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A ROUTE FOR PHDs : Grieves and Euphoria

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Doing PhDs is about confidence. It is important to believe in ourselves. Believe that we can do it under any circumstances. Confidence is more than an attitude. It is compassionate and understanding, not arrogant. Confidence is about knowing our
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  A ROUTE FOR PHDs : Grieves and Euphoria Nik Maheran Nik Muhammad, DBAUniversiti Teknologi MARA, Kelantannmaheran@kelantan.uitm.edu.my Abstract Doing PhDs is aout !on"iden!e. #t is im$ortant to elieve in ourselves. Believe that %e !an doit under any !ir!umstan!es. &on"iden!e is more than an attitude. #t is !om$assionate andunderstanding, not arrogant. &on"iden!e is aout kno%ing our route and e'a!tly %here %e aregoing. (rieves and eu$horia is $art o" PhD)s $ro!ess. #t !omes "rom a!ting %ith integrity andhumility* desire and $assion* strong sense o" $ur$ose and strong !ommitment to takeres$onsiility. +u!!ess in PhDs is aout Ps* -s* and Ds. Kno%ing our route %ill lead toeu$horia and su!!ess"ul e'$erien!es ehind us. Keywords : Traditional doctorate, Professional doctorate, INTRODUCTION  A Do!tor o" Philoso$hy /Ph.D.0 is the highest degree level o" a!hievement $ossile in one o" many di""erent a!ademi! "ields. aving do!torate degree a%arding $o%ers is a ma1or sign o" the status and a!ademi! !rediility o" a university, and those resear!h universities %hi!h a%arddo!torates situate themselves at the $inna!le o" the ladder o" a!ademi! 2uali"i!ations /+tau""er,34450. A!!ording to the UK &oun!il "or (raduate 6du!ation /34470 do!torateness involves88mastery o" the su1e!t* mastery o" analyti!al readth /%here methods, te!hni2ues, !onte'tsand data are !on!erned0 and mastery o" de$th /the !ontriution itsel", 1udged to e !om$etentand srcinal and o" high 2uality0.)) Mullins and Kiley /95550 asert that, 88a PhD is a $eriod during%hi!h, amongst other things, a student learns the art and the s!ien!e o" resear!h, the ethi!s o" resear!h, the intelle!tual rigour re2uired o" a resear!her, ho% to "rame resear!h 2uestions andto $ursue them and mould them, and to !om$lete a $ie!e o" srcinal resear!h.))#ndeed, in the Malaysian University, the resear!h !arried out y do!toral students is vitallyim$ortant, e!ause many do!toral students are the $ro"essors o" the "uture, and most do!toralresear!h gives rise to ne% kno%ledge, ne% inter$retations and ne% e'$lanations. #n this sense,resear!h students a!t as ste%ards o" a dis!i$line /:a!kson, 955-0 %ith a res$onsiility to kee$ itnot 1ust alive, ut intelle!tually virant. ;or the nation, the ovious ene"its o" an a!tive!ommunity o" s!holars engaged in do!toral level resear!h in!lude enhan!ed !reativity andinnovation, and the develo$ment o" intelle!tual !a$ital and kno%ledge trans"er, %hi!h drive thekno%ledge e!onomy and are engines o" the gro%th o" !ultural !a$ital.