym of the capital of Opountian Lokris, 18  was born from the mythic union of Zeus and Protogeneia, daughter of Deu-kalion and Pyrrha and wife of Lokros. Before the discovery of these two inscriptions, only Zeus  Ὀμ   and   Ἀ  (FD III 1, 362 + 4, 354) were known in Eastern Lokris. Further evidence for the cult of Zeus is the festival ∆ῖ      Αἰάν       Ῥωμῖ , 19  celebrated at Opous in the mid-2nd cent. BC. This festival had diaulon contests, 20  a speciality of Opountian performers. 21  Until now, Athena had not been attested in Opous, a contrast to 8  Rhodos (IG XII 1, 890 24–25. 36–37 ; Lindos II 648 1 ), Cos (  Iscrizioni di Cos  EV 219 17 , 329 = IG XII 4, 405; R. Herzog,  Heilige Gesetze (1928), 35 no. 13 g and h), Peraia Rhodia (253 1 ). 9  However, it is present on Andros (IG XII Suppl. 248 25–26 ), Paros (IG XII Suppl. 208), Chios (Syll.³ 987 = Sokolowski,  LSCG  III 118, 23; SEG 17, 388), Thasos (IG XII Suppl. 407; C. Rolley,  BCH 89, 1965, 441–483), Ephesos (  IK   12, 101, 102, 103, 104), Halikarnassos (Michel 1197 and Syll. 3  1044 [SEG 15, 637]), Kaunos (Ch. Marek, Inschriften von Kaunos [2006] 56 13 ), and Smyrna (  IK   24, 591; and elsewhere related to Augustus, see W. H. Buckler, Auguste, Zeus Patroos,  Rev. Phil.  61, 1935, 177–188). 10  Cf. R. Parker, Polytheism and Society at Athens  (2005), 22–23: ‘The word Patroos is open to various understandings (despite Socrates’ denial, for instance, a Zeus Patroos does appear in Attic texts, as a “protector of Fathers” Ar.  Nub.  1468 (paratragic), Pl.  Leg . 881d) and doubtless, where a particular “ancestral god” could also be seen as a forefather, an interpretation such as Socrates’ was common (Soph. Trach. 288, 753; Apollod. II 8, 4).’ On Zeus ῶ  see also W. Aly, Patroioi theoi,  RE XVIII 4 (1949), 2259–2260; M. P. Nilsson, Geschichte der griechischen Religion  I (²1955), 417–418; F. Salviat,  BCH   82, 1958, 221; C. Rolley,  BCH   89, 1965, 458–459 and below, note 17. 11  On Apollon Patroios and Zeus Phratrios in Athens, see S. D. Lambert, The Fratries of Attica  (1993), 205–216; Parker, loc. cit. (n. 10) 22–23. 12  Cf. Eur.  Ion  64–75. Apollon begot Ion upon Kreusa, daughter of Erechtheus. 13  Ca. 400–350 BC, CID  I 9 A 14–15 , B 14–15 , D  46  [Sokolowski,  LSCG  77]. Cf. A. Jacquemin, Panthéon et épiclèses delphiques, in: N. Belayche et al. (eds.),  Nommer les Dieux. Théonymes, épithètes, épiclèses dans l’Antiquité   (2006),   249–250. 14  Late 5th/early 4th cent. BC, P. Perdrizet, Voyage dans la Macédoine première,  BCH   18, 1894, 441 (M. Dimitsas, Ἡ    ν   (1896), 912). 15  Ca. 390 BC. É. Lhôte,  Les lamelles oraculaires de Dodone (2006), no. 141 Ba. 16  Hadrianic, IG V 2, 63 (G. Schörner,  Votive im römischen Griechenland [2003], Cat. 808 and pl. 83,1). 17  On the cult and epiklesis of Zeus in Eastern Lokris and on the epiklesis Patroios, see the exhaustive article of H. Schwabl, Zeus,  RE Suppl. XV (1978), 1100 and 1472. 18  Schol. Pind. Ol.  IX 85–100; Schol. Apollon. Rhod. IV 1780. In other variants Opous was Lokros’ son (Plut. quaest. graec.  15 [ mor.  294 E 1]). 19  In Opous cults are attested of Apollon (IG IX 1², 5, 1918 and 1928), Hermes (IG IX 1², 1918 and 1936), the Muses (IG IX 1², 5, 1918), Artemis Ennodia (IG IX 1², 5, 1929), Dionysos (IG IX 1², 5, 1918 and 1930), Serapis (IG X 2, 1, 255), unspeci- Þ ed deities (IG IX 1², 5, 1928, IG IX 1², 5, 1940), the heroes Herakles (IG IX 1², 5, 1936; also attested in Diod. Sic. IV 39, 1) and Aias Oileus (IG IV² 1, 629). On the Lokrian deities see also A. Schachter, Cults of Boiotia  I (1981), 114–115 (Athena); III (1994), 98–100 (Zeus), 157–158, 161–162 (‘unspeci Þ ed’); Fossey, loc. cit. (n. 2) 151–157; IG IX 1², 5, fast. 333–338. 20  IG IV² 1, 629 (L. Moretti,  Iscrizioni agonistiche greche  [1953], 53). 21  See D. Summa, Ricerche sulla vita teatrale e il suo Þ nanziamento in Locride, in: B. Le Guen (ed.),  L’argent dans les concours du monde grec (2010), 107–125.     A New Dedication from Eastern Lokris  205the city of Halai where she was city-goddess, 22  but her helmeted head on the Opountian coins 23  attests the worship of this deity in Opous and in Opountian Lokris. Finally, the rarity of dedications to Zeus   ῶ   and the discovery of two very similar documents in the area of Atalánti leave no doubt that a sanctuary of the ύμωμ  (or ύνν ) gods Zeus ῶ   and Athena was situated in Opous. It is dif  Þ cult to identify its exact location, but both the site excavated by Spyropoulos, as John Fossey has already suggested, 24  and the site of the new inscription are possible candidates. Daniela Summa, Inscriptiones Graecae, Berlinsumma@bbaw.dePetros Kounouclas, 14th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, 22  H. Goldman, Inscriptions from the Acropolis of Halae,  AJA  19, 1915, 438–444 no. 1 with Þ gs. 1–4, no. 2 with Þ gs. 5–6, ead., The Acropolis of Halae,  Hesperia  9, 1940, 428–430 with Þ gs. 80–81 (now IG IX 1², 5, 1867–1870). 23    Ὀνων  (4th cent. BC);  Ὀνων   (2nd cent. BC–1st AD), B. V. Head,  Historia Numorum  (1911), 336–337; W. Leschhorn and P. R. Franke,  Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen  I (2002), 229 and II (2009), 159. 24  Loc. cit. (n. 2) 68.Fig. 1. Stone (lower surface) as found in 2003 among the remainsof the Early Christian basilicaFig. 2. Inscription on the front face (now IG IX 1², 5, 1926)
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