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A Study of a Mobile Apps Application Uses Recognition and Gratification: Focused on Smartphone Apps Application Users in KR

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This study verified the differences of factors in three groups between early adopter, early majority and laggard group, based on theoretical backgrounds in previous research with Diffusion Innovation Theory and Technology Acceptance Model. It can be
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  ISSN: 2394-6881   International Journal of Engineering Technology and Management (IJETM)  Available Online at www.ijetm.org Volume 2, Issue 5; September-October- 2015; Page No. 48-58   Corresponding author: Jin-Sik PARK     4    8  A Study of a Mobile Apps Application Uses Recognition and Gratification: Focused on Smartphone Apps Application Users in KR Jin-Sik PARK 1   1  Joong-bu University, Department of Broadcasting and Visual Art, 201Daehak-ro, Chubu-myeon, Geumsan-gun, Chungnam 312-702, KOREA  parkjinsik@joongbu.ac.kr    Abstract This study verified the differences of factors in three groups between early adopter, early majority and laggard group, based on theoretical backgrounds in previous research with Diffusion Innovation Theory and Technology Acceptance Model. It can be summarized as follows. First, this study analyzed differences in innovativeness between each characters of using mobile apps application, recognition of mobile apps application user's innovations, perceived usefulness and perception ease of use in the mobile apps application, and the usage of mobile applications based on Diffusion Innovation Theory and Technology Acceptance Model. Second, this study explored the resistance factors in the application adoption of mobile, applying Innovation Resistance Model. Third, this study analyzed the motives of leading, expression, analysis and friendship character when they adopt the mobile application based upon Uses and Gratification Theory. In the analysis, this study tried to verify the validity of innovativeness, perceived traits of mobile application, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and degrees of mobile applications. In results, there were significant differences found in all variables. This study has the value of investigating the whole process of mobile application usage, from the adoption and resistance to the uses and gratification. Key Words: Uses and Gratification, Technology Acceptance, Mobile Application, Adaptation. INTRODUCTION: Mobile application is more past increasing than other product of Information Technology from 2009 in Korea. Specially, uses gratification of information suffered for social change and mobile application is a bright lookout for the mobile industry. The reason which mobile application becomes the focus of public attention is not only mobile application have several functions but also to use information by wires environment. It is estimated that media usage changed telco and mobile industry from traditional TV and internet, and software as well as contents industry with application development is reorganizing in the center. Thus, mobile application has changing an ecosystem of the mobile application industry and seems get life-style of media user to bring with change and innovation. Whenever appear new innovational media, media researchers have studying about social introduction of new media and individual adoption meaning, and have academicals and theoretical attention about introduction of cable TV, satellite broadcasting and DMB(Digital Multimedia Broadcasting: include terrestrial & satellite). Mobile phone has not enough studies yet, expects more research considering all these characteristics of mobile media. The studies of new media can be summarized as follows. First, a prediction study about introduction media before. Second, a uses intention study. Third, a limited sampling study after introduction media adoption, finally, uses and non-use group and comparative study. Studies of mobile application until now have a limited sampling for the most study part. This study verified the differences of factors in the four groups between leading character user group, expression character group, analysis character group and friendship character group, based on theoretical backgrounds in previous research. It can be summarized as follows. First, this study analyzed differences in innovativeness between each characters of using mobile application, recognition of mobile application user's innovations, perceived usefulness and perception ease of use in the mobile application, and the usage of mobile applications based on Diffusion Innovation Theory and Technology Acceptance Model. Second, this study explored the resistance factors in the application adoption of mobile, applying Innovation Resistance Model. Third, this study analyzed the motives of leading, expression, analysis and friendship character when they adopt the mobile application based upon Uses and Gratification Theory. In the analysis, this study tried to verify the validity of innovativeness, perceived traits of mobile application,   Jin-Sik PARK, International Journal of Engineering Technology and Management (IJETM) ©  2015 IJETM. All Rights Reserved.       