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A Questionnaire Investigation of Emotion Pictures and Films in Computer Science Students with Internet Addiction

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This study proposed that emotion plays an important role in Computer Science students with internet addiction. Total sixty-eight subjects participated in the emotion-eliciting experiment. Six emotions were elicited through twenty-four emotional pictures (International Affective Picture System) and five emotional films (Taiwan corpora of Chinese emotions and relevant psychophysiological data). The questionnaires and physiological signals, including in thoracoabdominal movement, electrocardiography, and facial expression, were collected during the experiment. The statistical results showed that the reliability test for both Chen Internet Addiction Scale and emotion questionnaire were acceptable. The positive emotional stimulus could elicit the target emotion; however, negative emotional stimuli elicited multiple negative emotions. In emotional picture trail, the high-risk IA group replied higher target emotion intensity of happiness, anger, and sadness. As well in emotional film trail, only sadness was rated higher. It can be inferred that high-risk IA abusers have stronger response to happiness, anger, and sadness pictures, and sadness film than low-risk IA abusers. In future, the physiological signals as more objective evidence will be processed and analysed. The results could contribute to assist to internet addiction therapy.
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  International Journal of Emerging Trends in Signal Processing( IJETSP ) ISSN(2319-9784) , Volume 2 , Issue 1 February 2014 1  A Questionnaire Investigation of Emotion Pictures and Films in Computer Science Students with Internet Addiction Dai-Ling Hsieh 1 , Tzu-Chien Hsiao 2,3   1  Institute of Computer Science and Engineering, 2  Department of Computer Science, 3  Institute of Biomedical Engineering  National Chiao Tung University  No. 1001, University Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan 1 dlhsieh@ cs .nctu.edu.tw 2 labview@cs.nctu.edu.tw  Abstract   —   This study proposed that emotion plays an important role in Computer Science students with internet addiction. Total sixty-eight subjects participated in the emotion-eliciting experiment. Six emotions were elicited through twenty-four emotional pictures (International Affective Picture System) and five emotional films (Taiwan corpora of Chinese emotions and relevant psychophysiological data). The questionnaires and physiological signals, including in thoracoabdominal movement, electrocardiography, and facial expression, were collected during the experiment. The statistical results showed that the reliability test for both Chen Internet Addiction Scale and emotion questionnaire were acceptable. The positive emotional stimulus could elicit the target emotion; however, negative emotional stimuli elicited multiple negative emotions. In emotional picture trail, the high-risk IA group replied higher target emotion intensity of happiness, anger, and sadness. As well in emotional film trail, only sadness was rated higher. It can be inferred that high-risk IA abusers have stronger response to happiness, anger, and sadness pictures, and sadness film than low-risk IA abusers. In future, the physiological signals as more objective evidence will be processed and analysed. The results could contribute to assist to internet addiction therapy. Keywords   —    emotions, internet addiction, human and computer interaction, cyberpsychonetic, questionnaire I  NTRODUCTION  Computers and the Internet (CompNet) have been used worldwide in recent decades. On college campuses, CompNet not only helps students for study or research as a tool, but also gradually plays a significant role in campus life. Because CompNet is easy to be accessed , some student’s life styles, including in living, communication, study, and even physical and mental states have been influenced [1-2]. For example, students retrieve course materials online for academic use everywhere and anytime [3]. Students play computer games or take online game design courses instead of doing real word activities or exercises. Again, CompNet frequently affects students’ social activities [ 4], especially of those who strongly interact with computers. Lots of college students of Computer Science (CS) spend