Documents

A Short Introduction to Control Theory

Description
linguistics
Categories
Published
of 29
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  Il Mulino - Rivisteweb Danilo Reggiani A short introduction to Control Theory (doi: 10.1418/34542) Lingue e linguaggio (ISSN 1720-9331)Fascicolo 1, gennaio-giugno 2011 Questa copia `e stata concessa in licenza a: Monica Chaves (kikalu@globo.com) Articolo acquistato il  19/01/2018  da  www.rivisteweb.it Copyright c  by Societ`a editrice il Mulino, Bologna. Tutti i diritti sono riservati.Per altre informazioni si veda https://www.rivisteweb.it Licenza d’uso L’articolo `e messo a disposizione dell’utente in licenza per uso esclusivamente privato e personale, senzascopo di lucro e senza fini direttamente o indirettamente commerciali. Salvo quanto espressamenteprevisto dalla licenza d’uso Rivisteweb, `e fatto divieto di riprodurre, trasmettere, distribuire o altrimentiutilizzare l’articolo, per qualsiasi scopo o fine. Tutti i diritti sono riservati.  ! # %&'() *+)(',-.)*'+ )' .'+)('/ )&0'(1 /*+2-0 0 /*+2-#22*' 34! 567!!8 !  !  !97 # %&'() *+)(',-.)*'+)' .'+)('/ )&0'(1 , #+*/'  (  022*#+* # :%)(#.) ; )<=> ?@A=BCD => ?E =EA@FGHBA=FE AF BFEA@FC A<DF@I4 .FEA@FC A<DF@I <?> B<?EJDG BFE>=>ADEACI =E A<D C?>A ! KADDE ID?@> A<?EL> AF EDM =GD?> ?EG B@F>>NC=EJH=>A=B DO=GDEBD4 P?@ K@FQ RD=EJ DS<?H>A=ODT A<=> ?@A=BCD ?=Q> ?A >H@ODI=EJ A<D C?>A ! KADDE ID?@> FK BFEA@FC A<DF@I @DO=DM=EJ A<D QF>A =E HDEA=?C U@FUF>?C> ?EG A<F>D U@FRCDQ> A<?A >A=CC <?OD AF RD KHCCI ?GG@D>>DG4 V  01W'(,% ; >IEA?ST .FEA@FC )<DF@I4 !4 *+)(',-.)*'+ ! .FEA@FC A<DF@I M?> RF@E GDB?GD> ?JF 6  AF DSUC?=E >FQD =EAD@K?BD U<DEFQDE?  RDAMDDE >IEA?S ?EG >DQ?EA=B>4 .FEA@FC A<DF@I A@=DG AF JDED@?AD ? QDB<?E=>Q ?RCD AF DSUC?=E <FM =E ! E=A=OD> ?@D ?>>=JEDG ? >HRXDBA A<?A => EFA  U<FEFCFJ=B?CCI U@D>DEA4 )MF Q?=E =EAD@U@DA?A=FE> FK A<D =E ! E=A=OD BC?H>D> ?EG A<D=@ >HRXDBA J?U MD@D @DBFJE=YDGT ?E ?EADBDGDEAN@DKD@@=EJ =EAD@U@DA?A=FE 5!?8 ?EG ? JDED@=B =EAD@U@DA?A=FE 5!R84 5!8 ?4 #$ &'( )'*+ )#$ ,-'.  