P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9      P   a   g   e     4    9  perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and degrees of mobile applications. THEORETICAL BACGROUND: McLuhan, M. (1967) noted that mobile phone is irresistible intruder or it is that we cannot afford to ignore. Now day, mobile phone defined too complicatedly and deeply more than the mobile phone feature of space time. In the possible age of mobile basic function, mobile phone considered was not different from telephone but function and service of mobile phone was varies and add special functions to quick supply mass people. In recently, media technologies provide not only voice calls but service of new functions with digital convergence (Kim, 2007). Accordingly, leading researches was approaching by view point of technological, industrial or political, but recently, researchers who have the background of various academic about the process of setup in our life and part of society or the studies of new social phenomenon is increasing in the study. Now day is world of mobile application. Mobile phone is a convergence media of various function mixed as the function of mobile phone and Personal Digital Assistant. In other words, Operation System of PDA (Personal Digital Assistant), voice calls and sending message of mobile phone is able to use a function of Wi-Fi and simple write’s work function. Mobile phone is new media which is not compared with before phone. The attention of the mentioned new media with appearing will be able to accept in the society high-speedily. It is that who adopt the media and how different uses behaviors by environment of media provide. Therefore, this study inspects user recognition on the process of new technology and product acceptance, of mobile application uses motivation and gratification. DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION THEORY: Rogers & Shoemaker (1971) presented the result of overall information flow about general principles of innovation communication. Innovation is a perceptional idea, technology, service or product by unit of personal or group (Rogers & Singhal, 2003), and diffusion means a diffused process to a number within the organization by some channel and flow time. Rogers divides a group by an adoption speed of innovation, first group belong to 25% who is innovators, 13.5% is early adopters, and 34% is early majority, then, 34% is late majority, and the remainder 16% is laggard group. Opinion leader adopt innovation in the system. At that time, an adopted innovation people of 10%~25% who called critical mass. Because of this, the personal diffusion network can be activating. Diffusion of Innovation Theory is used as very important theory for the understanding process of new media. According to the study of Sohn., Choi & Hwang (2011), selected early adopters of opinion le aders’ analyzed differences in innovative type and social characters, opinion leaders make out what this early adopters just have a influence on diffusion process only. Media adopted people who belongs a group of innovators when the advent of new media, in other to should early adopters. These get into a role of opinion leader by use mobile application that they understand new information about using experience and product. At that time, on the other hand a group of the case in point is early majority on diffusion of innovation, existence late majority (non-adopters). Generally a late majority group is from missouri and to demands for economic, or include the people constrainedly adopt innovation who belongs to that group. Lastly, laggard majority adopt innovation that they almost conservative and isolating people. A focus of this study wanted to find out the difference of mobile application using group vs. non-using group. A group who are influenced by diffusion and a non-group who are not influenced by diffusion must have a difference about the reason of influence. Until now day, a study of mobile application research did insufficient; also a study of adoption group vs. non-adoption group difference is not yet. Therefore, this study, has under the presumption that the influences of two groups are influence in mobile application diffusion, has meaning about ‘what the division of a factor’.   TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL (TAM): Davis (1989) proposed an expansion study with Rogers’s about a factor of media adoption which is Technology Acceptance Model. Therefore, too many research of media using and acceptance base on the field of information systems research (Song, 2003, p.10). TAM is based on the theory by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) who founded TRA (Theory of Reasoned Action). TRA is explained process of personal action by a developed theory of social physiology. This model is an expansion model between attitude and action by theory of reasoned action on the study of information technology adoption (Davis, 1989; Adams et al., 1992; Agarwal and Prasad, 1997; Lederer et al., 1998). Davis has explained that a variable of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use affect on the main variable of TAM. Information technology user the easier to interaction about information technology and self-confidence, the better control level high become. That affects positively to the attitude of information technology using. Lederer et al. (1998) shown an effect empirically on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, Taylor and Todd   Jin-Sik PARK, International Journal of Engineering Technology and Management (IJETM) ©  2015 IJETM. All Rights Reserved.       