#t usually takes aout three to "our year to !om$lete the do!toral degree although most $eo$letake longer i" they are not "ull<time students. Many s!hools have a re2uirement that the degreemust e !om$leted %ithin seven to eight years. +tatisti!s indi!ate that many $eo$le start thedo!toral degree ut do not "inish "or various reasons. +ome get to the resear!h stage and never "inish i" they get a ne% 1o, have in!reased res$onsiilities or a raise at their 1o. The reasonsvary. +o, %hat is the determinant "or su!!ess"ul !om$letion= CHOOSING A DOCTORATE PROGRAM 1  Ty$i!ally, a PhD thesis is e'$e!ted to emody inde$endent resear!h !arried out y the studentas an autonomous $ra!titioner, and made a sustantial !ontriution to kno%ledge andadvan!ed understanding. #t is generally agreed that a do!torate should involve e'tendingkno%ledge, srcinal and !ontriution to ne% ody o" kno%ledge.Many 6#s in Malaysia have regulations that re2uire a PhD thesis to !ontain an original!ontriution to kno%ledge or understanding. As Mullins and Kiley /95550 said, 88a PhD thesis >should e, aove all, seen to e a stage in the $ro!ess o" develo$ing ne% kno%ledge in a$arti!ular "ield)) Thus, 8a dissertation "or the PhD must re$resent 8a signi"i!ant !ontriution tolearning), "or e'am$le through the dis!overy o" ne% kno%ledge, the !onne!tion o" $reviouslyunrelated "a!ts, the develo$ment o" a ne% theory, or the revision o" older vie%s, and must takea!!ount o" $reviously $ulished %ork on the su1e!t.)) This traditional notion o" a PhD almostinevitaly $rivileges the !reation o" ne% kno%ledge over the a$$li!ation, e'tension,inter$retation or 2uestioning o" e'isting kno%ledge /Park 955?0..o%ever, an emerging theme in do!toral dis!ourse in the UK, Australia and United +tates as%ell as Malaysia has s%it!hed "rom !ontent to !om$eten!e, driven y a shi"t in em$hasisto%ards the PhD e'$erien!e "or the student, and a%ay "rom sim$ly the out!ome /a%ard o" thedegree0 or the $rodu!t /the thesis0 /Park 955?0. The ultimate aim is to $rodu!e the autonomouss!holar /:ohnson, ee and (reen, 95550. The emergen!e o" ne% "orms o" do!torate %ithin thelast t%o de!ades has diversi"ied the $ort"olio o" do!toral $rovision, allo%ed more ni!hemarketing, and een a res$onse to !hanging needs and o$$ortunities. Alongside the traditionalPhD, many Malaysia 6#s no% o""er one or more PhDs y $uli!ation /rather than y thesis0,$ra!ti!e<ased do!torates /"or e'am$le in the !reative and $er"orming arts0, $ro"essionaldo!torates /in a variety o" "orms and "ormats0, and more re!ently the Ne% Route PhD. Traditional PhD The traditional PhD %as srcinated "rom (ermany, %here the do!torate degree a!2uires s$e!ialstatus as a resear!h degree. This develo$ment initiated "rom the vision o" umoldt, %ho"ounded the University o" Berlin in 335 as the "irst modern resear!h university /yatt, 3440.The a%ard o" a do!torate re2uired su!!ess"ul attendan!e at seminars, sumission o" ana!!e$tale thesis, $assing o" a !om$rehensive oral e'amination, and the em$hasis %ere onsrcinal and !reative resear!h /(ood!hild and Miller, 34470. A!ademi! sta""s %ere invarialyre2uired to hold a PhD degree, engage in resear!h and $ulish s!holarly material. Cale %as the "irst Ameri!an university to ado$t the PhD degree /330, and other Ameri!anuniversities in!luding arvard, Mi!higan and Pennsylvania soon "ollo%ed. The Cale PhDre2uired students to !om$lete s$e!ialied !ourses, enroll "or three years, demonstrate readingkno%ledge o" at least one "oreign language, $ass a !om$rehensive e'amination, sumit adissertation EthesisF, and $ass an oral e'amination EvivaF /Bu!hanan and eruel, 344?0. ;rom(ermany and the United +tates, the resear!h degree s$read to Britain in 3437, and then moveto most 6nglish<s$eaking !ountries su!h as &anada and Australia /+!hatte, 3477* +im$son,34-* Nelson, 344-* Nole, 344G0. #n Britain, higher do!torates /the