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A status review on the medicinal properties of essential oils_2.pdf

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Industrial Crops and Products 62 (2014) 250–264 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Industrial Crops and Products j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ i ndcr op Review A status review on the medicinal properties of essential oils Jayant Shankar Raut, Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil ∗ DST-FIST & UGC-SAP Sponsored School of Life Sciences, SRTMUniversity, Nanded, 431 606 MS, India a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 28 December 2013 Received in
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   J.S.Raut,S.M.Karuppayil/IndustrialCropsandProducts62(2014)250–264 251 (Croteau,1986;Alvarez-CastellanosandPascual-Villalobos,2003;Hussainetal.,2008).Forexample,EOfromdifferentplantpartslikeflowers,leaves,stems,roots,fruitsandfruit-peelsexhibitdif-ferentbiologicalandmedicinalproperties.Similarly,solventsof differentpolaritiesextractdifferentgroupofcompounds(Cowan,1999).Manytimesitisdifficulttodifferentiateandanalyzeeffectof thesefactorsbecausetheyinfluenceoneanother(TerblancheandKornelius,2000).Essentialoilsarecomplexmixturesoflowmolecularweight(usuallylessthan500daltons)compoundsextractedbysteamdistillation,hydrodistillationorsolventextraction(Nakatsuetal.,2000).Theyareusuallystoredinoilducts,resinducts,glandsortri-chomes(glandularhairs)oftheplants(BaserandDemirci,2007).Oncommercialscale,steamdistillationisapreferredmethodfortheextractionofessentialoils(Masango,2005).EOsmay   consti-tute20–100differentplantsecondarymetabolitesbelongingtoavarietyofchemicalclasses(CarsonandHammer,2011).Ter- penoidsandphenylpropanoidsformthemajorconstituentsoftheessentialoils.Inaddition,fewaromaticandaliphaticconstituentsarealsopresent.Monoterpenes,sesquiterpenesandoxygenatedderivativesofthesetwoarethelargestgroupofchemicalentitiesinEOs(Carsonetal.,2006).Mostofthetimethebioactivitiesof  aparticularEOisdecidedbyeietheroneortwo   ofitsmaincom-ponents(Bakkalietal.,2008).But,sometimesoverallactivitycan notbeattributedtoanyofthemajorconstituentsandpresenceofacombinationofmoleculesmodifytheactivitytoexertsignif-icanteffect.Forexample,itisreportedthatinhibitoryactivityof rosemaryoilagainstinsectlarvae(lepidopteranlarvae)isaconse-quenceofsynergisticeffectsofseveralchemicalconstituents,whilenoindividualcompoundshowtheactivity(Ismanetal.,2008).Naturalproductsandtheirderivatiesareimportantsourcesofnoveltherapeuticmolecules(ClardyandWalsh,2004).Plant essentialoilspossessvariousapplicationsmainlyinhealth,agri-culture,cosmeticandfoodindustries.UseofEOsintraditionalsystemsofmedicineisbeingpracticedsinceancienttimesinhumanhistory.ResearchersfromallovertheworldaretryingtocharacterizearangeofbiologicalpropertiesofEOswhichincludesantimicrobial,antiviral,antimutagenic,anticancer,antioxidant,antiinflammatory,immunomodulatory,andantiprotozoalactivi-ties(Bakkalietal.,2008).EfficienciesofvariousEOsarecompared byanalyzingtheconcentrationsrequiredtoinhibitthegrowthof targetorganisms.Generally,minimumgrowthinhibitoryconcen-trations(MICs),minimumlethalconcentrations(MBCsorMFCs),MIC 50  andLD 50  