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This paper will give you a detail about Historical Developments of Museum and Galleries in particular and Lemma Guya Art Gallery in General
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  HISTORY OF LEMMA GUYA ART GALLERY 2012 HISTORY OF LEMMA GUYA ART GALLERY Page 1 Table of content Contents page Chapter one 1. Background----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- 1 1.1   General development of the concepts of museum and galleries-------------------------------------1 1.2   the emergence of museums and galleries and the transfer of Collections from private to public--------------------------------------------------------------------------5 Chapter two 2. Museum and galleries in Ethiopia----------------------------------------------------------------------------9 2.1 The formative periods for museum and galleries in Ethiopia to post Italian period---------------9 2.2 Museum and Galleries from liberation to 1974----------------------------------------------------------12 2.3 Museum and Galleries under the Dergue------------------------------------------------------------------18 2.4. Museum and galleries under EPRDF -----------------------------------------------------------------------20 Chapter three 3. Foundation of Lemma Guya art gallery-----------------------------------------------------------------------22 3.1 Background of Lemma Guya----------------------------------------------------------------------------------22 3.2 Establishment of the art gallery------------------------------------------------------------------------------23 3.3 Nature and contents of the art gallery----------------------------------------------------------------------26 3.4 Organizational structure----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------26 3.5 Display and available infrastructures-------------------------------------------------------------------------27 3.6. Financial resources ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------27 3.7. Lemma Guya art gallery as a center of education and inspiration For other African painters----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28 3.8. Community attitudes towards the gallery------------------------------------------------------------------30 3.9. Housekeeping-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31 3.10. Major problems/short coming/---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31 3.11. Historical significance ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------32 Endnotes Bibliography Published Internets Unpublished List of informants  HISTORY OF LEMMA GUYA ART GALLERY 2012 HISTORY OF LEMMA GUYA ART GALLERY Page 2 Chapter one 1. Physical and Historical Background of the Study Area Bishoftu town is located in east Shewa Zone, Oromia regional state. Bishoftu is the capital of  Adaa Lie oeda ad ko it i e ast Shewa Zone and located at 47 km south east of Addis  Ababa. The foundation of the town dates back to the construction of Djibouti- Addis Ababa railway in 1907  . Geographically, it has a latitude and longitude of 8 0 45 0 N 38 0 59 0 E with an elevation of 1920 meters (63,000 ft) respectively and it has a climate of Woina Dega (temperate zone) 1 .  According to the population census of 2001, reported a total population for Bishoftu of 99,928, of whom 47,860 were men and 52,086 were women. The dwellers or residents of the town composed of different ethnic groups. The three largest ethnic groups reported for this town were the Amhara (42.86%), the Oromo (39.4%) and the Guraghe (8.3%), all other ethnic groups made up 9.44% of the population 2 . Amharic is spoken as a first language by 71.95% and 20.12% Afan Oromo; the remaining 7.93% spoke all other languages reported. Concerning the religious belief 87.87 of the  population practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, 6.93% were protestant, and 4.07% observed Muslim and Roman Catholicism and the rest followed indigenous religion 3 . 1.1 General development and the concepts of museum and galleries When man began to interact with his natural environment he began to produce different tools such as wood, stone, bone and the like. These tools were developed to counteract the challenges of life 4 . That means they were used these materials for defense or production such as hunting and  HISTORY OF LEMMA GUYA ART GALLERY 2012 HISTORY OF LEMMA GUYA ART GALLERY Page 3 gathering purposes. In this production of those objects man had passed from the crudest or rough stages of tool making to a later nuclear era 5  , the period in history initiated by the first use of the atomic bomb and characterizes by atomic energy as a military, political and industrial factors. These tools enabled him to struggle with his environment and carry on the challenges of nature. However, not all tools were capable of preservation and particularly wood and bone tools rarely survived in archaeological records. The only definite tools that survived destruction of different srcins are stoe oes. As e got fo ou itte soues fo the egiig of ti  me to present, man has dedicated a corner of his habitat to the conservation of precious objects inherited from his ancestors 6 . These objects in the long run as people succeeded one another became so precious that humans began to care for them and pass to the coming generation. This strengthens Temesgen Burkas idea in that it   was not only because these objects were precious but also because it was human nature that humans throughout their history preserved and passed them on to the next generation 7  . Consequently these cultural objects enable us today to understand our ancestors and their economy, social, cultural and environmental situations that governed to be what they became. Similarly, these objects are heritage and important to us because it was through them that their makers were able to pass their ideas, philosophies and standards.  