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A Revised Late Holocene Culture History for Moloka'i Island, Hawai'i

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A Revised Late Holocene Culture History for Moloka'i Island, Hawai'i
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  RADIOCARBON, Vol 49, Nr 3, 2007,p 1273-1322 © 2007 by the Arizona Board of Regentson behalfoftheUniversity of Arizona A REVISED LATE HOLOCENE CULTURE HISTORY FOR MOLOKA'I ISLAND, HAWAI'I Mark D McCoy Departmentof Anthropology, San Jos<< SlateUniversity. San Jose, California 95192-0113, USA. Email: mdmccoy@email.sjsu.edu. ABSTRACT. Building directly upon aprevious summary of 45 dates(Wcislcr1989), this paper presentsradiocarbon age determinations for 175samples from archaeological and natural contexts and arevised culturehistory ofMoloka'i Island. Hawai'i (cal AD 800 and 1795).Significantculture historical trends include an early settlement pattern apparentlygeneral ized with respectto ecozone; a remarkably long initial period ofmarine and endemic birdexploitation; strong materialevi dence for theconcurrent intensification of subsistence economics, population increase, and the structuring of thesocial landscapethrough ritual; and links between island politics as described in oraltraditions and site construction. Moreover,these results support a late chronology forthe colonization of Hawai'i and demonstrate the valueof spatial technology for building large chronomctric databases. INTRODUCTION Thisreview presentsa list of175radiocarbon dates from archaeological (n = 137) and natural sci ence research (n = 38) on Moloka'i Island, Hawai'i, between1989 and 2006, and proposes arevised late Holocene islandculturehistory (Figure 1). This work adds to Weisler *s (1989) invaluableprevious summary of 48 datesreported between1959and 1988,bringing the combined total number ofannotated samples summarized to 223,including 182 archaeological and 41 geological samples (Figures 2 and 3). Annotated lists such astheseareespecially important in reconstructingprehistory in EastPolynesia, given the absence ofceramics and rarity of artifacts withtemporally diagnostic stylistic characteristics, such as fishhooks and stone tools. In this case, Geographic Information Sys tems software (ESRI's ArcGIS 9.1) was especiallyhelpful in organizing, storing, and retrieving data on I4C dates spanning nearly 50 yr of research. Since the last consideration of the island's prehistoric sequence was published, a major revision has beenadvanced forthe age of the Halawa Dune site, previously thought to have been the island's ear liest archaeological site (McCoy and Kirch2006;Kirch and McCoy, forthcoming). New studies have helped refine our knowledge ofsouthern coastprehistorywithin the traditional Kona district (Tomonari-Tuggle 1990; Tuggle 1993; Dye 1998; Heidel et al. 1998; McGerty andSpear 1999; Bush ct al. 2001;Kirch andSharp2005) aswellasthe Kaluako'i (Dixon et al. 1994) and Kala'e(Weisler ct al. 2006) regions(Figure 1). There has also been a surge in archaeologicalresearch on the northerncoast in the Ko'olau district (Ladcfoged 1990, 1993; Goodwin 1994; Anderson 2001; Kirch2002;Kirch et al. 2003; McCoy 2005a,b,c, 2006, 2008; McElroy 2004,2006; Manning and Nellcr, forthcoming; Ncller n.d.). Further, geological and geoarchaeological research has revealed significanttrends in Moloka'i's Holocene environmental history (Fletcher1992; Denham et al 1999; Englesetal. 