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A review on membrane engineering for innovation in wearable fabrics and protective textiles

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A review on membrane engineering for innovation in wearable fabrics and protective textiles
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    Review A review on membrane engineering for innovation in wearable fabricsand protective textiles Annarosa Gugliuzza a, n , Enrico Drioli a,b,c a Institute on Membrane Technology ITM-CNR, University of Calabria, Rende (CS) 87030, Italy b Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of Calabria, Rende (CS) 87030, Italy c WCU Energy Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Korea a r t i c l e i n f o  Article history: Received 10 April 2013Received in revised form3 July 2013Accepted 5 July 2013Available online 15 July 2013 Keywords: Breathable membranesProtective membranesE-textilesUltra-smart fabricsSustainable textiles a b s t r a c t This review intends to highlight the potential of the membrane science in developed clothing andprotective textiles. In particular, the purpose is to provide an overview of the membrane use in wearablefabrics as well as indoor and outdoor protection. Membrane basics and related applications in the  󿬁 eld of textiles are discussed by covering papers and patents focused on membrane materials and sustainablestrategies for the creation of a large variety of innovative textile solutions. Breathing membranes alongwith barrier  󿬁 lms are examined, discussing related advantages and limitations. A special section isdedicated to the development of ultra-smart textiles, which use adaptable membranes and actuatorsbased on electro-active materials, smart gels, and shape memory polymers along with sensingcompounds for self-cleaning, release and capture processes. Future directions of membrane science insustainable marketplaces, including societal challenges, industrial competitiveness and excellence inscience, are also examined. &  2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Contents 1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3512. Ef  󿬁 ciency of membrane technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3522.1. Basic membrane concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3532.2. Fundamentals of mass/heat transfer through membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3532.2.1. Porous membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3532.2.2. Dense membranes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3542.2.3. Heat transfer through porous membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3562.3. Polymer materials for textiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3562.4. Membrane fabrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3573. Breathable membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3573.1. Porous breathing membranes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3583.2. Dense breathing membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3584. Barrier membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3604.1. Waterproof garments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3604.2. Medical textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3614.3. Warfare agents protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/memsci  Journal of Membrane Science 0376-7388/$-see front matter  &  2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2013.07.014  Abbreviations:  AMPs, antimicrobial peptides;  β  -CD,  β  -cyclodextrins; CPs, conductive polymers; CNTs, carbon nanotubes; DFP (Stimulant agent), diisopropyl 󿬂 uoropho-sphonate; DMMP (Stimulant agent), dimethyl methylphosphonate; EAMs, electro-active materials; ECTFE, ethylene chlorotri 󿬂 uoroethylen; GB, (Sarin nerve agent), Isopropylmethyl phosphono 󿬂 uoridate; GD, (Soman, nerve agent) Pinacolyl methyl phosphono 󿬂 uoridate; HD, (Sulfur mustard, nerve agent) Bis(chloroethyl) sul 󿬁 de; HYFLON AD 60X,tetra- 󿬂 uoroethylene (TFE) and 2,2,4-tri 󿬂 uoro-5-tri- 󿬂 uorometoxy-1,3-dioxole (TIT); IPMCs, ionic polymer – metal composites; KET, N-ethyl-o,p-toluenesulphonamide; LEP,liquid entry pressure; MC, membrane contactor; PANi, polyaniline; sPEEK, Poly(etheretherketone); PEI, Polyethyleneimine; sPES, Polyether sulfone; PLLA, Poly- L  -Lactic acid;PNIPAAm, Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide); PP, Polypolypropylene; PT, polythiophen; PTFE, polytetra 󿬂 uoroethylene; PUs, Polyurethanes; PVA, Polyvinyl alcohol; PVC,polyvinylchloride; PVDF, polyvinyl  󿬂 uoride; PPy, polypyrrole; PPV, poly(p-phenylene vinylene); Si, silicone; SMMs, Shape memory membranes; SMPs, memory polymers;SWNTs, Single Walled Nanotubes,; WS2, chalcogenide; WVTR, water vapor transmission rate. n Corresponding author. Tel.: + 39 984 492026. E-mail address:  a.gugliuzza@itm.cnr.it (A. Gugliuzza). Journal of Membrane Science 446 (2013) 350 – 375    5. Control of mechanical resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3626. From traditional to smart and technical textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3636.1. Electro-active materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3646.2. Potential of e-textiles in powering and communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3656.3. Shape memory membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3656.4. Smart gels and chemical actuators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3656.4.1. Thermodynamics and kinetics aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3666.4.2. Smart gel-based membranes in textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3677. Membranes like reservoirs for molecular release and smell capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3688. Self-cleaning textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3698.1. Cleaning via rolling water droplets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3698.2. Photocatalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3709. Future directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3719.1. Materials for innovative textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3719.2. Urgent matter for textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3719.3. Impact of membranes on next-generation textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372  A. Gugliuzza, E. Drioli / Journal of Membrane Science 446 (2013) 350 –  375  351
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