Z Δ   )' /012  [4 R4 Z Δ   3012012 &'- )#$ &'( [ ,41 5$ +412$-'6/ 4 )<D ?EADBDGDEAN@DKD@@=EJ =EAD@U@DA?A=FE B?E RD >UC=A =E AMF G=KKD@DEA B?ADJF@=D>; ? CFB?C ?EADBDGDEA =EAD@U@DA?A=FE ?EG ? EFENCFB?C 5CFEJ G=>A?EBDT <DEBDKF@A< /,8 ?EADBDGDEA =EAD@U@DA?A=FE4 )<D CFB?C ?EADBDGDEA => EDBD>>?@=CI  UC?BDG =E A<D <=J<D@ BC?H>D A<?A >DCDBA> A<D =E ! E=A=OD BC?H>D ?> ?E ?@JHQDEA 56?84 )<D /, ?EADBDGDEA B?E RD <=J<D@ 56R8 F@ CFMD@ 56B8 A<?E A<D =E ! E=ADT  RHA =A B?E EDOD@ RD ?E ?@JHQDEA FK A<D OD@R A<?A >DCDBA> A<D =E ! E=A=OD BC?H>D ?> ? BFQUCDQDEA 5\?EY=E=T !]^ _ /?EG?HT !]]]84 )<D >HRXDBA FK A<D =E ! E=AD B?E ?C>F RD =EKD@@DG RI A<D BFEADSA 56G8 5:@D>E?ET !]^684 568 ?4 #$ '*+ 741 =    /40+ )#4) )#$ &'(  X   )'*+ )#$ ,-'.  Z Δ `=aX   )' /012  [4 R4 #$ ,-'. =  +'$/18) 91'. )#4) Z Δ =  /012012 #0/ =  /'12  [  ,41 5$ +412$-'6/ 4 B4 Z Δ =   3012012 4 /'12 .0)# 4 :0$,$ '& ,#$$/$ 01 #0/ =  7'6)# [ ,'1;01,$+ $;$-< -$4+$- )#4) )#$ ,-'. 0  76/) 5$ ;$-< /)6:0+  4 !  * J@?ADKHCCI ?BLEFMCDGJD AMF ?EFEIQFH> @DO=DMD@> FK  =0126$ $ =01264220'  KF@ =E>=J<AKHC @DQ?@L> ?EG BFQQDEA>4 /=>A FK ?RR@DO=?A=FE>; #.. ; ?BBH>?A=OD_ .'\b ; BFQUCDQDEA=YD@_ ,#) ; G?A=OD_ ,P/) ; GDK?HCA_ &#: ; <?R=AH?C_ *((  ; =@@D?C=>_  +'\ ; EFQ=E?A=OD_ b/ ; UCH@?C_ %2 ; >=EJHC?@4 6  )<D AD@Q cBFEA@FCd <FMDOD@ G=G EFA ?UUD?@ HEA=C A<D C?AD %DODEA=D>4 (F>DER?HQ 5!]9eR8 H>DG A<D AD@Q c*GDEA=AI 0@?>H@D )@?E>KF@Q?A=FEd4  ! f ,#+*/' (022*#+*  G4 #$ &'(  X   91'./ .#4) /#$ .41)/ 4 Z Δ  X   >#4**$12012 )#$ ,-'. [ .4/ 4 /74-) 7';$ 4 *A => BCD?@ A<?A /, BFEA@FC ?EG JDED@=B BFEA@FC ?@D B<?@?BAD@=YDG RI ? BFQQFE U@FUD@AI; A<DI GF EFA EDDG ? CFB?C ?EADBDGDEA4 )<D GD ! E=A=FE FK CFB?C ?EADBDGDEA KF@ BFEA@FC <?> RDDE G=>UHADG 5/?EG?HT !]]]T 677!84 *A => A@?G=A=FE?CCI ?>>HQDG A<?A ? CFB?C ?EADBDGDEA => ? BNBFQQ?EG=EJ ?@JHQDEA FK A<D OD@R A<?A >DCDBA> A<D =E ! E=A=OD 5BFEA@FCCDG8 BC?H>D 5W=CC=?Q>T !]^784 /FB?C=AI ?EG =EAD@U@DA?A=FE ?@D A<H> Q?AB<=EJ =EAF AMF AIUD> FK BFEA@FC  U@DG=B?AD>; FRC=J?AF@I BFEA@FC 5'.8 ?EG EFE FRC=J?AF@I BFEA@FC 5+'.84 '. => CFB?C ?EG => EFA ?RCD AF C=BDE>D ?@R=A@?@I BFEA@FC F@ /, BFEA@FC4 %DEADEBD> C=LD 56?8 ><FM ?C>F A<?A '. BFEADSA> ADEG AF RCFBL A<D DQD@JDEBD FK +'.4 '. => ?C>F B<?@?BAD@=YDG RI A<D =QUF>>=R=C=AI FK >A@=BA @D?G=EJT M<=CD +'. ?CCFM> >HB< ? @D?G=EJ4 '. 