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A new Lessepsian macroalga, Galaxaura rugosa, overtakes the infralittoral zone in the western edges of Haifa bay (208-209)

A new Lessepsian macroalga, Galaxaura rugosa, overtakes the infralittoral zone in the western edges of Haifa bay (208-209)
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  ISRAEL JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, Vol. 53, 2007, pp. 197–228 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTY-FIFTH MEETING OF THEISRaEl SOCIETY OF ECOlOGY aND ENVIRONMENTalQUalITY SCIENCES (ISEEQS) HELD ATTHE wEIzmANN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE, REHOVOT12–13 JUNE 2007 Seventeen of the thirty-ve sessions in the conference concerned ecology:Population Dynamics Rangeland DynamicsDesert and Ecosystem Ecology Jordan River ManagementBiological Invasions Movement Ecology SymposiumEcosystem Dynamics Future of the Dead SeaMicrobial Ecology Forest EcologyAquatic Ecology Microbial EcologyBiodiversity Ecological Considerations inLand Planning and ManagementAbstracts of many of these talks can be found immediately below. Professor Alan R.Templeton gave a plenary talk entitled “The impact of re on translocated Ozark lizardpopulations”. A minireview on this subject, authored by Prof. Templeton and colleagues,immediately precedes this abstract section.The special plenary double-session on the future of the Dead Sea attracted more than250 attendants. In addition to the scientic sessions, we had a an exciting plenary talk byPM Rabbi Moshe Gafni, who talked about attitudes of orthodox Jews to environmentalissues, and about the green alliance in the Knesset.Fifty-eight students registered for the contest of for the best presentation. Two stu - dents shared the rst prize, Adi Bechar of the Faculty of Agriculture at The HebrewUniversity of Jerusalem, and Eran Levin of the Department of Zoology at Tel AvivUniversity. Two students shared the second prize, Adi Oren of the Department of LifeScience at Bar-Ilan University, and Iris Scheinbaum of the Faculty of Agriculture at TheHebrew University of Jerusalem. A special prize for the best interdisciplinary study wasawarded to Yael Gilboa of the Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering at theTechnion—Israel Institute of Technology.  198 AbSTRACTS Isr. J. Ecol. Evol. AbSTRACTS Conservtion versus deveopment: a socio-environment project in  muticutur soci-ety—Perceptions nd impct,  cse study I. A LKAHER and T. T AL. Department of Education in Technology and Science, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel The research focuses on a socio-environmental project in multicultural society and its impact onsocio-environmental perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior intentions of students, prin - cipals, teachers, and environmental leaders. The context was a “conservation versus development”outdoor project in a nature park in the Galilee region in northern Israel. Participants were Jewishand Arab middle-school students, principals, teachers, and environmental leaders. We aimed atdescribing the relationships between the participants and analyzing their socio-environmentalperceptions, attitudes, and behavior intentions. The instruments included pre-post Likert-type andopen-ended questionnaires, pre-post focus group interviews with students, and pre-post semi-structured interviews with adult participants.All the participants incorporated environmental and social aspects in their reections. Thisreinforces the ideas of ESD and place-based education ideas, according to which the project wasframed. Similarly, all the parties addressed the socio-environmental conict and its resolutionin their expectations, as well as in their feedback regarding the accomplishments of the project.All the subjects highlighted the importance of knowing each other and carrying out mutual workSome participants, mainly the Jewish students and most of the adults, pointed out the differencesbetween groups regarding expectations, collaboration, and overall satisfaction, which were higherin the Arab group. The students addressed the differences in previous experiences in outdoorslearning and different voices regarding conservation vs. development were found as well. It wasapparent that in the Israeli context, the Arab students highlighted the conict between the Stateauthorities and the residents, while the Jewish students did not perceive the authorities as an alienforce and tended to refer to people in general.Our ndings indicate the great potential of multicultural environmental projects that deal witha real controversy and engage the students in learning about the conict and doing actual work forthe bet of their environment and their communities.We found that the project allowed various voices of both adults and students from the two commu - nities. However, within the general diversity, we highlighted some differences between the two ethnicgroups with regard to their perceptions of the environment and human–environment relationships.The ndings point out practical means for implementing Education for Sustainability in Israel.Findings also emphasize the need for teacher training in outdoor learning; sustainability educa - tion; promoting socio-environmental responsibility; and multicultural education. Chnges in spider diversity nd forging guids ong  rinf grdient in wter-imitedecosystems N. ASSAF-REIzEL and Y. L UbIN. Department of Desert Ecology, Blaustein Institute for Desert  Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer 84990, Israel Spiders are predators that use a variety of methods to capture their prey. They can be divided intoguilds based on their foraging strategy: active pursuit hunters, ambushers that occupy burrows or  Vol. 53, 2007 AbSTRACTS 199 retreats, sit-and-wait ambushers on plants, and web builders. In