P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0      P   a   g   e     5    0  (1995a) argued attitude relationship of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Davis (1989) suggested a theory what based on TRA (Theory of Reasoned Action) with perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. First, this based on Self-Efficacy Theory of Bandura. Davis looked at a concept of Self-Efficacy what is activities deal with future situation; it is viewing as perceived ease of use. Also, this explains other concept in Self-Efficacy Theory of influence of action from a concept of perceived usage simplicity. Second, it refers to Rogers’s of Diffusion of Innovation which have application of that theory. This theory mentions that attribution of an important diffusion on adaptation or acceptance has suitability, complexity, trailability and observability. Relative advantages are perceived usefulness and complexity suggests oppose concept of perceived ease of use simplicity (Rogers & Shoemaker, 1983). It is that users are more aware of their own that would be useful to adopt new technologies, and that more are adopting new technology without trying to think that you can take advantage of the increase. According to Yun (2004) as follow Table 3, the perceived usefulness gives a direct on the intent of using behavior, the intent of using behavior was modeled as a direct effect on the actual use. And besides, attitude is determined by the perceived ease of use and usefulness. Eventually ease of use is modeled as a direct determinant of the perceived usefulness. In conclusion, according to the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the more easy to use technique, as the attitude and intended for use is more positive when the perceived usefulness, the use of technology is increased. The degree of utilization is considered a precursor to the actual use behaviors cause, which is a direct determinant of the technology used. Davis suggested that Technology Acceptance Model is a useful theory to explain the adoption of new media. However, there are limitations that TAM basic configuration variables do not completely reflect the environment in a variety of information system. The researches of Technology Acceptance Model has been perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and attitudes to use, had a lot of research only to verify regard to the degree of use, however, has since mid-1990, pointing out the limitations of TAM by adding a new belief variable TAM has been extended. In other words, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) includes real act or the perceived usefulness, ease of use, intention of the action of dependent variable, external variables has been to expand the model such as insertion, or attitude other than to suit the characteristics and contextual situations embodied in information technology. At this time, the external variables have been added that were mainly factors belief in Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Davis TAM’s proposed approach has been on a rational TRA (Theory of Reasoned Action), there is a similar relationship with Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Taylor & Todd (1995) reveals that the perceived usefulness is a major factor in the TAM and explain the benefits and relatively similar concepts in TAM, perceived ease of use has been described as the opposite of complexity and TAM. In other words, the relative advantage of the properties of the diffusion required for the adoption or acceptance in the TAM is the perceived usefulness, the complexity of applying the concept of perceived ease of use and vice versa. As such adoption has been verified in each of TAM and Diffusion of Innovation Theory of variables was added to the external factors that influence to secure a higher explanatory power, accordingly the intersections of the two theories appear. This convergence of theories becomes the background Internet, HDTV, DMB (Digital Mobile Broadcasting), mobile phones and online games, but the situation is further smartphone is expanding in spite of the new media will use a lot of users without much research associated with it. TAM can be seen as psychological variables. The Diffusion of Innovation Theory variables can be viewed as a variable looks outwardly exposed. Therefore, external factors and proven models from TAM, and look at it is working against the internal and external factors combined smartphone application adoption and integration of decision variables employed in the Diffusion of Innovation Theory is necessary. You & Park (2010) proposed a classification of TAM. First, in the same study, repeated TAM, a second study comparing the different theories, studies expand the third variable, and finally, the study of the integration mode. TAM repeated their first TAM repeated study was an analysis of the determinants of the use of experienced and non-experienced users of the Taylor & Todd (1995). This analysis results showed as experienced and non-experienced proper model for all of us, all other parameters except for the attitude they showed a direct determinant of the degree of activity. In the second study compared different theories Mathieson (1991) were compared to the TAM and TPB. TAM has a high explanatory power in empirical analysis on attitude than TPB. But have strengths in the provision of general information on the system of the recipient, concrete and specific information provided showed that the TPB is excellent.   