A Revised End User Computing Satisfaction Instrument for the Information Era: An Exploratory Study

A Revised End User Computing Satisfaction Instrument for the Information Era: An Exploratory Study
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  1428 2001 — Seventh Americas Conference on Information Systems A   R  EVISED E ND U SER C OMPUTING S ATISFACTION I NSTRUMENT FOR THE I NFORMATION E RA :A N E XPLORATORY S TUDY Li Xiao The George Washington Subhasish Dasgupta The George Washington Abstract  Advances in new information technology over the past decade have changed the end-user computing environment tremendously. This article analyzes changes in information technology and their impacts on theend-user computing environment. Doll and Torkzadeh (1988) developed an instrument for measuring end user computing satisfaction (EUCS). This research proposes that additional components including perceived system stability, perceived attractiveness of interface, perceived data security and perceived data compatibility should be included in any measurement of EUCS. The research plans to test the validity of the current and revised  EUCS instrument. Keywords: End-user computing, user satisfaction, information era, end-user computing satisfaction Introduction User satisfaction is generally regarded as one of the most important measures of Information Systems success. There has beenconsiderable research devoted to establishing a standard user satisfaction instrument since 1980s (Ives et al. 1983; Bailey andPearson, 1983; Baroudi et al. 1986; Benson 1983), when the data computing in organizations moved from data processing to enduser computing (EUC) (Doll and Torkzadeh 1988). The End-User Computing Satisfaction (EUCS) instrument was developed byDoll and Torkzadeh (1988). It included five components: content, accuracy, format, ease of use, and timeliness. Since thatinstrument was established, there has been tremendous development in information technology. The objective of this paper isto explore the new dimensions that should be included in the EUCS instrument in the Information Era, which include perceivedsystem stability, perceived attractiveness of user interface, perceived data security, and perceived data compatibility. Theoretical Framework  User satisfaction has received considerable attention of researchers since the 1980s as an important surrogate measure of information systems success (Ives et al. 1983; Bailey and Pearson 1983; Baroudi et al. 1986; Benson 1983; Conrad et al. 1999).Several models for measuring user satisfaction were developed, including the general user satisfaction instrument by Ives et al.(1983) and a 12-item EUCS instrument by Doll and Torkzadeh (1988). Since the establishment of the EUCS instrument in 1988, there has not been much progress in perfecting the instrument duringthe last decade. However, as the Information Technology has experienced tremendous change during the past decade, it isnecessary to retest the reliability and validity of the EUCS instrument and try to complement the existing dimensions with newones, to keep the instrument relevant for IS practice and research in this Information Era.This research is based our research on the EUCS instrument by Doll and Torkzadeh. They developed a 12-item EUCS instrumentby contrasting traditional data processing environment and end-user computing environment, which comprised of 5 components:content, accuracy, format, ease of use, and timeliness. Their instrument was regarded as comprehensive, because they reviewed   Xiao & Dasgupta/A Revised End User Computing Satisfaction Instrument  2001 — Seventh Americas Conference on Information Systems  1429 previous work on user satisfaction in their search for a comprehensive list of items. They included the measure, “ease of use,”which was not included in earlier research. Two global measures of perceived overall satisfaction and success were added to serveas a criterion. The construct was developed with a five point Likert-type scale (1 = almost never; 2 = some of the time; 3 = abouthalf of the time; 4 = most of the time; and 5 = almost always).This research was based our research on the EUCS instrument by Doll and Torkzadeh because it is a widely used instrument, andhas been validated through several confirmatory analyses and construct validity tests. After the exploratory study was completedin 1988, two confirmatory researches with different samples were conducted (Doll et al. 1994, 1997), which suggested theinstrument was valid. The theoretical and methodological issues about this instrument were discussed (Doll and Torkzadeh 1991).A test-retest of reliability of the instrument was conducted (Torkzadeh and Doll 1991), indicating the instrument was reliable overtime.Although several confirmatory analyses and retest of reliability of the EUCS instrument were conducted, serious attention wasnot paid to further develop and perfect this theory in the past decade during which information technology experienced explosivedevelopment and changes. These changes have had important impact on users’ perception and satisfaction with informationsystems. We have moved into a new Information Era. Due to rapid changes in information technology, a revision of the currentEUCS model is necessary to keep the model applicable and relevant to present research and practice. This research focuses onthe logical IS, therefore, the dimensions to be added are perceptions of end users instead of the physical aspects of InformationSystems.In recent years, data computing in organizations has increased greatly in both volume and complexity. In 1980s, a few stand-alone computers would have been enough for the decision making needs of management, while at present all staff members areequipped with computers. Information systems in organizations are used for transaction processing, decision-making, andexecutive support (Gorry and Scott-Morton 1971). Since some of these systems are mission critical systems, the entire enterpriseis dependent on the consistent functioning of the system. Therefore system stability has become a key concern of all staff members, especially management. Therefore, we can state the hypothesis as follows:•Hypothesis 1:R stability, satisfaction  > 0The correlation between perceived system stability and user satisfaction is positive.In the past decade, there has been a drastic increase in the number of choices available to an end user in selecting an informationsystem for a certain purpose. Competition among developers and distributors of information systems has increased remarkably.One of the areas these suppliers have paid particular attention to is the user interface. System developers have effectively usedmultimedia including picture clips, sound, music, and video in the software to enhance the user interface. The user interfacemakes the system more attractive. Therefore this research hypothesizes that attractiveness of user interface has a positivecorrelation coefficient with EUCS: •Hypothesis 2:R attractiveness, satisfaction  > 0The correlation between perceived attractiveness of user interface and user satisfaction is positive.Another significant development of Information Systems/Information Technology is the widespread use of networkingtechnology. Most organizations have been connected together through intranets and Internet. This rapid spread of networkingtechnology is evident in the remarkable increase in the number of Internet hosts and web sites. The number of web sites increasedfrom a paltry 130 in 1993 to well over 17 million in 2000 (Coopee 2000). One of the key issues that occur with the wide spreadof computer networking including intranet and internet is data security. As pointed out by Katz (2000), electronic commerce,Internet use and the prevalence of desktop computers can leave organizations vulnerable to risks that people can enter thecompany’s systems. As a matter of fact, no Information System can be absolutely secure. We believe that user’s perception of system and data security will influence end user satisfaction with the computer system. Therefore, we state our hypothesis asfollows:•Hypothesis 3:R security, satisfaction  > 0The correlation between perceived system security and user satisfaction is positive.With the increasing need for data exchange and data communication among different departments of organization and differentorganizations, especially with the prevalence of electronic commerce, data compatibility between different computer systems hasbecome essential to satisfy the end-users. System reports in formats that are compatible to other systems save end-users a lot of work, while incompatibility between different systems could cause considerable waste of human resources. Therefore we wouldlike to state our hypothesis as follows:   IS and S/W Design, Development, and Use 1430 2001 — Seventh Americas Conference on Information Systems • Hypothesis 4:R data compatibility, satisfaction  > 0The correlation between perceived data compatibility and user satisfaction is positive.Based on the above analysis, in addition to the five dimensions (content, accuracy, format, ease of use, and timeliness) in theexisting instrument, this research will add four new dimensions: perceived system stability, perceived attractiveness of systeminterface, perceived security and perceived data compatibility into the existing EUCS instrument. Methodology Based on the literature above, a 20-item instrument, including the 12 items from the existing model and 8 new items to measureuser satisfaction with system stability, attractiveness of user interface, system security and data computability is developed. Afive point Likert-type scale is used. And two global measures of overall satisfaction and success were added to serve as acriterion.  Data Analysis To ensure that the items measured the end-user computing construct, the construct validity of each item will be examined withfactor analysis. And Principal Components Analysis (PCA) will be applied. And convergent and discriminate validity analysiswill also be conducted to examine the validity of the construct. Present Status The authors are working on the instrument design, and plan to collect data in the next few months. References Bailey, J. E., and Pearson, S. W. “ Development of a Tool for Measuring and Analyzing Computer User Satisfaction, ”  Management Science  (29:5), May 1983, pp. 530-545.Baroudi, J. J., Olson, M. H. and Ives, B. “  An Empirical Study of the Impact of User Involvement on System Usage andInformation Satisfaction, ”   Communications of the ACM   (29:3), March 1986, pp. 232-238.Benson, D. H. “ A Field Study of End-User Computing: Findings and Issues, ”    MIS Quarterly  (7:4), December 1983, pp. 35-45.Conrad, S., Ruth, G. and Magid, I. “ Exploring the Measurement of End User Computing Success, ”    Journal of End User Computing   (11:1), March 1999, pp. 5-14.Coopee, T. “ The Internet Today, ”    InfoWorld   (22:39), September 2000, pp. 52.Doll, W. J. and Torkzadeh, G. “ The Measurement of End-User Computing Satisfaction, ”    MIS Quarterly  (12:2), June 1988, pp.259-274. Doll, W. J. and Torkzadeh, G. “ The Measurement of End-User Computing Satisfaction: Theoretical and Methodological Issues, ”  MIS Quarterly , March 1991, pp. 5-10.Doll W. J., Xia, W. and Torkzadeh, G. “ A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the End-User Computing Satisfaction Instrument, ”  MIS Quarterly , December 1994, pp. 453-461.Doll, W. J. and Xia, W. “ Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the End-User Computing Satisfaction Instrument: A Replication, ”  Journal of End User Computing   (9:2), Spring 1997, pp. 24-31.Gorry, G. A. and Scott-Morton, M. S. “ A Framework for Management Information Systems, ”   Sloan Management Review  (13:1),1971, pp. 55-70.Ives, B., Olson, M. H. and Baroudi, J. J. “  The Measurement of User Information Satisfaction, ”   Communications of the ACM  (26:10), October 1983, pp. 785-793.Katz, D. M. “ RMs are warned on ‘ Back Door ’  E-Risks ” ,  National Underwriter   (104:20), May 15, 2000, Property & casualty/risk & benefits management ed., pp. 9-10.McHaney, R. and Cronan, T. P. “ Computer Simulation Success: On the Use of the End-User Computing Satisfaction Instrument:A Comment, ”    Decision Sciences  (29:2), Spring 1998, pp. 525-536.Torkzadeh, G. and Doll, W. “ Test-Retest Reliability of the End-User Computing Satisfaction Instrument ” ,  Decision Sciences (22:1), Winter 1991, pp. 26-37.
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