valuesareusedforcomparisonofbioactivities.Thesevaluesareobtainedwithstandardizedmethodologies.Forexample,protocolsgivenbyClinicalLaboratoryStandardsInsti-tute(CLSI)andcellviabilityassessmentbyMTTorXTTassaysareusedforantimicrobialsusceptibilitytesting(Bakkalietal.,2008;HammerandCarson,2011;Schnitzleretal.,2011).Emergenceofdrugresistantstrainsofpathogens,increaseintheimmunocompromisedpopulationandlimitationsoftheavailableantibiotics/drugshavemotivatedpeopletousethecom-plementaryandalternativetherapies,includingtheuseofEOs.Secondarymetaboliteswhicharenaturallysynthesizedbyplantsinresponsetoattackbyinsectpestandsometimesherbivores,constituteacomplexmixtureofEOs.Thesesmallmoleculemetabo-litesaloneandincombination,(forexampleintheformofEOs)possesssignificantmedicinalproperties;hence,may   beusedforchemotherapyofinfectiousaswellasnon-infectiousdiseases(SamyandGopalakrishnakone,2010;RautandKaruppayil,2014). 2.Taxanomyofessentialoilproducingplants PlantsproducingEOsbelongtovariousgeneradistributedtoaround60families.SelectedfamiliessuchasAlliaceae,Apiaceae,Asteraceae,Lamiaceae,Myrtaceae,PoaceaeandRutaceaearewellknownfortheirabilitytoproduceEOsofmedicinalandindustrialvalue(Table1)(Vigan,2010;HammerandCarson,2011).Allof  theEOproducingplantfamiliesarerichinterpenoids.While,plantfamilieslikeApiaceae(Umbelliferae),Lamiaceae,Myrtaceae,Piper-aceaeandRutaceaecontainphenylpropanoidsmorefrequently(Chamietal.,2004).PlantsfromthesefamiliesareusedforEO productionatcommerciallevel.Forexample,coriander,anise,dillandfenneloilsareextractedfromtheplants– Coriandrumsativum , Pimpinellaanisum ,    Anethumgraveolens and Foeniculumvulgare ,respectively.AllofthesebelongtothefamilyApiaceae  Table1 Essentialoilsofmedicinalimportancedistributedtoselectedplantfamilies.Sr.no.PlantfamilyEssentialoilMedicinalproperties1Apiaceae(Umbelliferae) Carumnigrum (Blackcaraway);  Anethumgraveolens (Dill);  Apiumgraveolens (Celery); Foeniculumvulgare (Fennel); Pimpinellaanisum (Anise); Cuminumcyminum (Cumin); Corriandrumsativum (Coriander)Antibacterial;Antifungal;Anticancer;Antiviral;Anti-diabetic2   Asteraceae(Compositae)  Artemisiajudaica ;  A. annua;  A.absinthium (Wormwood);  A.dracunculus (Tarragon)Antifungal;Anticancer;Antiviral3   Geraniaceae Pelargoniumgraveolens (RoseGeranium);Antibacterial4   Lamiaceae/Labiateae Origanumvulgare (Origano); Melissaofficinalis (Lemonbalm); Salviaofficinalis (Sage); Mentha sp.; Menthalongifolia (WildMint); M.piperita (Peppermint); M.spicata (Spearmint); Ocimumbasilicum (SweetBasil); O.sanctum ; Rosmarinusofficinalis (Rosemary); Lavandulaofficinalis (Lavender); Lavandula sp.; Salviasclarea (SageClary)Antibacterial;Antifungal;Anticancer;Antiviral;Antidiabetic;Antimutagenic,Antiprotozoal;Anti-inflammatory;Antioxidant5   Lauraceae Cinnamomum sp.(Cinnamon)Antimicrobial;Anti-inflammatory;Antimutagenic6   Liliaceae  Alliumsativum (Garlic);  Alliumcepa (onion)Antifungal;Antiviral;Antiprotozoal7   Myrtaceae Syzigiumaromaticum (Clove); Thymusvulgaris (Thyme); Thymus sp.; Melaleucaalternifolia (Teatree); Eucalyptus globulus (Bluegum); Myristicafragrans (Nutmeg)Antibacterial;Antifungal;Anticancer;Antiviral;AntimutagenicAnti-inflammatoryAntiprotozoal8   Oleaceae  Jasminum sp.; Oleaeuropaea (Olive)Antibacterial,Anticancer9   Piperaceae Pipernigrum (Blackpepper)Antibacterial;Antifungal;Anticancer;Antiprotozoal10   Pinaceae Cedruslibani (Cedarwoodoil)Antifungal11   Poaceae Cymbopogonmartini (Palmarosa); Cymbopogoncitrates (Lemongrass); Cymbopogonnardus (Citronellagrass);Antifungal;Anticancer12   Rutaceae Citrus sp.