5 ?8 ?CCFM> FECI >CFUUI @D?G=EJ HEGD@ gbNDCC=U>=>T M<=CD  +'. 5 R8 ?CCFM> RFA< >CFUUI @D?G=EJ ?EG >A@=BA @D?G=EJ HEGD@ gbNDCC=U>=>4 5 8 ?4 #$ #4-$ .41)/  Z Δ   )' -61 &4/)$-  [T 41+ )#$ )'-)'0/$ +'$/ )'' 4 R4 #$ +';$ )#019/ )#4) Z Δ   #$*:012 #$- &-0$1+  [ .4/ 4 2''+ 0+$4? 41+ )#$ 41) +'$/ )'' 4 P=E?CCIT '. ?CCFM> FECI A<D ,0 %0 @D?G=EJT M<=CD +'. ?CCFM> RFA< ,0 (0 ?EG ,0 %0 @D?G=EJ4 5f8 ?4 #$ ,-'.   Δ =    /40+ )#4) Z Δ =  /012012 )#4) /'12  [ .4/ ;$-< /)6:0+  4 R4 #$ ,-'. Δ =   -$7$75$-$+ Z Δ =   5$012 /)6:0+  [4 *E ? ,0 %0 @D?G=EJ A<D B@FM <?> A<D U@FUD@AI FK RD=EJ ? >AHU=G ?E=Q?C ?EG RD=EJ KHCCI ?M?@D FK A<?A4 *E ? ,0 (0 @D?G=EJ A<D B@FM <?> A<D U@FUD@AI FK RD=EJ ? >AHU=G ?E=Q?C M<=CD EFA RD=EJ ?M?@D FK A<?A4 @A@ 3:*0) ,'1)-'* 41+ :4-)04* ,'1)-'*  %FQDA=QD> ?E FRC=J?AF@=CI BFEA@FCCDG OD@R <?> EFA >=QUCI FED ?EADBDGDEA4 )<D BFEA@FC RI AMF G=KKD@DEA >UC=A ?EADBDGDEA> => FK BFH@>D UF>>=RCD =E +'.T ?> MD B?E >DD K@FQ 5e?8T RHA =A => ?C>F UF>>=RCD =E '.T =E A<D BFQUCDQDEA  UF>=A=FE FK >FQD OD@R> 5eR84 5e8 ?4  B'#1 =   )'*+ C4-<  X   )#4) Z Δ =hX   *0;012 )'2$)#$-  [ .'6*+ 5$ &61 4 R4  B'#1 =    :$-/64+$+ C4-<  X  Z )'   Δ =hX   *0;$ )'2$)#$-  [4 * M=CC B?CC A<D DS?QUCD =E 5eR8 ? B?>D FK c>UC=A BFEA@FCd4 %UC=A BFEA@FC <?>  RDDE @?@DCI G=>BH>>DG =E A<D C=AD@?AH@D FE BFEA@FC4 #> ? @D>HCA FK A<=>T MD GF EFA LEFM QHB< ?RFHA =A; MD GF EFA @D?CCI LEFM <FM =A => C=BDE>DG F@ =K =A B?E RD G=O=GDG =EAF >HRAIUD>T DAB4 WD LEFM QHB< QF@D ?RFHA ? >FQD<FM >=Q=C?@ U<DEFQDEFE B?CCDG cU?@A=?C BFEA@FCd 5/?EG?HT !]]]84 598 ?4 #$ 26</ )#'62#) )#4) B'#1 =  .41)$+ Δ =h   )' 7$$) 4) /0( 4 R4 ` #$ 26</ )#'62#) )#4) B'#1 74142$+ Δ =   )' 7$$) 4) /0( 4  ! e # %&'() *+)(',-.)*'+ )' .'+)('/ )&0'(1  B4 #$ 5'4-+ 7$) 4) /0( 4 G4  B'#18/ &-0$1+/ 7$) 4) /0( 4 D4 `  B'#1 7$) 4) /0( 4 )<D OD@R 7$$)   => ? BFCCDBA=OD U@DG=B?ADT ? OD@R A<?A @DiH=@D> ? UCH@?C >HRXDBA 59G8 F@ ?A CD?>A ? >DQ?EA=B?CCI UCH@?C  >HRXDBA C=LD 5'4-+   59B84 0OD@I ,b A<?A => EFA ?A CD?>A >DQ?EA=B?CCI UCH@?C B?EEFA RD A<D >HRXDBA FK ? BFCCDBA=OD U@DG=B?AD 59D84 W<?A <?UUDE> A<DE =E 59?8 ?EG 59R8j # OD@R C=LD .41)   ?CCFM> A<D BFEA@FCCDG ?