addition, they can be differenti - ated into diurnal and nocturnal species. Each of these guilds has different needs in terms of habitatfeatures. Vegetation architectural complexity is thus expected to inuence the guild structure in agiven habitat, as well as the species composition and relative abundance of each guild.We investigated effects of vegetation structure on the assemblage of local spider communities.We use the guild concept to analyze biodiversity data from ve stations along the rainfall gradientfrom north to south in Israel. The stations are Mt. Meron, Ramat Hanadiv, and Adulam in the moremesic range, and Lehavim and Avdat in the arid region of Israel. The data are from pitfall trapsplaced in 1000 m 2 plots of four treatment types: removal of the dominant shrubs and trees, grazing,grazing and tree/shrub removal, and control (no manipulation). Traps were placed in open patchesand beneath trees or shrubs, or in tree-removal patches.We constructed a guild composition for each site along the rainfall gradient, examined pat - terns of change in guild composition and abundance in open and woody patches in each plot, andcompared guild composition and abundance in the different treatments. We nd that (1) spidertaxon richness increases with increasing rainfall, (2) the inuence of woody patches on spiderabundance decreases with increasing rainfall from south to north, (3) active pursuit spiders of the family Gnaphosidae dominate arid and exposed habitat patches in the southern sites, andare replaced by Lycosidae, which dominate humid and shaded patches in the northern sites, and(4) web-building spiders are abundant in disturbed patches (removal/grazing treatments).Our study provides preliminary data on the effect of the main structural elements of the land - scape (shrubs and trees) on diversity as evidenced by changes in spider abundances, assemblagecomposition, and guild structure at sites along the rainfall gradient in Israel. Seasonal inuences on algal biodiversity in the upper Jordan River by bioindication and Cnonic Correspondence anysis (CCa) S. bARINOVA, a E. L IPKOVSKY , a b. TELTSCH,  and E. N EVO. a   a The Algology Laboratory inthe Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel; b  Lake Kinneret Watershed Unit, Mekorot Water Co., P.O. Box 610, Nazareth Illit 17105, Israel Unlike the conventional bioindication, our research reveals the systemic reaction of the entirealgal community present in the upper Jordan River area to changes in water parameters as a func - tion of seasonal climate change (dry/rainy seasons).Samples of planktonic and periphytonic algae were collected at 13 designated sampling sta - tions in the upper Jordan River area. At each season (dry/wet) we revealed 102 and 76 algal spe - cies, respectively, belonging to 9 and 4 algal divisions. Most of the identied algal species werefound to be water quality indicators.The ecological analysis of the samples revealed ecological groups of freshwater algae with re - spect to pH, salinity, and saprobity as well as temperature, streaming, and oxygenation. Diagramsof species distribution were constructed for each group of ecological indicators. For all the testedparameters the general grouping remained similar in both seasons. Quantitative information onthe relationship between species and environmental variables was obtained using CCA analysis,which emphasized the major seasonal variables.The combination of bioindicational methods and statistics is effective for the determination of the main factors inuencing algal diversity, as well as being helpful in revealing the indicators orbiosensing species for the most important environmental variables. The gut bacterial community of the Mediterranean fruit y ( Ceratitis capitata) nd its func-tions during the different ife stges of the host  200 AbSTRACTS Isr. J. Ecol. Evol. A. bEHAR, a, E. J URKEVITCH ,  and B . YUVAL. a a  Department of Entomology and  b  Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental QualitySciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel The Mediterranean fruit y Ceratitis capitata is a holometabolous insect with two ecologicallydifferent life stages, the larval stage and the adult stage, separated by a static pupal stage. Weexamine the hypothesis that the y-associated bacterial community changes adaptively duringthe insect’s life cycle, and plays different roles during y development according to the specicecological needs in each stage. While performing a systematic study of the medy’s gut microora   we found that   members of the Enterobacteriaceae constituted the dominant bacterial popula - tions of the medy’s gut. Klebsiella spp. were present in all medy individuals and were foundin different combinations with Citrobacter    freundii ,  Enterobacter spp., or Pectobacterium spp. Using direct and culture-based approaches we demonstrated that diazotrophic and pectinolyticEnterobacteriaceae are vertically transmitted from parents to offspring. During oviposition, thesebacteria are transferred to the fruit, become established, and proliferate within it, causing its decay.After bacterial-mediated hydrolysis, pectin may constitute an additional carbon source of readilymetabolizable sugars for the larvae growing within the fruit. Moreover, we assume that whilecausing fruit decay, the pectinolytic process macerates the fruit cell walls, hence assisting larvalmovements within the fruits, and emergence from the fruit to pupate in the soil. We discoveredthat in adult medies diazotrophic bacteria actively x nitrogen within the y’s gut, potentiallysupplying a signicant proportion of the nitrogen used by the adult y. Our results also indicatethat nitrogen xation occurs in medy larvae and thus may supply nitrogenous compounds es - sential for larval growth. Furthermore, we suspect that the pectinolytic function expressed withinthe fruit may also provide an ample supply of readily metabolizable carbohydrates to the bacterialmicrobiota and fuel the energy-demanding nitrogen-xation process.In conclusion, we propose that larvae get an “enterobacterial package” of pectinolytic and di - azotrophic bacteria that become established during the y’s life and contribute to the y’s nitrogenand carbon metabolism, affecting its development and, ultimately, tness. The inuence of woody vegetation and elevation on plant species richness—A multiscale study L. b LANK and Y. C ARmEL. Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel One central objective of the present ecological research is to study the factors affecting the dis - tribution of biological species. Ecologists have shown that patterns and functioning of communi - ties are determined by a set of interacting processes, which operate at a large variety of spatial scales. It is expected that processes such as competition and dispersal may operate at different scaleseven within the same landscape. The relative importance of each type of factor controlling speciesdistribution is likely to be different at different spatial scales. The result is that there is no single correct scale for all phenoena for all species. Ecological space is multidimensional. Numerous environmental factors affect species distribu - tion. However, the contribution of each individual factor is likely to be small. This is why we needto focus on variables that exert an integrative affect on species. Such factors are woody vegetationand topography.The research was conducted at Ramat Hanadiv Nature Park. In order to study the role of woodyvegetation and topography on plant species richness at multiple scales, we used a hierarchically  Vol. 53, 2007 AbSTRACTS 201 nested sampling design. This sampling scheme enabled us to analyze species richness from a lo - cal scale of a few meters, up to a scale representing the entire area of the park (~500 hectares). Inorder to quantify the woody vegetation spatial pattern we classied orthophoto of the park into twoclasses: woody vegetation (trees and shrubs) and open areas (including bare ground, herbaceous,and rocks). In the next stage woody vegetation spatial pattern was characterized using landscapematrices representing three components of landscape pattern: patch area, patch shape, and patchspatial arrangement. In addition, we characterized the elevation of each sampling scale.According to our preliminary results, different groups of organism respond to different char - acters of woody vegetation spatial pattern at different scales. For example, while geophytes andpatch shape had a signicant relationship at scales of 10 3  –10 5  2 , annuals did not exhibit sucha relationship. However, between annuals and patch spatial arrangement there was a signicant relationship at scales of 10–10 4  2 . Such a relationship did not exist for geophytes. In addition,trees species had a signicant relationship with woody patch shape at scales of 10 4  –10 5  2 whereasshrubs experienced this relationship at scales of 10–10 3  2 . Furthermore, elevation explained asmall proportion of the variance in species richness at small scales (10–10 3  2 ), both for woodyand herbaceous species, compared to the signicant high variance explained by a spatial pattern of woody vegetation. Thus, at larger scales (10 5  2 ), elevation explained much of the variation in spe - cies richness whereas a woody vegetation spatial pattern did not have a signicant contribution.This study demonstrates the importance of woody vegetation spatial pattern on species rich - ness. In addition, this study highlights the need to considering scale when studying pattern andprocess of different organism distribution. The effect of troughs on ctte movement in psture: Cn it serve to decrese river pou-tion? A. DOLEV, a R. WINESHTOK,  Y. YEHUDA, a H. GLASSmAN, c and Z. HENKIN. d   a  Northern R& D, Migal—Galilee Technological Center, Kiryat Shmona 11016, Israel; b  Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Management, University of Haifa, Mt. Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel; c  Israel Nature and National Parks Protection Authority, 3 Am Ve’Olamo Street, Jerusalem 95463, Israel; d   Newe-Ya’ar Research Center, Department of Natural Resources, Agricultural ResearchOrganization, P.O. Box 1021, Ramat Yishay 30095, Israel The problem of the pollution of Lake Kineret and the Golan streams has lately been receivingincreased attention. The main questions asked are what are the sources of the pollution and canit be decreased. As in other agricultural branches, the grazing of cattle in rangelands has latelybeen seriously considered as a possible source of pollution, but the data about cattle distribution inrangelands and its effect are not sufcient. The objectives of this research were: (1) To study cattlespatial behavior in rangelands with crossing streams. (2) To study the effect of water troughs andfeed supplementation stations on cattle distribution.The study took place on three representative cattle farms, each of which has a plot with watertroughs at a distance of more than 250 m from a natural water source (stream, canal, spring). Thecattle’s movement course was documented by GPS data logger collars (1 location / 5 min) in sum - mer and in winter. Each sampling cycle of cattle distribution lasted 2 weeks. One week there wasno water in the troughs (the only water sources at that time were natural sites), while in the secondweek the troughs were lled with water.Using GIS we studied the cattle’s movements in each plot and the effect of natural watersources, feed sites, and troughs on their distribution. We found that cattle movements were notrandom and were affected by trough location and feeding sites. Specically, lling the troughs
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