2004). Methodologically, over the past 17 yr I4C has remained thepreferred dating method for archaeolo gists working on Moloka'i,although there has been a remarkably higherfrequencyof dating, improved care in sample selection, and more regular useof accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Over this same period, volcanic glass hydrationhas been all but abandoneddue to apparent problems with calibration(see Hommon 1993). However, anovel application of230Th datinghas recently producedunprecedented chronomctric precision forthe ageof artifacts and holds great promise for future studies (Kirch and Sharp 2005;Weisler et al. 2006). Overall, as our body of chronometricevidence has grown and gained precision, agreatersynthesis of material evidence and native Hawaiian oraltraditions dated by genealogical reckoningcontinues to emerge (Summers 1971; Tuggle 1993; Kirch2002;Kirch andSharp 2005; McCoy 2005a, 2006). 1273  A 0 30010001500 U>1(U Figure I Locations of l4C-dated samples,Moloka'i Island. Hawai'i. Traditional community territory (ahupua'a)boundaries shown.  Beta-155366 65fc40BP Be!fi.27lf6 Beta-132160 41O=5PBP iijesobp 400=SO&P 5OOCalADlOOOCalAD 2000CalAD CalBCCalAD 500CalAD lOOOCdAD l50OCaLAD 2000ColAD Figure 2a-bMoloka'i archaeological 14C dates(2o; n = 138) (OxCal v 3.10; Bronk Ramsey 1995,2001). Samples notrepresented inthis graphic include geological dates, dates onmarine shell and fishbone. % modern dates, charcoal dates with CRA not reported, and I unsound early date (GaK-2743), I I to  Beta-411S9T2O?5OBE: SOOCaLAD lOOOCalAD120OC'aLAD 1400CaLAD lfiOOCaLAD ISOOCaLAD20O0CaLAD 1200CaJAD UOOCalAD 1600CalADISOOCalAD2000CJJAD Figure 2c-d Moloka'i archaeologicalI4Cdates<2a; n = 138) (OxCal v 3.10; Bronk Ramsey 1995,2001). Samples notrepresented inthis graphicinclude geo logical dates,dates on marine shell and fishbone, % modern dates, charcoal dates with CRA notreported, and 1 unsound earlydate (GaK-2743).  Revised Late Holocene CultureHistory for Moloka'i Island, Hawai'i 1277 250 ■2 « "a, H « o 3 200150 100■ New Dales •Cumulative ToUil Dates 1950-591960-69 1970-79 1980-891990-99 2000-00 Year of Publication Figure3 I4C dates reported between 1959 and 2006, Moloka'i Island, Hawai'i. Bars shownumber of reporteddatesper decade; the line shows cumulative trend. Total: 223, December 2006. The body of dates summarized here highlights improvements and continued challenges in employ ing 14C in Hawaiian archaeologyover thepast 2 decades. Forexample, tolimit the "old wood" prob lem theselection of charcoal from short-livedplant species and useof AMS to datesingle samples has become aregularpractice(see Dye 1998,2000). Otherchanges include a continued trend toward dating agreater rangeof sites and dating basal samples collected directly under stone foun dations to ascertain a terminus post quern (Weisler and Kirch 1985; Tugglc 1993; Dixon ct al. 1994; Kirch andSharp 2005; McCoy 2005a,2006;Weisler et al. 2006).Nonetheless, in terms of reporting, archaeologists continue to struggle with the "gray literature" problem (Weisler1989:121). In addi tion, while archaeologistslend to avoid 14Cdating of marine shell, coral, and fish bone, this review againunderlines the need to develop a consensus on how to resolve the marine reservoir effectfor the Hawaiian Islands(see Dye 1994). MOLOKA'I ISLAND CULTURE HISTORY The followingrevised culturehistory uses the basic structure established by Kirch(1985) for the Hawaiian Islands, and refined by Weisler(1989) specificallyfor Moloka'i,with slightlydifferent dates bracketing 5 periods: Foundation period (AD 800-1200); Early Expansion period (AD 1200- 1400); Late Expansionperiod (AD 1400-1650); Proto-Historic period (AD 1650-1795);andHis toric period (1795-1900)} Table 1 is a summary ofsamples assigned to these periods, excluding a 'Since the Hawaiian cullural sequence is relatively shonand recent, the years used to bracket prehistoric era were chosen based on natural breaks in calibrated I4Cdate probability distributions.In the historicalera. the years AD 1795 and1900 rep resent turningpoints in the rise and fall of the HawaiianKingdom.
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