@JHQDEA AF RD >DQ?EA=B?CCI UCH@?CT DODE =K A<D BFEA@FCC=EJ ?EADBDGDEA => UH@DCI >=EJHC?@4 # B?>D C=LD 59?8 => cUD@KDBACI E?AH@?C M<DE A<D >UD?LD@ <?> >FQD >?C=DEA J@FHU =E Q=EGd 5/?EG?HT 677f; ^ 8T C=LD )#$ 26</  =E 59?84# OD@R C=LD 74142$ T FE A<D BFEA@?@IT GFD> EFA ?CCFM A<D BFEA@FCCDG ?@JHQDEA AF RD >DQ?EA=B?CCI UCH@?CT J=ODE ? UH@DCI >=EJHC?@ ?EADBDGDEA4 /?EG?H 5!]]]8 @DBFJE=YD> AMF Q?XF@ U@FUD@A=D> FK U?@A=?C BFEA@FC4 5k8 ?4 b?@A=?C BFEA@FC => ?E =E>A?EBD FK '.4 R4 'ECI >FQD Q?A@=S OD@R> ?CCFM U?@A=?C BFEA@FC =E A<D=@ BFQUCDQDEA BC?H>D>4 b?@A=?C BFEA@FC ><?@D> A<D U@FUD@A=D> @DUF@ADG =E >DBA=FE ! M=A< A<D '. BFQUCDQDEA>4 b?@A=?C BFEA@FC OD@R> C=LD .41)   ?EG  :-$&$-   GF EFA ?CCFM ?@R=A@?@I BFEA@FC 5^?8 F@ /, ?EADBDGDEA> 5^R84 b?@A=?C BFEA@FC => ?C>F HE?RCD AF I=DCG ? >A@=BA @D?G=EJ =E 5^B8 ?EG ? ,0 (0 @D?G=EJ =E 5^G84 *K 5^G8 => A@HDT A<DE A<D B@FM GDB=GDG A<?A <D <=Q>DCK MFHCG QDDA ?A >=S M=A< A<D KFS4 5^8 ?4  B'#1 =   .41)$+ Z Δ =a`?@R   )' 5$ D60$)  [4 R4  C4-< 91$. )#4) B'#1 .41)$+ Z Δ   )' :$-E6-$ #07/$*&  a` #$-/$*&  [4B4 #$ 5'4-+ .4/ /,#$+6*012 )#$ 7$$)012/A B'#1 :-$&$--$+ Z Δ   )' 7$$) 4)  /0( [T 56) F$)$- +0+18)  4 G4 #$ &'( .4/ -$4+< &'- 4 +4)$A #$ ,-'. +$,0+$+ Z Δ   )' 7$$) 4) /0( [4 )<D >DBFEG =QUF@A?EA U@FUD@AI FK U?@A=?C BFEA@FC => A<?A FECI >FQD OD@R> =E A<D Q?A@=S BC?H>D ?CCFM U?@A=?C BFEA@FC FK A<D BFQUCDQDEA BC?H>D4 )<D M<FCD BC?>> FK BFQUCDQDEA BFEA@FCC=EJ OD@R> 5=4D4 @FHJ<CI A<D OD@R> A<?A >DCDBA ?E =E ! E=A=OD BC?H>D ?> ? BFQUCDQDEA =E 0EJC=><8 B?E RD G=O=GDGT ?BBF@G=EJ AF /?EG?H 5!]]]8T =E AMF G=>A=EBA B?ADJF@=D>; U?@A=?C BFEA@FC 5b.8 OD@R> 5Q?A@=S OD@R> ?RCD AF I=DCG U?@A=?C BFEA@FC8 ?EG DS<?H>A=OD BFEA@FC 50.8 OD@R> 5Q?A@=S OD@R> HE?RCD AF I=DCG U?@A=?C BFEA@FC84 5]8 0S<?H>A=OD .FEA@FC OD@R>   ?4 `  B'#1 )'*+ C4-< )#4) #$ =    &'-2')    Δ `=h   )' 7$$) 4) /0( 4 R4 ` #$ ,#40-  =   +4-$+    Δ `=h   )' ,'1;$1$ +6-012 )#$ /)-09$ 4 B4 `  B'#1 )'*+ C4-< )#4) #$ =   #4+    Δ `=h   )' /$:4-4)$ 5$&'-$ 0) .4/ )'' *4)$ 4  /?EG?H 5677f8 B?CC> cQD@DFCFJId A<D KD?AH@D A<?A B<?@?BAD@=YD> >DQ?EA=B?CCI UCH@?C EFHE> C=LD 5'4-+  ; 5'4-+   => Zh\D@[ M<D@D?>  B'#1  => ZN\D@[4
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks