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A Planners View on National Forest Programmes

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A Planners View on National Forest Programmes
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  A Planners View on National Forest Programs Author: Johan Barstad, Møre Research Volda Boks 3256101 Volda Norway Abstract In this paper I will discuss the concept of National Forest Prora!!es in the liht of theoriesand traditions for plannin" #he first part is related to i$in a %rief outline of NFP historyand &uropean country e'periences" Part two is a presentation on the %asis of (ohn Fried!ann)1*+,- and .!da! and Veeland )1**+-/ showin that the discussion can oriinate fro! the!ain assess!ent of (ohn Fried!ann ettin knowlede into action/ and relatin this to his$iew on power4distri%ution )few $s" !any stakeholders- and power4reflection )whose nor!sand $alues are to %e considered-"  Ne't follows a discussion of the %asic principles of the NFP in relation to the o$er$iew on plannin theory" #his leads o$er into the roup of !odels of co!%ination/ where I aruethat the e!phasis in the principles on participati$e !ethods called for the use of a !odelcalled strateical and !o%ilisin plannin %y .!da! and .!da!" #he reason for choosin that !odel/ the NFP principles concernin participation/decentralisation/ iterati$ity and partnership/ still ha$e to pro$e their $alue in practise" Fro!the e'perience of the de$elop!ent of NFPs in &uropean countries/ what see!s to %e co!!onis that at the first outset/ these ele!ents enerally ha$e not %een thorouhly de$eloped" till/$iewin it all as an iterati$e process/ where we only ha$e seen the first circuit/ there is plenty of roo! to de$elop these principles into what !iht %e a enuine and %road participation process on the de$elop!ent of a set of holistic National Forest Prora!!esthrouhout &urope Kewords  National Forest Prora!!es/ ustaina%le Forest !anae!ent/ 7o!!unicati$e Plannin/trateical and !o%ilisin plannin1  !ntroduction ince 2000/ I ha$e participated as national !e!%er to the 78# &1* .ction/ and thus ha$ehad a chance to follow closely the process of the action itself/ as well as the process on how toknit the hitherto undefined aspect of National Forest Prora!!es )NFPs- into an accepta%leand useful tool to pro!ote ustaina%le Forest !anae!ent )F9- in &uropean Forestry" .tthe 2001 !eetin of the .ction in .%erdeen/ I was approached %y the chair!an/ professor Peter l:ck fro! the ;ni$ersity of .riculture in Vienna/ .ustria/ who asked !e to takeresponsi%ility of preparin a %ackround4paper on Iterati$e Plannin" #his has resulted in a paper presented at the 2002 !eetin in Finland )Barstad 2002-" #his paper has %een the %asisfor this essay/ in which I will try to ela%orate on the use)fullness- of colla%orati$e plannin!ethods in &uropean NFP processes"<urin this 78# .ction I ha$e also had the opportunity to o to cotland and .ustria onhort #er! cientific 9issions/ financed throuh the .ction/ there conductin series of inter$iews with central stakeholders in the countries NFP4processes" .t the $arious !eetinsof the .ction/ there has also %een presented infor!ation on the !ethods and proress of thenational NFP4efforts in a wide rane of countries" In the first part/ I will %riefly present the de$elop!ent of Forest Plannin and the NFP4history/startin fro! the #ropical Forest action Prora!!es throuh the Pan &uropean processes of today where NFPs ha$e %eco!e a sinificant tool in achie$in ustaina%le Forest!anae!ent" #hen I will show %riefly how the eneral holistic approach of NFPs differ fro!traditional rationalist plannin/ nor!ally found in the forest sector"#he ne't part will i$e a %rief description of plannin theory/ %ased upon Fried!anns four4field classification" I will then discuss how this concept of NFPs fits into traditional theoriesand practices of planninFinally I will discuss how the se principles can %e $iewed when seen as a roup" In thatrespect I will discuss the! %riefly as how they fit in line with the !odel for trateical and!o%ilisin plannin %y .!da! and .!da! )2000- "Forest #lanning, a brie$ o%er%iew &uropean forestry )west and north- is characteri=ed %y a distri%uted owner syste!" >ith fewe'ceptions/ !ost countries ha$e a lare nu!%er of relati$ely s!all forest owners" In the 15!e!%er countries of the &;/ there are around 12 !illion pri$ate indi$iduals that can %eclassified as forest owners/ with the a$erae holdin around 35 haa )?yttinen 2001-/ with theforest nor!ally %ein part of a far!" .lso forests are the larest sinle land use/ so!e 3, @of the land area in 13 of the 15 &; states is under forest and wooded co$er" )Aanatta and9ikkola/ 2001-" For Norway the nu!%ers are so!e 125"000 forest owners/ the a$eraeholdin si=e around 5, haa 1  and a forest co$er of so!e 3, @ )B 2002-" #his shows thatforests and forestry are a part of e$eryday life of a lare nu!