Jin-Sik PARK, International Journal of Engineering Technology and Management (IJETM) ©  2015 IJETM. All Rights Reserved.       P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1      P   a   g   e     5    1  Taylor & Todd (1995) showed that compared the result of TAM and TPB for students using a computer support center, the decomposed TPB has a better explanatory power. The third variable in the extension study Park (2003) playfulness factor in the study of the important factors affecting the reception of the mobile broadcast service was the verification has a positive impact on the degree of activity over the attitude variables. Koo (2006) sets the perceived playfulness of the factors affecting the perception of the satellite DMB use intention was to verify this. The study showed that Koo (2006) affecting the indirectly through the use of the perceived playfulness the perceived usefulness. Kim & Moon (2007) is the limit with this Technology Acceptance Model. In other words, in order to overcome the limitations of an external variable according to a variety of information technology to organize external variables derived from the existing home and abroad Technology Acceptance Model and three groups. Technology Acceptance Mode setting predictive power of the study showed an appropriate level. And if applied to more specific information technology, when it includes an external variable is not included in the use of three groups of external variables to the predictive power that was the more Technology Acceptance Mode increase. Finally, in the study of the integrated model of research and Yang & Choi (2001), the social impact factor overlooked in studies of TAM for a long time found significant variables that describe the system used with demand. The social impact was affected the availability and ease of use in both the internet and the spreadsheet. The perceived usefulness has been described that provide a stronger than indirect effect on the system used by the perceived ease of use. Therefore, the social impact is an important concept to be added to determine TAM. Technology Acceptance Mode is made in the same study mentioned terms as before. TAM studies made in the same from Technology Acceptance Mode point of view as those mentioned before. But the purpose of this paper is to find the meaning in the integration of TAM’s reform and Davis diffusion theory of Rogers. Therefore, to study the combined Diffusion of Innovation Theory and TAM is the first study of Kim (2005). He explained that concept of the main factors of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on TAM is to apply the view point of the Diffusion of Innovation Theory. The relative advantage of properties of the diffusion required for adoption or acceptance in the Diffusion of Innovation Theory is the perceived usefulness, complexity explained that to apply the concept of perceived ease of use and vice versa. Chang & Kim (2006) looked at the implicit innovativeness research and the use of time for the adoption intention of Triple Play Service (TPS), the relative advantage and complexity of the perceived characteristics of the innovation is reported that as the context of each perceived usefulness and perceived ease of Information TAM. Park (2004) explained that innovation group has positive attitude, intention and ease of use about configuration variables of Internet shopping than non-innovation group on this innovative online consumer shopping behavior, and these result were analyzed that innovators have the ability to solve complex (as opposed to the perceived ease of use) because the acceptance of the innovation put a lot of effort in acquiring knowledge necessary for sensitive and accommodation reform relative advantages (perceived usefulness and similarity), and because it could be overcome and accompanying innovation acceptance to risks and uncertainties. Currently, IT industry has been dramatically evolved, many studies that describe the acceptance process of the art technology and services reported. Among those that Rogers and Davis, Diffusion of Innovation Theory and TAM are being frequently cited by researchers because it underpins the relevance and reasonableness of each theory of simplicity and in recent years many studies have demonstrated the model. However, if the study for each individual, it is possible to ignore the limitations with separately. Therefore, the integration of the two theories is deemed necessary in order to analyze the acceptance and adoption of smartphone apps applications that make up the large main axis in a recent IT industry. In this study, the main key variables of TAM, will evaluate it and each other by combining the variables of the innovation diffusion that could cause interaction more precisely explain the process leading to the app and the application of new media such as the adoption of smartphones. 1.   