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A Study of Arm Anthropometric Profile in Indian Inter University Basketball Players

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Koley et al.: Arm anthropometric profile in Indian university basketball players Serb J Sports Sci 5(1): 35-40 Serbian Journal of Sports Sciences ISSN 1820-6301 Original article Received: 27 Aug 2010 Accepted: 29 Nov 2010 2011, 5(1): 35-40 UDC 796.323.2(540):572.087 A STUDY OF ARM ANTHROPOMETERIC PROFILE IN INDIAN INTERINTERBASKETBALL UNIVERSITY BASKETBALL PLAYERS Shyamal Koley, Jarnail Singh & Satinder Kaur Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amrits
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  Koley et al.: Arm anthropometric profile in Indian university basketball players Serb J Sports Sci 5(1): 35-40 35 Serbian Journal of Sports Sciences ISSN 1820-6301   Original articleOriginal articleOriginal articleOriginal article2011, 5(1): 35-40   Received: 27 Aug 2010UDC 796.323.2(540):572.087 Accepted: 29 Nov 2010 A STUDY OF ARM ANTHROPOMETERIC PROFILE IN INDIAN INTERA STUDY OF ARM ANTHROPOMETERIC PROFILE IN INDIAN INTERA STUDY OF ARM ANTHROPOMETERIC PROFILE IN INDIAN INTERA STUDY OF ARM ANTHROPOMETERIC PROFILE IN INDIAN INTER----UNIVERSITY BUNIVERSITY BUNIVERSITY BUNIVERSITY BASKETBALL PLAYERSASKETBALL PLAYERSASKETBALL PLAYERSASKETBALL PLAYERS Shyamal Koley, Jarnail Singh & Satinder Kaur Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, INDIA .   AbstractAbstractAbstractAbstract The purpose of this study was threefold: firstly, to evaluate the arm anthropometric profile of Indianinter-university basketball players; secondly, to search for the correlations among these arm anthropometriccharacteristics; and thirdly, to search for the association of handgrip with arm anthropometric characteristics inIndian inter-university basketball players. Three anthropometric characteristics, nine arm anthropometriccharacteristics, and grip strength of both right and left hand were measured on randomly selected 60 Indianinter-university basketball players (35 males and 25 females, aged 18–25 years) of six universities, whoparticipated in the Inter-university Championship organized at Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab,India. An adequate number of control subjects were also taken from the same place for comparisons. Theresults indicated statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 - 0.01) differences between the male basketball players andthe controls in height, right handgrip strength, upper arm, forearm and total arm length, whereas no significantdifferences were found between the female basketball players and the controls. Highly significant (p ≤ 0.01) sexdifferences were found in the basketball players in almost all the variables studied (except BMI and arm fatarea). Significant positive correlations were noted among the arm anthropometric characteristics studied (exceptarm fat area and arm fat index), and with right and left handgrip strength. Key words: Key words: Key words: Key words:  Arm anthropometric characteristics, handgrip strength, Indian inter-university basketball players INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION   Basketball has gained tremendous popularity worldwide because of its dynamic characteristics as a team sport [19].In this ball game, players generally are to cover about 4500-5000m during the 40-min game which requires a varietyof multidirectional movements, e.g. running, dribbling, shuffling of positions and jumping [13]. It has been wellestablished that specific physical characteristics or an anthropometric profile indicate whether a player would besuitable for the competition at the highest level in a specific sport [2, 10, 12, 17, 31, 33, 34]. In fact, the informationregarding the anthropometric status of an athlete is essential for two main reasons, firstly, to design an effectivetraining program, and, secondly to select the event-specific talents in the athletes. Some anthropometriccharacteristics, e.g. length and breadth measurements, are genetically determined and can hardly be changed with theeffects of a training program. Various anthropometric characteristics were found to be closely associated with excellentperformances [28]. In endurance games like basketball, a number of anthropometric variables have been reported tohave an effect on endurance performance: body weight [6, 32], BMI [18], body fat [18], length of the upper leg [36],length of limbs [21], height [6, 26], thigh girth [36], total skinfolds [6] and skinfold