much time to use computer for kinds of  purposes. They are definitely trained to be familiar with computer and fulfill almost every task through computer. They regard CompNet as a learning tool and contact CompNet frequently than non CS student. However, some of they seem to be dependent on CompNet. For example, Students manage relationships with classmates and friends through text and social networking sites instead of phone or face-to-face talking [4]. Even in daily life, they decide what types of food for lunch having with nearby classmates through LINE APP is a typical behaviour. The social networking sites or communication apps are not limited behind convenience; actually, this is a sign that CompNet becomes one necessary  part of campus life [5]. Sometimes, when invited classmates don’t reply through LINE APP, student who sending invitation message would feel negative emotions, such as sadness or frustrate. College students, especially CS students, are encouraged to be familiar with CompNet indirectly. They use CompNet for hours every day, including for academic tasks, interpersonal relationship, entertainment (e.g. social networking sites, online game [6]), communication, etc. However, once they cannot access CompNet, they will feel anxiety, and do not live well. They are potential Internet addiction (IA) abuser [1-2]. IA (or called pathological Internet use) is excessive computers or Internet use that results in impairment or distress. Usually, IA can be considered psychological disorder that causes damage to mental functions and regular life. Several researches investigated the interaction or relationship between human and computer, such as human computer interaction [7], human computer interface [8], cyberpsychology and  behaviour [9], etc. In 2010, Hsieh et al  . proposed a novel viewpoint with the combination of engineering and  psychology to explorer the interactive flow within human and computer [10]. The schematic inference presented that computer should have its own psychological characters, called cyberpsychonetic, and interact with human. Lu et al  .  , in 2010, studied the anatomic nervous responses of high-risk IA abuser http://www.ijetsp.info/article/IJETSPV2I101.pdf  International Journal of Emerging Trends in Signal Processing( IJETSP ) ISSN(2319-9784) , Volume 2 , Issue 1 February 2014 2 [11] and showed that the sympathetic nervous system was heavily activated of high-risk IA abusers, but skin conductance activates parasympathetic responses of the high-risk IA abusers. The evaluation of psychophysiological damages   and the effects of computer on daily life are also  been studied in various fields [12-14]; however, little attention has been paid to the psychophysiological interaction between human and computer. Different types of computer applications and computer styles could be considered as stimuli. When using those applications and devices, people received such stimuli, and the reacted to them. One type of the reactions is emotional reactions, including in cognition processing, body movement,  physiological responses, etc. Some studies of  psychophysiological responses of emotions investigated thoracoabdominal movement (TAM), electrocardiogram (ECG), galvanic skin response (GSR), skin temperature [15]. It was believed that people who relied on computers will show the interaction reactions and emotional responses [16]. In order to observe those reactions and emotional responses, it ’ s necessary to take the intimacy with computer into account. Hence, in this study, we focus on the psychophysiological reactions when people received different emotional pictures and films stimulus, especially on CS students. The statistical comparisons of high-risk IA abusers and general users are also  presented. Before understanding of physiological mechanism concerning autonomic nervous system of IA abusers, the relationship between emotional stimulation and subjective emotions reports was established first here. M ETHOD  An experiment was conducted to elicit subjects ’  emotions  by emotional pictures and emotional films; meanwhile, the information of facial expression, TAM, and ECG were gathered. TAM is easy to be measured by a non-invasive way, and can be analysed without phase loose [17]; furthermore, the time information, such as time difference, can be considered. The subjects were divided into two groups and were elicited by emotional picture and emotional film respectively. Also the subjects were required to complete questionnaires to evaluate six emotional states. Statistical analysis   was mainly adopted. It was expected to establish the relationship between emotional stimulation and subjective emotions reports  A.   