Apparently so, these tools that were once used as objects of survival for the ancestors began to  play very wider roles. They became heritage to us that need to feel responsible to use them,  preserve them and pass them with the necessary care and meanings to the inheriting groups. Their scopes of application continued to widen that they began to deal with the identity, history and value of certain society and became bed rock for the unity and development of a given nation 8 . In this case it means that they play a great role between the different generations and  play a role to close or fill in the gaps created as a result of variety of reasons such as exposures to different ways of time as time changes.  HISTORY OF LEMMA GUYA ART GALLERY 2012 HISTORY OF LEMMA GUYA ART GALLERY Page 4 Moreover, these precious remains of the past have to be preserved for posterity, so that they would appreciate the achievement of their creators and take time to think about and analyze their current problems and use these objects to solve many of the crises that may face them. As a result, this human nature of appreciating his past favored the collection and preservation of these objects, and later on paved the way for the evolution and development of Museums and galleries. Theefoe, as e tied to osee fo the aoe as iteest i his past as ot a recent development but has been observed throughout history. Even so, the process of collecting and keeping different objects took a long period of time before they settled into the present day museums and galleries. Today these cultural objects are either housed in museum and galleries or preserved in their natural environments and at least there are more or less a certain forms of standards for carrying out of the collection and preservation of those objects 9 . However, in the past what people collected, the purpose and method of collection, the techniques they used and the places where they stored them were not standardized and different according to the customs of the concerned societies. According to Temesgen Burka, collections of precious objects and of art objects were first formed In the temples, sanctuaries and tombs and in the dwellings of heads of state and sovereigns 7  . Therefore, in those time or era the centers of preservation of the precious objects could be places of worship such as temples, churches and monasteries, houses of elders or rulers in the community or places. The purpose of collection of objects at the beginning was for curiosity and prestige but not like today to deal with the history and culture of a given community. The purpose of collection to reflect the history, social, political and cultural systems of a given community has to come much in the later times. In the classical times for the Greeks, for examples, the need to exalt visibly the  power of a national god, a ruler were part of reason for collection and preservation and accumulation of precious objects in the temples and places 10 . The development of the term museum finds its roots in the Greek though the first time it was officially used was by Ptolemy II of Alexandria which was first and foremost a study collections  HISTORY OF LEMMA GUYA ART GALLERY 2012 HISTORY OF LEMMA GUYA ART GALLERY Page 5 with library attached, a repository of knowledge, a place of scholars and philosophers and historians 11 . In this case the Greeks, Romans, Africans, Asians and Europeans had collected objects in their own different ways and they found different methods of acquiring their objects. According to our source for instance, in Asia, precious objects were often deposited for safe keeping in temples. In ancient India for example, chitrashales were used as a means of transmitting knowledge and entertainments and in this house there is the collection of different paintings and sculptures and they provides lessons in history. Religion and art and used as a - On the contrary, in some African societies, objects important to the group they represented were appointed custodians 12 . According to our sources, in Africa certain respected elders were appointed to take responsibility of selected religious masks or objects. Similarity when we come to our country Ethiopia several ethnographic and religious objects were preserved in Ethiopian orthodox churches and monasteries and it was a system whereby from among respected priestly individual persons are conferred on a responsibility for secretly keeping the objects. The types of objects at the custodies of these individual remain to be secret to the outside until the end of the lives of these persons. Temesgen argues this action as follow. These systems have different problems in that, on one hand, the types of objects at the disposal of the churches remained closed not only to the laity but also to many of the clergy in them. On the other hand it blocked from foreign visitors which in turn brought currency for the country as well as for the development and growth of the churches and monasteries 13 . The churches and monasteries not only preserved exotic objects but also curiosity ones and they are also recipients of precious gifts such as cross, missals, reliquaries and the like. Generally, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, the one for many centuries responsible to preserve mainly Christian culture in the country and it is also the treasure for many royal and ethnographic
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