%er of persons all across &urope  e$en if we $iew it only fro! the aspect of ownership" Forests ha$e %een su%Cect to plannin for a lon ti!e" #o a deree this has to do with the lonrotation cycles of the Northern )%oreal- forests" Because of the lon ti!e span %etween plantin and har$estin )typically 50  120 years- 2 / there has %een a enuine need for a plan toensure !i'ed ae4classes to pro$ide a continuous yield/ opti!al stockin etc" #he e!erence 1  8nly producti$e forests on holdins larer than 2/5 haa are included in this statistic 2  of lare scale processin )pulp and paper- also !ade plannin i!perati$e" #here was a needfor a steady and secure input/ with known Duality and !ini!al price4fluctuations"Further/ as wood for centuries ha$e %een a strateically i!portant co!!odity )e"" wood for warships/ %uildins/ props for !ines- there has %een a need for plannin to secure andi!pro$e the supply" #he first ;E national forest plannin was introduced for this reasondurin >>1/ when Britain was isolated and cut off fro! i!port of wood fro! the colonies/there was a wood shortae" #hus a need to %uild up do!estic resource to %e prepared for future situations was e'perienced/ and a national plan was ela%orated )9iller 1*** p" 122-"#he 20 th  century also saw an e!erin consciousness on re4 and afforestation" &"" in >estern Norway/ <en!ark etc"/ afforestation was seen as a !eans to ensure %etter profita%ility infar!in co!!unities/ as well as a possi%le resource4%ase for new industries".ll in all this descri%es a situation where the pri$ate )owners-/ the industry and theo$ern!ent all had ood reason to pro!ote forest plannin" .nd this has resulted in a widerane of forest !anae!ent plans/ fro! the indi$idual plans of the forest owners/ $ia!unicipal and reional plans up to the national le$el" till  this plannin up to the latestyears ha$e enerally had a sinle !inded oal to secure a hih/ steady and profita%le wood production" &Forest #lanning in the modern societ #hrouhout the ,0s we saw the e!erence of an en$iron!ental consciousness/ with focus on$aryin aspects such as whalin and rainforest deforestation" Further/ there was in &urope aspecial focus on the state of the forests/ with indicia pointin towards a !assi$e death of the&uropean forests due to pollutionGacid rain etc" Fro! the +0s onward we ha$e e'perienced a rowin concern on forests  !ainly e'pressed %y stakeholders outside of the traditional forest4se!ent" &n$iron!entalist roups focussedon the possi%ilities for !aCor <eath of the &uropean forests/ and in tropical countries therewas a focus on the disappearin rainforests" But also/ to a rowin deree/ a concern of forests %ein i!portant to the welfare of people/ pro$idin areas for recreation/ access toedi%le %erries and funi etc/ that ha$e %een accessi%le to the pu%lic in !ost &uropeancountries for centuries" In this respect forests  and forest plannin 4 ha$e %een placed on theaenda as a topic of interest also to new stakeholder roups and to the eneral pu%lic" Further we ha$e seen that forests ha$e %een reconised as i!portant also for other industries" &"" incotland/ it is accepted that the i!portance of forests for the tourist industry is reater than the$alue of cottish ti!%er production ) ?enderson4?owatt/ 2000-#he Forest ector traditionally has %een do!inated %y rational and instru!ental planninrei!es" #he !ain functions ha$e %een decision !akin as to what is the opti!u! plantin/thinnin/ har$estin/ and reeneration practices" Hinkaes into other sectors ha$e !ainly %een towards up4strea! acti$ities )saw!illin and processin-/ and to so!e e'tent takin intoaccount that forestry often coe'ists with ariculture )down4strea!-/ and thus de$elopin 2  In %oreal and 9editerranean countries/ the ter! forest4owner is nor!ally used for the entity controllin theforest resource in tropical and su%4tropical countries the ter! is forest4rower" #his difference is $ery pictorial/ in that it catches the !aCor difference" In tropicalGsu%4tropical reions you ha$e a Duick turno$er/ treesare akin to another crops you row" &lsewhere the ti!e4span is so lon that focus is on forests !ore as a stock than an asset" It is so!ethin you own/ can trade with etc/ rather than an acti$e part of e$eryday life" 3  opti!u!4seekin !odels for the !i'ture %etween far!in and forestry" #his plannin has %asically %een dri$en fro! an econo!ical $iewpoint" #he first atte!pts to !ore holistic approaches in !odern forest plannin/ ste! fro! thetropical reions/ were fro! the outset any atte!pt at forestry plannin enerally was %ased onthe reDuire!ents of $arious international support initiati$es" . !i'ture of po$erty4co!%atinissues/ deforestation/ lare4scale production and a eneral concern fro! the lo%al pu%licresulted in $arious efforts to linkin forest !anae!ent plannin to sustaina%le !anae!ent"#he latter/ conditions set up %y international initiati$es/ was a !aCor force in contri%utin tothe e!erence of the #ropical Forest .ction Prora!!e )#F.P- for co!%atin deforestationthat were launched in 1*+5 %y )a!onst others- the >orld Bank/ ;nited nations <e$elop!ent prora!!e/ >orld esource Institute and F.8 )a$eniCe 2000-"#he #F.P was !eant to %e a eneral conceptual/ operational and coordinatin fra!ework for the intended efforts at international and national le$el" #his in itself says that the #F.P was a!aCor chane fro! the traditional rational plannin" Further/ the #F.P had the followinfunctions )a$eniCe/ 2000-4to raise political and pu%lic awareness )national and international- of the situation of the tropical forests/ with the ai! of increasin the i!portance of forestry in national plannin and international cooperation4to pro$ide a fra!ework for the e$aluation of forest policy and for the identification of action strateies and in$est!ent priorities at national le$el4to increase fundin for forestry acti$ities4to strenthen and har!onise national efforts for sustaina%le forest !anae!ent )F9-/and to pro$ide a fra!ework for coordination of international cooperation andin$est!ent" Fro! these functions we can see that #.FPs had a focus on ensurin F9 %y i!posinfro! the outside" Hinked to international donations/ e$aluated aainst international standardsand ha$in a lo%al pu%lic in !ind" It can %e arued the #.FPs were not desined for the %enefit of the countries %ut !ore for the contri%utors"#he i!ple!entation of the #F.P was to %e carried out throuh the for!ulation of NationalForestry .ction Plans" &$en thouh this initiati$e was taken on super4national le$el/ the %asic principle was that countries the!sel$es should take the lead and %ear the !ain responsi%ilityfor the i!ple!entation" #his kind of plannin was not ai!ed at the de$eloped countries fro! the outset/ %ut o$er ti!eit has had a penetration into de$eloped countries as well" ?ere )&urope/ (apan/ Northern.!erica/ .ustralia etc"-/ the challenes were not considered to %e of the sa!e kind/ %ut therewas a distinct feelin of reciprocity  a kind of attitude fro! the de$elopin countries sayin/if we !ust de$elop participatory plannin prora!!es to preser$e our forests/ we clai! thesa!e fro! you" Parallel to this we ha$e seen a rowin concern on the aspect of ustaina%le Forest9anae!ent )F9-/ which has %een i$en attention in the declarations fro! the 9inisterial7onferences for the protection of the Forests of &urope )?elsinki 1**3 and His%on 1**+ %othrefer to NFP-" F9 is an often referred to ter!/ althouh not entirely seen as consistent  different stakeholders see! to ha$e %een usin $arious definitions of F9" Fro! the outset/sustaina%ility was understood solely as sustained yield of ti!%er/ %ut durin last century oneJ  can o%ser$e increasin i!portance %ein i$en to other aspects of the forests/ and thereconition that the forest se!ent were not the only stakeholders" <urin the *0s this ca!eto show as increased interest in %oth ecoloical and social issues" .nd not the least F9 %eca!e a central political issue on the lo%al scene/ e"" we had the ;N Intero$ern!entalPanel on Forests rena!ed into Intero$ern!ental Foru! on Forests )IPFGIFF- and the Pan4&uropean 9inisterial 7onference for the Protection of the Forests in &urope )97PF&-".t present ti!e there is an e!erin consensus as to what is to %e an &uropean understandinof the ter!/ and these definitions ha$e %een laid out in the ?1 esolution fro! the econd9inisterial 7onference on the Protection of Forests in &urope in 1**3 in ?elsinki SFM means the stewardship and use of forests and forestland in a way, and at a rate,that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their  potential to fulfil, now and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social  functions, at local, national and global levels, and does not cause damage to other ecosystems (  #hird 9inisterial conference on the Protection of Forests in &urope/ eneral declarationand resolutions adopted/ 1**+  ) #he %ack%one of NFPs is thus to %e found in the concept of ustaina%le Forest9anae!ent )F9-" >hat was enuinely new thouh/ in the process of National ForestProra!!es/ is that it si!ultaneously focuses %oth on F9 and on the $arious types of forest policy applica%le at local/ reional and national le$el"  It is however fair to say that the concerns of many stakeholders not traditionallyassociated with such issues but who also concern themselves with the economic, social and environmental well-being of people and places, will overlap with those concerned  primarily with forestry issues as sites of both production and consumption!!"here is thus opportunity for mutual benefit from co-ordination and #oint working between different policy areas, and it may help in terms of the implementationof shared goals and ob#ectives within and beyond the national programmesthemselves "o link to such concerns suggests the need to focus on policy processes aswell as the policy agendas of mutual concern ($ealey and %igar &''') .t the &uropean le$el/ it has %een reconised that NFPs could %e a $ehicle for resol$inconflicts on econo!ic/ ecoloical and social interests in and on forests/ which in !any caseshas risen fro! this new understandin of F9" #hese principles are the followin )78#&1* 9o;/ 1***- • national so$ereinty and country leadership •  partnership and appropriate participatory !echanis!s to in$ol$e all interested parties • decentralisation/ where applica%le • e!power!ent of reional and local o$ern!ents • reconition and respect for custo!ary and traditional rihts of/ i"e" indienous people/ local co!!unities/ forest dwellers and forest owners • secure land tenure arrane!ents • lon4ter! iterati$e process • consistency with national policies and international co!!it!ents • interation with the countrys sustaina%le de$elop!ent strateies • holistic and intersectoral5
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