Subject The Net generation subjects [18] were selected. Sixty-eight subjects between the ages of 20 and 29 years (21.3±1.8 year old) from department of computer science in Taiwan  participated in this study.   The history of using computer and internet are 12.7±2.6 years and 11.2±2.7 years respectively. Half of them were examined high-risk IA by Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) [19].  B.    Physiological signal Emotion can be expressed by psychological responses and  physiological reactions. Some researches indicated that facial expression [20], ECG [21], skin conductance [22], and so on, can express physiological characters of emotions. So that this study collected facial expression, respiration, and ECG in order to observe the dynamic changes of the physiological responses of emotions. C.   Questionnaire Several questionnaires were used to obtain the personal information, basic clinical history, and evaluation of internet addiction [19]. CIAS contains 26 items and can be categorized into two categories of Core Symptoms of Internet Addiction (IA-Sym) and Related Problems of Internet Addiction (IA-RP) [19]. In addition to previous questionnaires, subjects were asked to rate the six emotions intensity questionnaire from low to high (0 to 8) when they finished each emotion-eliciting experiment.  D.    Emotion-eliciting material This study utilized emotional pictures from International Affective Picture System (IAPS) [23] and emotional films from Taiwan corpora of Chinese emotions and relevant  psychophysiological data [24]. Six emotions, happiness, sadness, disgust, surprise, fear, and anger, were observed. Those emotions can be regard as  basic emotions and were important for human in daily emotion expression.  E.    Experimental procedure The procedure was shown in Fig. 1. First, in phase 0, all subjects filled out the informed consent form, and understood the experiment purpose and content. Second, in phase one, the  physiological baseline of subjects was measured for 3 minutes [25], including facial expression, TAM, and ECG. Third, in  phase 2, emotion-eliciting experiment was conducted. Subjects were assigned to two groups and were elicited by emotional pictures and emotional films respectively. In emotional picture trail, the procedure cycle started in 30 seconds for psychophysiological baseline, and then 12 seconds for picture display, and final 30 seconds for emotion recovery. In emotional film trail, the procedure cycle started in 1 minute for distraction task, and 3 minutes for  psychological baseline, and then around 3 minutes for film display, and final 3 minutes for emotion recovery. 1) Emotional picture trail: Before emotional    pictures were displayed, subjects had to keep themselves stable as emotion and psychophysiological baseline for 30 seconds. In experiment, subjects randomly saw six emotional pictures each for 12 seconds and totally saw 24 pictures. After emotional stimulation finished each time, subjects filled out an emotion questionnaire to evaluate their emotions intensity. And then they cool down their emotions for 30 seconds.  2) Emotional film trail: First, subjects do   distraction task for 1 minute, and then kept themselves stable as emotion and http://www.ijetsp.info/article/IJETSPV2I101.pdf  International Journal of Emerging Trends in Signal Processing( IJETSP ) ISSN(2319-9784) , Volume 2 , Issue 1 February 2014 3  psychophysiological baseline for 3 minutes. In experiment, subjects randomly watched five emotion pictures each for around 3 minutes and totally watched 5 films. After emotional stimulation finished each time, subjects filled out an emotion questionnaire to evaluate their emotions intensity. Then they do distraction task for 1 minute, and then cool down their emotions for 3 minutes. Fig. 1 Experiment procedure RESULT  The questionnaires were statistically analysed as main results here. The diversity of emotion level or intensity of high-risk IA subjects should be larger than low-risk IA subjects. Furthermore, facial expression was used to assist to validate emotions, and those results may apply to part of monitor system and can be bio-feedback for treatment.  A.    