Engineering

A seminar report on Electric Propulsion

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This was the seminar presentation on my Project report for M.Sc. Degree. This shows basic and application of Electric propulsion.Which also shows about how electric propulsion is better than chemical propulsion.
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  • 1. A SEMINAR REPORT ON ELECTRIC PROPULSION BY SAKTI PRASAD MISHRA M.Sc. Applied Physics and Ballistics
  • 2. PLANE OF TALK • What is propulsion • About Electric Propulsion • History of Electric propulsion • Difference between Chemical & Electric propulsion • Types of Electric propulsion • Advantages • Application • Conclusion • References
  • 3. PROPULSION • Propulsion in a broad sense is the act of changing the motion of a body. • Propulsion mechanisms provide a force that moves bodies that are initially at rest, changes a velocity, or overcomes retarding forces when a body is propelled through a medium.
  • 4. ELCTRIC PROPULSION • Propellant is heated electrically. • The hot gas is then thermodynamically expanded and accelerated to supersonic velocity through an exhaust nozzle. • Thrust ranges of 0.01 to 0.5 N, with exhaust velocities of 1000 to 5000 m/sec. • Ammonium, hydrogen, nitrogen, or hydrazine decomposition product gases have been used as propellants. • Electric power can come from a battery, solar panels or an onboard nuclear or solar generator.
  • 5. HISTORY  1903 -- K. E. Tsiolkovsky derived the “Tsiolkovsky” or “Rocket” Equation commonly used to show the benefits of electric propulsion  1906 -- R. Goddard wrote about the possibility of electric rockets  1911 -- K. E. Tsiolkovsky independently wrote about electric rockets  1929 -- World’s first electric thruster demonstrated by V. P. Glushko at the Gas Dynamics Laboratory in Lenningrad  1960 -- First “broad-beam” ion thruster operated in the U.S. at the NASA Lewis (now Glenn) Research Center
  • 6.  1964 -- First successful sub-orbital demonstration of an ion engine (SERT I) by the U.S.  1964 -- First use of an electric thruster on an interplanetary probe (Zond 2) by the USSR  1970 -- Long duration test of mercury ion thrusters in space (SERT II) by the U.S.  1972 -- First operation of a xenon stationary plasma thruster (SPT-50) in space (Meteor) by the USSR  1993 -- First use of hydrazine arcjets on a commercial communications satellite (Telstar 401) by the U.S.
  • 7. Difference between Chemical & Electric propulsion
  • 8. Limitations of Chemical Rockets • Chemical rocket: exhaust ejection velocity intrinsically limited by the propellant-oxidizer reaction • Larger velocity increment of the spacecraft could be obtained only with a larger ejected mass flow. • Mission practical limitation: exceedingly large amount of propellant that needs to be stored aboard
  • 9. Types of Electric propulsion • Electrothermal • Propellant is heated electrically and expanded thermodynamically; i.e., the gas is accelerated to supersonic speeds through a nozzle, as in the chemical rocket. • Electrostatic • Acceleration is achieved by the interaction of electrostatic fields on non-neutral or charged propellant particles such as atomic ions, droplets, or colloids. • Electromagnetic • Acceleration is achieved by the interaction of electric and magnetic fields within a plasma. Moderately dense plasmas are high temperature or non equilibrium gases, electrically neutral and reasonably good conductors of electricity.
  • 10. Electrothermal • RESITOJET • Resistojets operate by direct heating of the propellant. • In a typical resistojet, the propellant is heated in passing over a tungsten heating element within a heat exchange chamber before being exhausted, wherein heat is transferred to the propellant from some solid surface, such as the chamber wall or a heater coil. • Resistojets have been proposed for manned long-duration deep space missions, where the spacecraft's waste products (e.g., H20 or CO2) could then be used as propellants.
  • 11. Arcjets • The arcjet overcomes the gas temperature limitations of the resistojet by the use of an electric arc for direct heating of the propellant stream to temperatures much higher than the wall temperatures. • The arc stretches between the tip of a central cathode and an anode, which is part of the coaxial nozzle that accelerates the heated propellant.
  • 12. Advantages • High exhaust speed (i.e. high specific impulse), much greater than in conventional (chemical) rockets • Much less propellant consumption (much higher efficiency in the fuel utilization) • More energy available, less propellant, less mass required • Continuous propulsion: apply a smaller thrust for a longer time
  • 13. Application • For very precise low-thrust station-keeping and attitude control applications, pulsed thrusters are generally best suited. • Interplanetary Missions • International space station(ISS) • Commercial • Defence
  • 14. Conclusion • If a system requires a propulsion system that is at the low end of the chemical thrust regime, then electric propulsion may be a way to save spacecraft mass and/or increase the payload deliverable. • For mostly political reasons, plans for deployment of nuclear high-power sources in space have so far failed to materialize, and consequently the use of electric thrusters for primary propulsion in energetic missions has had a cyclical history of false starts and disappointments. • Now that many EP systems have entered the mainstream of astronautic technology, their role in helping to expand human ambition beyond the inner part of the solar system, although still dependent on the hitherto unrealized development of high-power sources, is perhaps on more credible ground.
  • 15. References • 1. Rocket and space craft propulsion book by Martin J.L.Turner Third Edition. • 2. Rocket propulsion element by George p. Sutton Seventh Edition. • 3. Electric Propulsion: Which One For My Spacecraft? Ian J. E. Jordan JHU, Whiting School of Engineering. • 4. A Critical History of Electric Propulsion: The First Fifty Years (1906-1956) Edgar Y. Choueiri∗ Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey 08544 • 5. Fundamentals of Electric Propulsion: Ion and Hall Thrusters Dan M. Goebel and Ira Katz • 6. M.S. El-Genk. Energy conversion options for advanced radioisotope power systems. In Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF 2003), volume 654(1), pages 368–375. American Institute of Physics, New York, 2003. • 7. S. Oleson and I. Katz. Electric propulsion for Project Prometheus. In 39th Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville, AL, 2003. AIAA-2003- 5279 • 8. N.A. Rynin. Tsiolkovsky: His Life, Writings and Rockets. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Leningrad, 1931. • 9. R. G. Jahn. Physics of Electric Propulsion. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968. • 10. R.H. Goddard. The green notebooks, vol. # 1. The Dr. Robert H. Goddard Collection at Clark University Archives, Clark University, Worceseter, MA 01610. • 11. Stuhlinger, E., Electric Propulsion Development, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, v. 9, AIAA, Academic Press, 1963. • Electric Propulsion Websites: • 1.Frisbee, R. http://sec353.jpl.nasa.gov/apc/index.html . • 2.Advanced Space Propulsion Research Workshop May 31 / June 2, 2000 - JPL. Proceedings papers • may be found at http://apc2000.jpl.nasa.gov/ . 3.A somewhat out of date compilation of electric propulsion sites may be found at http://www.irs.unistuttgart.de/SURF/ep_sites.html .
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