RESEARCH MODEL AND HYPOTHESES: This study verified the differences of factors in three groups between early adopter user group, early majority group and laggard group, based on theoretical backgrounds in previous research with Diffusion Innovation Theory and Technology Acceptance Model. Also this study analyzed differences in innovativeness between each characters of using mobile apps application, recognition of mobile application user's innovations, perceived usefulness and perception ease of use in the mobile application, and the usage of mobile applications. The research model follows as figure 1.   Jin-Sik PARK, International Journal of Engineering Technology and Management (IJETM) ©  2015 IJETM. All Rights Reserved.       P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2      P   a   g   e     5    2  Figure 1: Wireless sensor network architecture The research hypotheses follows as the smartphone app application adopted period focusing on apps applications early adopters (using more than one year) and the early majority party (under up to 1 year), and then dividing the character type apps applications that are not employed in these groups innovativeness and apps applications use degree, availability and ease of application feel about the app, the number of apps to commercial applications, and compared the use of satisfaction. Therefore, the following hypotheses were set and verified. The hypothesis was set as follows: A.   H1: Smartphone apps applications early adopters and early majority group, and the difference between non-users will have to innovativeness. B.   H2: Early adopters and early majority group apps application group, and the non-use between the groups there will be differences in flexibility and ease of application feel for the Apps. C.   H3: There will be a difference in the Apps application early adopters and early majority group and the non-user application functions between the degrees of use of the Apps. D.   H4: App users of iPhone applications and iPhone users will be the difference between the non-user to feel useful and ease of application for the Apps. DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION THEORY: The present study was conducted to verify the research hypothesis, a survey of users through available sampling 20- 30s’ apps applications such as in Seoul, South Korea three local governments. The survey was conducted from 1 September 2015 until 30 September, the collected questionnaires, except the insincere respondents 86 copies of the 700 copies and 614 copies were used in the analysis. MATERIALS AND PROCEDURE: In this study, asked to the respondents of survey about to admit mobile service and period. Categorized the group about adopt period of mobile application which was early adopters (over 1year), early majority (under 1year) and lagged (non-adopters) group in 2015. According to a report by the Korea Communications Commission (KCC, 2014) and Korea Internet & Security Agency (KISA, 2014), there are approximately 30 million domestic smart-phone users. A mobile phone subscriber increased 2.47 million (June. 2010), 7.22 million (Dec. 2010), 10 million (Mar. 2011). In the Diffusion of Innovation Theory, ‘S curve’ of takeoff occurred from Jun. 2010 to Dec. 2010, in that respect, the take-off more than a year to its application to the App approximately 10% of the respondents in the previous step generated users (subscribers before May 2010) were classified as early adopters group. However, when measuring the app adoption application period (one year or more smartphones join the group, 0.6 month to 1 year, less than 0.6 months, and the non-adoption) classification and divided into groups, was set to lower the number adopted early. In the Diffusion of Innovation Theory, innovativeness refers to such individuals is new and feels production, ideas, practices, and explained that each person feel that this is objectively determine the innovativeness or not do, rather than new ones (Rogers, 2003, p. 11). Innovativeness means to the extent of how speedy compared to the others in adopting this innovation. In other words, it refers to the extent to which members accept the first reformation and innovation within the social system than other members. Such a definition based on previous studies that the high innovativeness users open about unfamiliar products or new products, while low innovativeness consumer has a fear of something new. In this study, innovativeness manipulated that consumers independently make an innovation decision degrees. The questions used in this study were modified to suit the purpose of the reorganization study in Lee, Kim & Jung (2006), and the degree of utilization is defined as ‘how often do you use your smart phone function. Mobile apps application has a variety of functions. However, usage degree to how often and frequently use for this function is the user’s innovativeness, mobile phones with leverage and degree of dependence, such as personal characteristics, charge, mobile literacy which have been studied with several factors (Lee, Ann & Jeong, 2004). This study referred to the study of Yang & Lee (2011) for measure the degree of mobile phone usage degree, and extracted the twenty-one items of the phone functions. Mobile phone users have measured and chosen of one of the five answers to their usage degree among 'almost not  –  1 point', 'once in 2-3 days  –  2 point', '1-2 times per day
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