thickness of the lower limbs [4, 25].Although the game of basketball was invented and developed in North America, it has become oneof the most popular sports around the globe [42]. During competitions and practice sessions, players are toinvolve in heavy schedules, which requires careful short- and long-term planning of their training programs[42]. Several studies have examined the relationships between the anthropometric characteristics ofbasketball players [1, 3, 5, 8, 9, 22, 24, 29, 30, 40]. It was reported that top teams’ players were taller andhad a longer arm span compared with bottom teams’ players who took part in 1994 Women’s WorldBasketball Championship [42]. Greek elite female players were also taller and leaner than their handballcounterparts [9]. In male players too, moderate skilled level players weighed less and were shorter instature than top level players [40]. It was also reported that elite female basketball guards had greatermesomorphy than centers and less ectomorphy than forwards or centers [11]. However, the armanthropometric study of the basketball players remains largely unreported.The aim of the study was to evaluate the arm anthropometric characteristics in Indian inter-universitybasketball players and the correlations among the characteristics studied. In order to evaluate the physical  Koley et al.: Arm anthropometric profile in Indian university basketball players Serb J Sports Sci 5(1): 35-40 36 characteristics of the hand, the grip strength was chosen as one of the indicators of hand functions. In fact,in case of any overhead game, extensor as well as flexor muscles of the arm and the hand haveconsiderable influence on the success. Another objective of the study was to search the correlation ofhandgrip strength with the arm anthropometric characteristics studied. MATERIALS AND METHODMATERIALS AND METHODMATERIALS AND METHODMATERIALS AND METHODSSSS   SSSS UBJECTSUBJECTSUBJECTSUBJECTS   The present cross-sectional study was based on randomly selected 60 Indian inter-university basketballplayers (35 males and 25 females) aged 18–25 years (mean age 17.69 years, ± 1.56) of six Indianuniversities, namely Panjab University, Chandigarh, Punjabi University, Patiala, Guru Nanak Dev University,Amritsar, Delhi University, Delhi, Kurukshretra University, Kurukshreta and Himachal Pradesh University,Shimla, who participated in the Inter-university Championship organized in Guru Nanak Dev University,Amritsar, Punjab, India. An adequate number of controls (n = 102, 52 males and 50 females, mean age17.76 ± 2.11 years) with no particular athletic background were also collected from the same place forcomparisons. The age of the subjects was recorded from the date of birth registered in their respectiveinstitutes. A written consent was obtained from the participants to participate in this study, which conformedto the Declaration of Helsinki. The data were collected under natural environmental conditions in themorning (between 8 am to 12 noon). The study was approved by the local ethical committee. TTTT ESTINGESTINGESTINGESTING PPPP ROTOCOLROTOCOLROTOCOLROTOCOL   AAAA NTHROPOMETRICNTHROPOMETRICNTHROPOMETRICNTHROPOMETRIC MMMM EASUREMENTSEASUREMENTSEASUREMENTSEASUREMENTS   Three anthropometric characteristics, viz. height, weight and BMI, nine arm anthropometric characteristics,viz. upper arm length, forearm length, total arm length, upper arm circumference, arm muscle area, upperarm area, upper arm bone-free muscle mass, arm fat area and arm fat index, and grip strength of both rightand left hands were measured on each subject using standard techniques [23] by the same investigatorsand were measured in triplicate with the median value used as the criterion.The height was recorded during inspiration using a stadiometer (Holtain Ltd., Crymych, Dyfed, UK) tothe nearest 0.1 cm. The subject was asked to stand erect on the stadiometer barefoot. The horizontal bar ofthe stadiometer was placed on the subject’s vertex and the readings were recorded. The weight wasmeasured by digital standing scales (Model DS-410, Seiko, Tokyo, Japan) to the nearest 0.1 kg. Thesubject was asked to stand erect on the digital weighing machine barefoot and with minimum clothes on.The readings were recorded from the scales of the digital weighing machine. The BMI was then calculatedusing the formula weight (kg) / height 2 (m).The triceps skinfold was measured on the back of the upper arm over the triceps muscle usingHarpenden skinfold caliper (Holtain Ltd, Crosswell, Crymych, UK) to the nearest 0.2 mm. The arm girth