(Lemon); C.paradisi (Grapefruit)Antibacterial;Antifungal;Anticancer13   Rosaceae Rosa sp.;Antifungal14   Santalaceae Santalum sp.; Santalumalbum (Sandalwood)Antiviral15   Zingiberaceae  Zingiberofficinale (Ginger);  Zingibermontanum;Curcumalonga (Turmeric); Elettariacardamomum (Cardamom)Antifungal;Anticancer;Antioxidant;Antimutagenic  252  J.S.Raut,S.M.Karuppayil/IndustrialCropsandProducts62(2014)250–264 andarewellknownfortheirantibacterial,antifungal,anticancerandantiviralactivities.Also,manygenerawhicharewell-knownforchemotherapeutic,antiviral,antimicrobial,antimutagenic,anti-oxidantandanti-inflammatorypropertiesbelongtotheLamiaceaefamily.Thesearealsousefulagainstintestinaldisordersandbron-chitis. Menthapiperita , Rosmarinusofficinalis , Ocimumbasilicum , Salviaofficinalis , Origanumvulgare , Melissaofficinalis,Saturejahort-ensis,Thymusvulgaris and Lavandulaangustifolia aresomeofthepopularexamplesofEOproducingplantsfromLamiaceae(Burt,2004;Hammeretal.,2006;Hussainetal.,2008).Cinnamonoilwhichisrichineugenol,obtainedfrom Cinnamomumverum ,   isanimportantexamplefromLauraceaefamily.Itdisplaysantimicro-bialandanticancerpotential.ManycommerciallyimportantplantsbelongtothefamilyMyrtaceae.Forexample, Melaleucaalternifolia , Eucalyptusglobulus , Syzygiumaromaticum ( Eugeniacaryophyllus )and Myrtuscommunis produceEOswithwellknownantibacterial,antifungal,antitumor,anticancerandantiviralproperties(Burt,2004;Hammeretal.,2006).Thefamilyofgrasses,Poaceaefamilyincludesproducerof lemongrassoil(from Cymbopogoncitratus ),citronellaoil(from C.nardus )   andpalmarosa( C.martinii )oils.ThemedicinallyactivecomponentsoftheseEOslikecitral,geraniolandgeranylacetateshowantimicrobialandanticancerproperties.CitrusoilswhichconstitutelimoneneandlinaloolarederivedfromthefruitpeelofplantswhichbelongtotheRutaceaefamily.Thesecomponentsexhibitantimicrobialpotential.Theplants Pelargoniumgraveolens and Santalum spp.ofthefamilyGeraniaceaeandSantalaceae,respectivelypossesstwoimportantoils i.e. geraniumandsan-dalwoodoil(Hussainetal.,2008;Bedietal.,2010).Fewmore familieslikeCupressaceae,Hypericaceae(Clusiaceae),Fabaceae(alsoknownasLeguminosae),Liliaceae,PinaceaeandZygophyl-laceaemay   produceEOswithsignificantbiologicalactivities,whichneedtobeexplored(HammerandCarson,2011). 3.Essentialoilsasantibacterialagents Severityofbacterialinfectionshasgoneupevenafterthedis-coveryofmanyantibiotics,mainlyduetoemergenceofantibioticresistantstrains,increaseinthepopulationwithloweredimmu-nityandincreasedincidencesofdrugresistantbiofilmassociatedinfections.Therefore,infectiousdiseasescausedbybacteriaarestilloneoftheleadingcausesofdeaths(AhmadandBeg,2001;Hall-Stoodleyetal.,2004).Inaddition,toxicityduetosideeffectslimitstheprolongeduseofhighconcentrationsofavailableantibac-terialdrugs.Assuchthereisaneedtoexplorenovelmoleculesandalternativeapproachesagainstpathogenicbacteria(Galvaoetal.,2012).Plantmoleculesarewellknownfortheirantimicro-bialproperties.EspeciallyplantEOshavebeenshowntoexhibitbroadspectruminhibitoryactivitiesagainstvariousGramposi-tiveandGramnegativebacterialpathogens(Table2)(Edris,2007; LangandBuchbauer,2012;Teixeiraetal.,2013).Theantibacte-rialefficacymay   varywithoilsaswellaswithdifferentbacteria.Forexample,sandalwood( Santalumalbum ),   manukaoil( Leptosper-mumscoparium )   andvetiver( C.zizanioides )oils,arehighlyactiveagainstGrampositivebacteria,butdonothaveactivityagainstGramnegative(Hammeretal.,1999;HammerandCarson,2011).Comparedtootherbacteria Pseudomonasaeruginosa exhibittoler-ancetoinhibitionbyplantEOs.Ingeneral,thyme,oregano,tea-tree,cinnamon,lemongrass,bay,lemon-myrtle,cloveandrosewoodoilsarethemostactiveantimicrobials.Theyareactiveatcon-centrations<1%vol/vol i.e. exhibitMICsof<1%(Hammeretal.,1999;Oussalahetal.,2006).Bay,clove,lemongrass,oreganoandthymeinhibitgrowthof  Escherichiacoli atconcentrationsof 0.02,0.04,0.06,0.05and0.05%,respectively.Thyme,rosemarypeppermint,lemongrass,cloveandbayoilshavepotentialtoprevent