D+! and Ditt0 had eenintrodu!ed y the Universities o" ondon, 6dinurgh, H'"ord and &amridge during the 375s,ut the "irst lo%er do!torate /the PhD0 %as not introdu!ed until 3437, initially y H'"ord./+im$son, 34-0 Undertaking a PhD has traditionally een vie%ed as a "orm o" a!ademi! a$$renti!eshi$, andtraining inevitaly has a $art to $lay in $rodu!ing the %ell rounded a!ademi! $ra!titioner.88essentially, a PhD is a training and a$$renti!eshi$ in resear!h, a $eriod o" learning the tri!ks o"  2  the trade, o" e!oming a $ro"essional, and o" estalishing yoursel" as a $eer among e'$erts.))/Park 955?0#t has een argued that traditional Ph.D. training is meant to $re$are the !andidates e'!lusively"or an a!ademi! !areer. o%ever, to a gro%ing e'tent, the needs o" the laor market outsidea!ademe %ith PhD is demamded. Professional PhD ITraditionally the "un!tion o" the PhD has een to train mainly "or "uture a!ademi! %orkers andthe resear!h !ontent has een its main out!ome)) /Anon., 95590. o%ever, the idea is !hangingin the UK, U+ as %ell as Malaysia around the 45s. Do!torate degree is no longer em$hasis on$rodu!ing Phd "or autonomous a!ademi! resear!her ut also %ith a roader skills<ase "or those outside a!ademia* that is "or the $ro"essionals. Pro"essional do!torate intent to train aresear!hers, not 1ust "o!us on resear!h !ontent. The resear!h $rodu!t is more a$$lied,inventive and ne% !ontriution to kno%ledge.This ne% emerging do!torate also involved !hanging roles and res$onsiilities "or the resear!hsu$ervisor /6vans, 34470. Pro"essional do!torates take many di""erent "orms, %hi!h re"le!t thedi""erent needs o" the su1e!t areas involved. The Do!torate in 6du!ation /D6d or 6dD0 J one o" the est develo$ed o" the a$$lied or $ra!titioner $ro"essional degrees in the U+A /To%nsendand iese, 34430 and Australia /o!khart and +talein, 95590 The Do!torate in Business Administration /DBA0 is on the in!rease, in res$onse to dissatis"a!tion in the usiness se!tor %ith the traditional PhD /Bourner, Ruggeri<+tevens and Bareham, 95550. A numer o" U+institutions have develo$ed Do!torates in Puli! Administration /DPA0 /+her%ood, 344* Bre%er et al., 34440. Another gro%th area in North Ameri!a is do!toral nursing edu!ation, and %hilstsome universities o""er the Do!torate in Nursing +tudies /DN+0 /Do%ns, 344*0.Pro"essional do!torate is a "orm o" $ro"essional edu!ation in %hi!h students are introdu!ed tothe $ro"essional $ra!ti!e o" resear!h and s!holarshi$. +u$ervisor is res$onsile "or assistingstudents to e!ome inde$endent $ra!titioners and resear!hers /Pearson, 3440. #t %asre!ognied in UK in the early 3445s, and eing a!kno%ledged in the Malaysia 6#s in the late3445s. Pro"essional)s do!torate %as develo$ed to $rodu!e s!holar in their dis!i$line. ;or e'am$le, Do!tor in Business Administration /DBA0 should e s!holars in the "ield o" usinessand Do!tor in 6du!ation should have a holisti! e'$ertise in that $arti!ular area. Traditional PhDon the other hand intends to $rodu!ed a s!ientist in s$e!i"i! ni!he area. New route PhD/industrial doctorate The Ne% Route PhD /%hi!h some universities have !hosen to !all an #ntegrated PhD0 %as "irstintrodu!ed in the UK at the start o" the ne% millennium, initially as a $ilot $ro1e!t in tenuniversities. The $ilot $roved su!!ess"ul, and the rand and "ormat has sin!e een madeavailale to other universities a!ross the se!tor. The aim o" this ne% model is to !reate a