Internet addiction scale The literature of CIAS indicated that the cut off score is 64. The CIAS scores of 68 subjects were showed in Fig. 2. Thirty-four subjects got CIAS scores over 64, and were examined high-risk IA abusers. The black dots and grey dots represented CIAS scores of high-risk IA group and low-risk IA group, respectively. The x axis was CIAS scores and the y axis was cronbach ’ s alpha values. The CIAS scores of two groups crossed at 63-64 which closed to the cut off score of the literature. Fig. 2 Scores distribution of CIAS from 68 subjects, and the cut off scores is 64.  The consistency of CIAS scoring between subjects was tested by reliability test. The cronbach ’ s alpha value was 0.856 of all 68 subjects. For high and low-risk IA abusers, the cronbach ’ s alpha values were 0.602 and 0.597 respectively. Those alpha values were acceptable (>0.5).  B.    Emotion questionnaire for emotional picture trail Before analysed the emotion questionnaire, we examined the consistency between subjects by reliability test, and the results were shown in Table 1. The cronbach ’ s alpha values of happiness picture were high consistency. Some alpha values of anger, sadness, and disgust pictures were medium consistency (e.g. alpha value of disgust picture to sadness emotion was 0.527). Some alpha values of surprise, and fear  pictures were low consistency (e.g. alpha value of surprise  picture to anger emotion was 0.384 and fear picture to anger emotion was 0.332). The mean alpha values of six emotions shown in table 1 were acceptable values (>0.5). The reliability test results of high-risk and low-risk IA group were shown in Table 2. For high-risk IA group, the cronbach ’ s alpha values of happiness, anger, sadness, surprise, and fear pictures were high consistency (>0.7). Alpha values of disgust picture were medium consistency (0.6~0.7). For low-risk IA group, the alpha values of disgust and fear  pictures were high consistency. Alpha values of anger, sadness, and surprise were media consistency. Last, Alpha value of happiness picture was unacceptable (<0.5).The mean alpha values of six emotions of high-risk and low-risk IA groups were acceptable values except happiness picture of low-risk IA group. TABLE   1 RELIABILITY TEST RESULTS OF 34  SUBJECTS OF EMOTIONAL PICTURE TRAIL GROUP .   ( CRONBACH ’ S ALPHA VALUE >0.5:  ACCEPTABLE )   (HAP:  HAPPINESS ,   ANG:  ANGER  ,   SAD:  SADNESS ,   DIS:  DISGUST ,   SUR:  SURPRISE ,   FEA:  FEAR  ) Emotion Picture   HAP ANG SAD DIS SUR FEA  HAP 0.885 0.759 0.721 0.875 0.757 0.803 ANG 0.801 0.801 0.642 0.807 0.384 0.332  SAD 0.883 0.565 0.775 0.527 0.735 0.806 DIS 0.881 0.723 0.864 0.879 0.755 0.846 SUR 0.858 0.583 0.603 0.764 0.911 0.715 FEA 0.854 0.726 0.575 0.797 0.851 0.764 Mean 0.860 0.693 0.697 0.775 0.732 0.711 TABLE   2 RELIABILITY TEST OF HIGH - RISK AND LOW - RISK IA  GROUPS OF EMOTIONAL PICTURE TRAIL .   (C RONBACH ’ S ALPHA VALUE >0.5:  ACCEPTABLE ) Emotion IA Picture   HAP ANG SAD DIS SUR FEA  HAP high  0.860 0.901 0.644 0.233 0.679 0.838 low  0.764 0.744 0.189 0.348 0.624 0.786   ANG high  0.906 0.870 0.636 0.747 0.772 0.879 low   0.039 0.700 0.945 0.719 0.576 0.854 SAD high  0.966 0.853 0.839 0.765 0.623 0.911 low  0.524 0.700 0.863 0.762 0.541 0.832 DIS high  0.886 0.743 0.523 0.634 0.934 0.877 http://www.ijetsp.info/article/IJETSPV2I101.pdf  International Journal of Emerging Trends in Signal Processing( IJETSP ) ISSN(2319-9784) , Volume 2 , Issue 1 February 2014 4  low  0.359 0.348 0.780 0.882 0.460 0.893 SUR high  0.917 0.832 0.878 0.919 0.802 0.869 low  0.457 0.910 0.634 0.772 0.893 0.901 FEA high  0.874 0.914 0.866 0.833 0.712 0.907 low 0.714 0.793 0.681 0.786 0.725 0.872 Mean high  0.902 0.852 0.731 0.689 0.754 0.880 low 0.476 0.699 0.682 0.712 0.636 0.856 In order to reduce the effect of different standard between subjects [26], the emotion intensity scores were normalized by subject’s maxim um value and were rescaled to the srcinal scale. Normalized emotion intensity scores were shown in Table 3, which contains mean and standard deviation values of 34 subjects. Subjects reported that the target emotional  picture could successfully elicit the corresponding emotion by highest scoring. However, subjects considered that anger  picture would elicit emotions of surprise and fear but anger. The difference between the mean scores of anger and mean scores of surprise was 1.10; the t-test statistic was -2.198, with 66 degrees of freedom and an associated p-value of 0.031 (significant