Staphylococcusaureus atconcentrationsof  ≤ 0.05%,whilebasilandeucalyptusoilsinhibititat1%concentration(Smith-Palmeretal.,1998;Hammeretal.,1999;HammerandCarson,2011).Interestingly,garlic,lemonmyrtleandtea-treeoilsareveryactiveagainstmethicillinresistant Staphylococcusaureus (MRSA)(TsaoandYin,2001;HayesandMarkovic,2003).Infewcasesa majorconstituentmoleculehasbeenobservedtopossessactiv-itybetterthantheEO.Forexample,carvacrolandeugenolfrom S.aromaticum (clove)oilorterpinen-4-olin M.   alternifolia (tea-tree)oildisplaygreaterefficacythanparticularoil.Generally,EOswithphenolicsandaldehydesexhibitbetterantibacterialeffi-cacies(Carsonetal.,2006;Lambertetal.,2001;Ulteeetal.,2002).Manyoftheplantmoleculesareeffectiveagainstdrugsensi-tiveaswellasdrugresistantstrains(May   etal.,2000;Bozinetal.,2006).Interestingly,oilsofplantoriginareshowntopossesspoten-tialagainstbiofilmswhicharewelltoleranttobacterialantibiotics(Galvaoetal.,2012).PrimarymodeofactionofEOsisthemem- branedestabilization.Essentialoilsarelipophilicinnatureandhenceeasilypermeablethroughthecellwallandcellmembrane.InteractionsofEOsandtheircomponentswithpolysaccharides,fattyacidsandphospholipidsmakethebacterialmembranesmorepermeable,sothatlossofionsandcellularcontentsleadstocelldeath(Edris,2007;Saadetal.,2013).Similarly,interferenceinpro- tonpumpactivity,lossofmembraneintegrity,leakageofcellularcontentscanresultinlossofviability(Oussalahetal.,2006;DiPasquaetal.,2007).Otherimportantmechanismsofactioninclude,denaturationofcytoplasmicproteinsandinactivationofcellularenzymesleadingtobacterialcelldeath(Gustafsonetal.,1998;Burt,2004). 4.Antifungalactivitiesofessentialoils Beingeukaryotes,pathogenicfungihavesimilaritieswiththeirhosts,bothatcellularandmolecularlevels.Hence,fungiarehardtargettohitat(Routhetal.,2011).Someoftheopportunistic fungalpathogens(forexample, Candida spp.,  Aspergillus spp., Cryptococcus sp.)arenotoriousandtroublealargepopulationof immunocompromisedpatients.Therearelimitedoptionsofdrugsavailableforsuccessfulantifungalchemotherapy(Kathiravanetal.,2012).Oncomeofdrugresistantstrains,deviceassociatedbiofilminfectionsandsideeffectsofcurrentlyprescribeddrugsposedifficultiesforpreventionandtreatmentoffungalinfections.Therefore,invasivefungalinfectionsareassociatedwithveryhighmorbidityandmortalityrates(Sardietal.,2013).Various, plantandhumanpathogenicfungi,includingyeastsarefoundtobesusceptibletoEOs(Table3).Theefficiencyofinhibition varieswiththetargetorganismsandtheoiltested.Forexample,threemembersofapiaceaefamilyshowvariableanti Candidaalbicans activitywithatrendofcoriander>anise>fennel;withtheMICsof0.25%,0.5%and1%,respectively(Hammeretal.,1999).Generally Cymbopogon sp.showspromisingactivitiesagainstpathogenicyeast(IrkinandKorukluoglu,2009).Amongdifferent EOs,cinnamon,lemongrass,Japanesemint,gingergrass,geraniumandcloveoilswereobservedasmostpromisingagainst C.albicans .Theeffectiveconcentrationsrangefrom0.01to0.15%(Devkatteetal.,2005;HammerandCarson,2011).GrowthofdermatophytesandtheirsporedevelopmentisinhibitedreadilywithEOsrichinphenylpropanoidslikeeugenolandthemonocyclicsesquiterpenealcoholssuchas  -bisabolol(Bajpaietal.,2009;Maxiaetal.,2009;Pragadheeshetal.,2013).Growthandaflatoxinproductioninmouldslike  Aspergillusflavus ispreventedbyEOsofplantorigin(Kumaretal.,2010;LangandBuchbauer,2012).Lemongrass( C.citratus )oilisoneofthemosteffectiveoilsagainstfilamentousfungiwiththeactiveconcentrationsrangingfrom0.006to0.03%.Orange,lemon,mandarinandgrapefruitoilsinhibit  Aspergillus

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