UKdo!torate that has more a$$eal to international students, $arti!ularly those %ho might other%ise"ind it attra!tive to study "or a PhD in North Ameri!a. The Ne% Route PhD is modeled on theNorth Ameri!an do!toral model, %ith taught elements /in!luding resear!h training and advan!eddis!i$linary study0 and a smaller thesis, ut it is shorter /"our years, the "irst o" %hi!h is largelydedi!ated to taking taught !ourses0 and there"ore !hea$er, ut no less rigorous intelle!tually/Park 955?0 as the NRPhD em$hasied on industrial $rodu!t /$rodu!t invention, $rototy$e,$rodu!t innovation0 and PhD y $uli!ation /ooks, 1ournals, arti!les0. 3  ROUTE FOR PhD Motivation is a huge determinant o" su!!ess Being motivated means that %e need to einterested in the !ourses and $rogram, kee$ in tou!h %ith the instru!tor, !lassmates, readingsand see the light at the end o" the tunnel. PhDs need to set their goal and $ersonal re%ard,oth intrinsi! and e'trinsi!. “Doing Phd is a lonely journey  L, this is the most !ommon $hrase used y many e'$erien!ePhDs. #s it true= Doing PhD is a $ro!ess o" ne% a!2uaintan!e, ne% kno%ledge a!2uisition, andne% net%orking. #t is a ste$$ing stone "or us to get ne% e'$osure and meet many $eo$le o" theintelle!ts. #t is lonely "or those %ho !hoose to e ut not "or those %ho kno%s to take theo$$ortunity. PhD tea!hes us o" doing inde$endent resear!h, kno%ing ho% to %rite, ho% torevie%, ho% to $resent and ho% to de"end our %ork, not only to get a PhD $a$er and title /dr0.PhD is also a $ro!ess o" understanding $eo$le)s ehavior, inter$ersonal skill, and modesty.There"ore, PhDs tea!hes us ho% to alan!e our li"e, our emotion and our $ride.e sometimes enroll in a Ph.D. $rogram "or the %rong reasons. A"ter a %hile, %e "ind that there2uirements over%helm us. Thus, one should realie that a Ph.D. is not Prestigious in itself -  Almost everyone %ho has otained a Ph.D. is $roud o" their e""orts andthe result. o%ever, %e should understand that on!e %e graduate, %e %ill %ork among a grou$o" resear!hers %ho ea!h hold a Ph.D. degree. Nothing to e $roud o" a!!e$t that %e haveres$onsiility to "ul"ill as the title hold its meaning.  A guarantee of respect for all our opinions  < Many o" us elieve that on!e %e earn a Ph.D.$eo$le %ill automati!ally res$e!t all our o$inions. Peo$le assume a Ph.D. in one su1e!tautomati!ally makes them an authority on others, ut in reality, it is not, res$e!t must e earnedand o$inions must e ought.  A goal in itself   < A Ph.D. degree $re$ares us "or resear!h. #" all %e %ant is a di$loma to hang onthe %all, there are mu!h easier %ays to otain one. A"ter %e graduate, %e %ill have o!!asion to!om$are our re!ord o" a!!om$lishment to those o" other resear!her. e %ill realie that %hat!ounts is the resear!h %ork a!!umulated a"ter a PhDs "inishes their "ormal edu!ation not thetitle that %e hold.  A job guara ntee < olding a PhD is assume guaranteed 1o. #t is not true "or the industry.Moreover, on!e a $erson earns a Ph.D., many !om$anies %ill not hire that $erson "or a non<resear!h $osition. en!e, they aim "or a!ademi!ian. o%ever, in most $ro"essions, !ontinuedem$loyment de$ends on !ontinued $er"orman!e.  