difference). And the difference between the mean scores of anger and mean scores of fear was 1.19; the t-test statistic was -2.399, with 66 degrees of freedom and an associated p-value of 0.019 (significant difference). Besides, in fear picture trail, subjects both had fear and surprise emotions. The difference between the mean scores of surprise and fear showed no significant difference by t-test (p-value = 0.946) TABLE   3  NORMALIZED VALUES OF M EAN ± STANDARD DEVIATION OF EMOTION INTENSITY SCORES   Emotion  Picture   HAP ANG SAD DIS SUR FEA HAP 5.59±2.66 0.44±1.00 0.51±1.30 0.15±0.75 1.71±2.56 0.64±1.33 ANG 0.37±1.08 3.19±2.90 1.10±1.99 2.08±2.64 0.67±1.43 1.52±2.46 SAD 0.50±1.39 1.99±2.59 5.82±2.28 2.27±2.83 0.86±1.86 0.77±1.74 DIS 0.40±1.24 1.26±2.27 0.64±1.57 6.44±2.12 0.31±1.02 3.2±3.170 SUR 1.27±2.13 4.29±2.68 1.41±2.13 3.36±2.85 4.17±3.14 4.48±2.91 FEA 0.47±1.39 4.38±2.72 1.34±2.17 2.76±2.92 3.22±3.00 4.52±2.87 Furthermore, emotion intensity scores of high-risk and low-risk IA groups were shown in Table 4. First, for all six emotions intensity assessments, the high-risk IA group replied higher emotion intensity than the other group around 61%. For target emotion assessment, the high-risk IA group replied higher emotion intensity of happiness, anger, and sadness. The low-risk IA group replied higher emotion intensity of disgust, surprise, and fear. However, the scores of two groups showed no significant difference by t-test. Both groups rated the target emotional picture highest scores except anger picture and fear  picture. Anger picture elicited anger, surprise and fear emotions at the same time. Fear picture elicited both fear and surprise emotions. TABLE   4  NORMALIZED VALUES OF M EAN ± STANDARD DEVIATION OF EMOTION INTENSITY SCORES OF HIGH - RISK AND LOW - RISK IA  GROUPS Emotion  IA Picture   HAP ANG SAD DIS SUR FEA HAP high 5.81±2.51 0.47±0.96 0.62±1.39 0.10±0.31 1.61±2.48 0.42±0.91 low 5.43±2.74 0.42±1.02 0.43±1.23 0.19±0.95 1.78±2.60 0.79±1.55 ANG high   0.47±1.11 3.43±2.99 0.82±1.55 2.04±2.45 0.57±1.11 1.38±2.07 low   0.31±1.05 3.02±2.83 1.30±2.22 2.10±2.77 0.75±1.62 1.62±2.70 SAD high   0.59±1.20 2.49±2.65 5.88±2.40 2.60±2.88 1.10±2.14 0.67±1.36 low   0.44±1.51 1.64±2.49 5.77±2.20 2.03±2.77 0.69±1.61 0.84±1.95 DIS high   0.51±1.09 1.71±2.39 0.64±1.34 6.29±2.16 0.43±1.23 3.45±3.09 low   0.33±1.33 0.95±2.13 0.64±1.70 6.54±2.09 0.22±0.83 3.03±3.22 SUR high   1.52±2.24 4.80±2.75 1.48±2.21 3.51±2.76 3.93±3.16 4.46±2.91 low   1.09±2.02 3.93±2.57 1.36±2.06 3.26±2.91 4.34±3.12 4.49±2.91 FEA high   0.58±1.23 4.72±3.11 1.45±2.16 2.86±2.76 3.71±3.22 4.53±3.01 low   0.39±1.48 4.14±2.39 1.26±2.16 2.69±3.02 2.87±2.79 4.51±2.78 C.    Emotion questionnaire for emotional film trail In order to examine the consistency between subjects, reliability test was adopted. However, emotional film trail differed from emotional picture trail in each emotion stimulation cycle. Emotional picture trail utilized four cycles (pictures) to elicit same emotion, but emotional film trail utilized only one cycle (film) to elicit one emotion. So that we computed the cronbach ’ s alpha values of six emotion scores to one emotional film. The results were shown in Table 5 and suggested that the scoring were acceptable (>0.5). TABLE   5 RELIABILITY TEST RESULTS OF 34  SUBJECTS OF EMOTIONAL FILM TRAIL GROUP .   (C RONBACH ’ S ALPHA VALUE >0.5:  ACCEPTABLE )   ( SIX EMOTIONS :  HAPPINESS ,  ANGER  ,  SADNESS ,  SURPRISE ,  FEAR  ) Emotion Film   HAP ANG SAD SUR FEA Six emotions 0.717   0.549   0.733   0.685   0.557   The normalized emotion intensity scores were shown in Table 6. Table, which contains mean and standard deviation values of 34 subjects. Subjects reported that the target emotional picture could successfully elicit the corresponding emotion by highest scoring. However, subjects considered that surprise film would elicit emotions of surprise and happiness at the same time. TABLE   6  NORMALIZED VALUES OF M EAN ± STANDARD DEVIATION OF EMOTION INTENSITY SCORES   Emotion Film   HAP ANG SAD SUR FEA HAP 7.18±2.33 0.78±1.64 1.23±2.27 5.63±2.63 1.11±2.19 ANG 0.66±1.79 7.17±1.82 0.98±1.76 0.50±1.40 1.32±1.75 SAD 0.69±1.79 5.15±2.76 7.22±2.29 0.46±1.34 1.05±1.92 DIS 0.45±1.44 0.97±2.06 0.75±1.46 0.85±2.15 3.31±2.27 SUR 1.88±2.46 3.70±3.20 1.01±1.66 6.78±2.20 4.63±2.81 FEA 0.50±1.33 0.76±1.46 1.37±1.81 0.57±1.52 7.40±1.56 http://www.ijetsp.info/article/IJETSPV2I101.pdf
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