A Short History of Australia

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    Project Gutenberg   Australia   a treasure-trove of literature   treasure found hidden with no evidence of ownership Title: A Short History of Australia Author: Ernest Scott (1868-1939) PROFESSOR OF HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE * A Project Gutenberg of Australia eBook * eBook No.: 0200471h.html Language: English Date first posted: July 2002 Date most recently updated: July 2002 This eBook was produced by: Colin Choat Project Gutenberg of Australia eBooks are created from printed editions which are in the public domain in Australia, unless a copyright notice is included. We do NOT keep any eBooks in compliance with a particular paper edition. Copyright laws are changing all over the world. Be sure to check the copyright laws for your country before downloading or redistributing this file. This eBook is made available at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg of Australia License which may be viewed online at GO TO Project Gutenberg of Australia HOME PAGE   A SHORT HISTORY OF AUSTRALIA BY ERNEST SCOTT PROFESSOR OF HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE    PREFACE This Short History of Australia begins with a blank space on the map, and ends with the record of a new name on the map, that of Anzac. It endeavour to elucidate the way in which the country was discovered, why and how it was settled, the development of civilized society within it, its  political and social progress, mode of government, and relations, historical and actual, with the Empire of which it forms a part. The aim of the author has been to make the book answer such questions as might reasonably be  put to it by an intelligent reader, who will of course have regard to the limitations imposed by its size; and also to present a picture of the phases through which the country has passed. At the same time it is hoped that due importance has been given to personality. History is a record of the doings of men living in communities, not of blind, nerveless forces. In a book written to scale, on a carefully prepared plan, it was not possible to deal more fully with some events about which various readers might desire to have more information. On some of these the author would have liked to write at greater length. The student who works much at any section of history finds many aspects which require more adequate treatment than they have yet received. In Australian history there are large spaces which need closer study than has yet  been accorded to them. It is hoped that the bibliographical notes at the end of the volume, brief though they be, will assist the reader, whose thirst is not assuaged by what is to be found within these covers, to go to the wells and draw for himself. An excellent Australasian Atlas, published while this book was in preparation, has been found useful by the author. Dr. J. G. Bartholomew and Mr. K. R. Cramp, who have produced it, call it an Australasian School Atlas [Note: The maps on pages 22, 79, 119, 221, and 230 are copied from this atlas.](Oxford University Press, 1915); but the author ventures to commend its series of  beautiful historical maps (pp. 47-54) to any reader of this History who desires to obtain in a convenient form more geographical information than is afforded by the maps herein engraved. THE UNIVERSITY, MELBOURNE, July 16, 1916. CONTENTS LIST OF MAPS CHRONOLOGY LIST OF GOVERNORS AND MINISTERS   I. THE DAWN OF DISCOVERY Early maps of the southern regions--Speculations as to Antipodes-- Discovery of sea-route to the East Indies--Discovery of the Pacific-- The Portuguese and Spaniards--Discovery of the Solomon Islands--Quiros at the New Hebrides--Torres Strait. II. THE DUTCH AND NEW HOLLAND Spain and the Netherlands--Cornelius Houtman's voyage to the East Indies--The Dutch settled at Java--The  Duyfken  in the Gulf of Carpentaria--Brouwer's new route to the Indies--Dirk Hartog in Shark's Bay--Discovery of Nuytsland--Leeuwin's Land discovered--Wreck of the English ship Trial  --Tasman's voyages--New Holland. III. DAMPIER AND COOK  Cessation of Dutch explorations--Policy of Dutch East India Company-- Dampier's first voyage to Australia in the Cygnet  --His voyage in the  Roebuck  --Cook's voyages--Discovery of New South Wales--Botany Bay--Voyage of the  Resolution --Popularity of Cook's VOYAGES. IV. THE FOUNDATION OF Sydney  Effect of the revolt of the American colonies--The problem of the loyalists--Stoppage of the transportation of criminals to America--Banks suggests founding a convict settlement in New Holland--Matra's plan-- Young's plan--Determination of Government to establish a settlement in  New Holland--Pitt's policy--Phillip appointed Governor--Sailing of the First Fleet--Phillip rejects Botany Bay and selects Port Jackson-- Laperouse in Botany Bay--Phillip's task and its  performance--His faith in the future--His retirement. V. THE CONVICT SYSTEM The New South Wales Corps--Grose and Paterson--Hunter Governor of New South Wales--Trading monopolies--System of transportation--The assignment system--Tickets of leave--Political prisoners--Irish rebels. VI. GOVERNMENT AND GOVERNORS System of government--An autocracy--Hunter's governorship--His difficulties--Recalled--King's governorship--The rum traffic--Bligh's governorship--John Macarthur--His arrest and trial--Deposition of Bligh. VII FURTHER EXPLORATIONS Attempts to cross the Blue Mountains--Blaxland's success--Evans discovers the Bathurst Plains--Voyages of Bass and Flinders in the Tom Thumb --Bass discovers coal--Discovery of Bass Strait and Westernport--Bass and Flinders circumnavigate Tasmania in the  Norfolk  --End of Bass--Voyage of the  Lady Nelson --Murray discovers Port Phillip-- Flinders's voyage in the   Investigator  --Discovery of Spencer's and St. Vincent's Gulfs and Kangaroo Island--Meeting with Baudin in Encounter Bay--Circumnavigation of Australia--The name Australia--Flinders in Mauritius--His liberation and death. VIII. THE EXTENSION OF SETTLEMENT Baudin's expedition--Effect of French operations--Settlement at Risdon Cove--First Port Phillip Settlement--Foundation of Hobart--Settlement of Port Dalrymple--Napoleon's order to 'take Port Jackson'--Sea power and the security of Australia--The  Astrolabe  at Westernport--Governor Darling's commission--Alteration of boundaries of New South Wales--Westernport and King George's Sound settlements--Whole of Australia claimed as British territory. IX. THE LAST OF THE TYRANTS Macquarie governor of New South Wales--British military forces sent to Australia--Demand for a council--The emancipist question--The Governor's policy--His difficulties with military officers--Trial by jury--Quarrels with the Bent brothers--Emancipist attorneys--Macquarie's autocracy. X. THE DAWN OF CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT Uneasiness in England concerning the convict system--Commissioner Bigge's inquiries--New South Wales Judicature Act--The first Legislative Council--Chief Justice Forbes--Enlargement of the Council--Wentworth--His  Australian --The Governor and the press--Governor Darling--Trial by jury--Robert Lowe--His  Atlas  newspaper--His visions of Imperial relations. XI. THE PROBLEM OF THE RIVERS Oxley's explorations on the Lachlan and the Macquarie--Immigration policy--Oxley in Moreton Bay--Foundation of Brisbane--Lockyer explores the Brisbane River--Explorations of Hume and Hovell--Alan Cunningham explores the Liverpool Range--Sturt's explorations--He discovers the Darling--Discovery of the Murray--Its exploration to the sea--The naming of the Murray--Mitchell discovers Australia Felix--The Hentys at Portland. XII. THE FOUNDING OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA Stirling's examination of the Swan River--Proposals for colonization-- Thornas Peel's project--The Peel River colony--The site of Perth--Early difficulties--Peel's failure--Stirling's governorship--Western Australia and the eastern colonies--Shortage of labour--New land regulations--Desire for convict immigrants--A penal colony--Dissatisfaction with the transportation system. XIII. SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND THE WAKEFIELD THEORY Wakefield's LETTER FROM Sydney --His theory of colonization--The Colonial Office and Wakefield's Principle--Act to establish South Australia-- Colonists at Kangaroo Island--Colonel
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