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A plan for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat).

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The purpose of the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is to create a continent-wide program to monitor bats at local to rangewide scales that will provide reliable data to promote effective conservation decision making and the long-term
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  United States Department of Agriculture A Plan for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) Susan C. Loeb, Thomas J. Rodhouse, Laura E. Ellison, Cori L. Lausen, Jonathan D. Reichard, Kathryn M. Irvine, Thomas E. Ingersoll, Jeremy T. H. Coleman, Wayne E. Thogmartin, John R. Sauer, Charles M. Francis, Mylea L. Bayless, Thomas R. Stanley, and Douglas H. Johnson Forest Service Research & DevelopmentSouthern Research StationGeneral Technical Report SRS-208  June 2015 Southern Research Station200 W.T. Weaver Blvd.Asheville, NC 28804www.srs.fs.usda.gov Photo credits All photos courtesy of Merlin D. Tuttle, Bat Conservation International, www.batcon.org unless otherwise noted. Cover photo Millions of Brazilian free-tailed bats emerge from Bracken Cave in suburban San Antonio, TX. Disclaimer The use of trade or rm names in this publication is for reader information and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture of any product or service.  A Plan for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) Susan C. Loeb, Thomas J. Rodhouse, Laura E. Ellison, Cori L. Lausen, Jonathan D. Reichard, Kathryn M. Irvine, Thomas E. Ingersoll, Jeremy T. H. Coleman, Wayne E. Thogmartin, John R. Sauer, Charles M. Francis, Mylea L. Bayless, Thomas R. Stanley, and Douglas H. Johnson   B  r  a  z   i   l  i  a  n    f  r e e - t a il e d    b  a  t  s    e  m  e r    g   e   f    r    o    m    B     r   a    c    k     e     n       C      a      v       e         i                         n          s   u  b    u  r     b     a   n   S   a  n   A    n  t     o    n  i     o     ,  T    X      .  Abstract The purpose of the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is to create a continent-wide program to monitor bats at local to rangewide scales that will provide reliable data to promote effective conservation decisionmaking and the long-term viability of bat populations across the continent. This is an international, multiagency program. Four approaches will be used to gather monitoring data to assess changes in bat distributions and abundances: winter hibernaculum counts, maternity colony counts, mobile acoustic surveys along road transects, and acoustic surveys at stationary points. These monitoring approaches are described along with methods for identifying species recorded by acoustic detectors. Other chapters describe the sampling design, the database management system (Bat Population Database), and statistical approaches that can be used to analyze data collected through this program. Keywords:  Acoustic surveys, bat detectors, bats, chiroptera, climate change, hibernaculum counts, monitoring, occupancy models, population trends, white-nose syndrome.       M       i      l        l       i        o      n    s        o       f       B             r       a       z                i                 l                  i       a       n                  f            r       e        e         -               t       a                  i                l      e         d        b     a          t     s       e    m    e     r   g     e    f    r  o   m    B   r  a  c  k  e  n    C a  v e   i n   s u  b  u  r  b  a  n    S   a  n     A   n  t    o    n    i    o    ,    T     X     .   iii Contents Contents Preface  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi Chapter 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1.1 Purpose, Mission, Goals, and Objectives of the North American Bat Monitoring Program  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1.2 Background and Need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21.2.1 The Bats of North America and Their Importance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21.2.2 Threats to Bats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31.2.3 Need for Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1.3 Scope of NABat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71.3.1 Scope and Species. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71.3.2 The Role of Demographic Studies in NABat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 1.4 Putting NABat Into Practice  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71.4.1 General Structure of NABat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81.4.2 Products and Expected Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81.4.3 Next Steps and Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 1.5 Adaptive Monitoring Approach  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Chapter 2. Primary Monitoring Methods of NABat and Introduction to Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1 Introduction and Species-Specic Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.2 Overview of NABat Methods  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.2.1 Colony Counts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.2.2 Acoustic surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.3 Focal Demographic Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Chapter 3. The NABat Sampling Design  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.1 Overview and Purpose  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.2 The Grid-Based Sampling Frame  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.3 The Spatially Balanced Master Sample  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.4 Design Criteria and Implementation of the Master Sample . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.5 Response Designs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.6 Temporal Revisit Design  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Chapter 4. Stationary Point Acoustic Survey Protocols  . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.1 Types of Detectors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.2 Detector Sensitivity and Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214.2.1 Sensitivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214.2.2 File Recording Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 4.3 Site Selection and the Inuence of Clutter on Bat Echolocation  . . . . . . . 23 4.4 Equipment Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264.4.1 Placement Relative to Clutter, Height above Ground, and Orientation . . . . 26 4.4.2 Weatherproong  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.5 Frequency and Timing of Surveys  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.6 Collection of Covariates and Ancillary Data  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
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