A practical way to impress our family or friends  < Hur mother may e $roud and e'!ited%hen %e enroll in a Ph.D. $rogram. A"ter all, she imagines that she %ill soon e ale to ragaout her !hild, the do!tor.OO o%ever, a desire to im$ress others is insu""i!ient motivation "or the e""ort re2uired. Something we can try!! to find out how smart we are  < ut it 1ust doesnOt %ork that %ay.Unless %e make a total !ommitment. e %ill need to %ork long hours, "a!e manydisa$$ointments, stret!h our mental !a$ailities, and learn to "ind order among a$$arently 4  !haoti! "a!ts. Unless %e have ado$ted the long<range goal o" e!oming a resear!her, the day<to<day demands %ill %ear us do%n. +tandards %ill seem unne!essary high* rigor %ill seemun%arranted. #" %e only !onsider it a test, %e %ill eventually %alk a%ay and "ail. The only research topic we will e"er pursue  < Many o" us make the mistake o" vie%ing their Ph.D. to$i! as a resear!h area "or li"e. e assume ea!h resear!her only %orks in one area,al%ays $ursues the same to$i! %ithin that area, and al%ays uses the same tools anda$$roa!hes. 6'$erien!ed resear!hers kno% that ne% 2uestions arise !onstantly, and that old2uestions !an e!ome less interesting as time $asses or ne% "a!ts are dis!overed. The est$eo$le !hange to$i!s and areas. #t kee$s them "resh and stimulates thinking. Plan to move on*$re$are "or !hange. #etter than the alternati"es  < ;or many students, a Ph.D. !an e a !urse. They must !hooseet%een eing at the to$ among $eo$le %ho hold a Masters degree or eing a medio!reresear!her. Cou %ere sometimes advi!e to !hoose et%een eing !a$tain o" the B teamOO or aen!h%armerOO on the A team. 6veryone must de!ide %hat they %ant, and %hi!h $ro"ession %illstimulate them most. But students should e realisti! aout their !a$ailities. #" you really !annotdetermine %here you stand, ask o$inions "rom others.  A way to ma$e more money   < hile %e havenOt heard any statisti!s "or the $ast !ou$le o" years, graduate students used to estimate the $ayo""OO using the starting salaries o" Ph.D. andM.+. $ositions, the average time re2uired to otain a Ph.D., the value o" sto!k o$tions, and!urrent return on investments. ;or a $eriod o" at least "ive years that %e kno%, the $ayo"" %as!learly negative. +u""i!e it to say that one must !hoose resear!h e!ause one loves it* a Ph.D.is not the o$timum road to %ealth. SUCCESS OF PhDs Doing PhDs is aout !on"iden!e. #t is so im$ortant to elieve in ourselves. Believe that %e !ando it, under any !ir!umstan!es. &on"iden!e is more than an attitude. #t !omes "rom kno%inge'a!tly %here %e are going, e'a!tly ho% %e are going to get there. #t !omes "rom a!ting %ithintegrity and humility. #t !omes "rom a strong sense o" $ur$ose. #t !omes "rom a strong!ommitment to take res$onsiility, rather than 1ust let li"e ha$$en. Hne %ay to develo$ sel"<!on"iden!e is to do the thing %e "ear and get a re!ord o" su!!ess"ul e'$erien!es ehind us.&on"iden!e is !om$assionate and understanding. #t is not arrogant. Arrogan!e is orn out o" "ear and inse!urity. &on"iden!e !omes "rom strength and integrity. Nevertheless, !on"iden!edoes not 1ust elieve %e !an do it. &on"iden!e is aout kno%ing that %e !an do it. Kno%ing that%e are !a$ale o" a!!om$lishing anything %e %ant, and live our li"e %ith $ride. Anything !an ea!hieved through "o!used, determined e""ort, !ommitment and sel"<!on"iden!e. Phd is also aout Desire, Determination, Drive, Dedi!ation, Dis!i$line and Dire!tion. #t needsPassion, Persisten!e, Perseveran!e, Patien!e , Pro!rastination<"ree and Peo$le. Thus it !ane !onstru!t "rom Ds and Ps %ith - /i.e. ead, eart and and0. Passion 5
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