wasmeasured from the mid of the upper arm by a flexible metallic tape (Holtain Ltd) from the right side of thesubject. The arm muscle girth, the arm-muscle area, the arm area, the arm fat area and the arm fat indexwere then calculated using standard methodologies [27] as:Arm muscle girth (cm) = G arm – ( Π Skin fold triceps); Arm muscle area, cm 2 = [G arm - ( Π Skin fold triceps)] / 4 Π ; Arm area (A), cm 2 = (G arm) 2 / 4 Π ; Arm fat area, cm 2 = arm area – arm muscle area; Arm fat index, % fatarea = (arm fat area / arm area), where G arm = Arm girth. HHHH ANDGRIPANDGRIPANDGRIPANDGRIP SSSS TRENGTHTRENGTHTRENGTHTRENGTH MMMM EASUREMENTEASUREMENTEASUREMENTEASUREMENT  The grip strength of both right and left hands was measured using a standard adjustable digital handgripdynamometer (Takei Scientific Instruments Co., LTD, Japan) at standing position with the shoulder adducted andneutrally rotated and the elbow in full extension. The dynamometer was held freely without support, not touchingthe subject’s trunk. The position of the hand remained constant without the downward direction. The subjectswere asked to put maximum force on the dynamometer thrice from both sides of the hands. The maximum valuewas recorded in kilograms. All subjects were tested after 3 minutes of independent warm-up. Thirty seconds’ timeinterval was maintained between each handgrip strength testing [8]. The instruments were calibrated prior to useand all measurements were taken on the subject’s right side. SSSS TATISTICALTATISTICALTATISTICALTATISTICAL AAAA NALYSISNALYSISNALYSISNALYSIS  Standard descriptive statistics (Mean ± Standard Deviation) were determined for directly measured andderived variables. One way analysis of variance was tested for the comparisons of data among the Indianinter-university basketball players and the controls (both males and females), followed by post hocBonferroni test. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were applied to establish the relationships among thevariables measured. The data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) version17.0. A 5% level of probability was used to indicate statistical significance.  Koley et al.: Arm anthropometric profile in Indian university basketball players Serb J Sports Sci 5(1): 35-40 37 RESURESURESURESULTSLTSLTSLTS Descriptive statistics of various anthropometric and arm anthropometric characteristics in the Indian inter-university basketball players and the controls are given in Table 1. Statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 - 0.01)differences were noted between the male basketball players and their control counterparts (not shown inthe table) in height (t=2.12), right handgrip strength (t=2.25), upper arm, forearm and total arm length(t=3.54, 2.77 and 4.17 respectively), whereas no significant differences were found between the femalebasketball players and the controls. Highly significant (p ≤ 0.01) sex differences were found in thebasketball players in almost all the variables studied (except BMI and arm fat area). One way ANOVAshowed significant differences (p ≤ 0.01 - 0.000) in all the characteristics studied (except BMI and arm fatarea) among these four sets of data. Table 1 . Descriptive statistics of various anthropometric and arm anthropometric variables among Indian inter-university basketball players VariablesBasketballmales (n=35)Basketballfemales (n=25)Control males(n=52)Controlfemales (n=50) Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SDHeight (cm)**174.03 9.16 160.32 7.41170.62 5.88 159.17 6.05Weight (kg)**66.11 12.3 53.88 7.5664.38 11.03 51.83 8.97BMI (kg/m 2 )21.70 2.82 20.92 2.4622.15 3.56 20.46 3.80Upper arm length (cm) *30.89 2.45 27.72 2.57 28.77 2.91 28.19 2.49Forearm length (cm)*29.51 2.02 25.64 2.18 27.71 3.47 26.04 1.88Total arm length (cm)*79.16 5.39 71.48 5.33 75.04 3.82 70.82 3.76Arm circumference (cm)*27.14 2.97 24.76 1.58 26.97 2.91 24.52 2.99Upper arm muscle area cm 2 )*40.61 9.92 28.07 3.93 39.86 10.32 29.39 8.39Total upper arm area (cm 2 )*59.29 12.93 48.96 6.21 58.54 12.77 48.56 11.96Upper arm bone free muscle area (cm 2 )*30.61 9.92 21.57 3.93 29.86 10.32 22.89 8.39Arm fat area (cm 2 )18.69 7.45 20.89 4.77 18.68 6.86 19.17 8.20Arm fat index*31.19 9.15 42.43 6.50 32.00 9.25 38.95 11.47Right handgrip strength (kg)**37.49 8.41 24.78 4.85 41.11 6.57 24.25 4.24Left hand grip strength(kg)**36.99 8.27 24.20 3.51 38.62 6.40 22.45 4.18 * significant at 0.01 - .02 level, ** significant at .001 - .000 level Table 2 . Inter-correlation matrix of selected anthropometric and arm anthropometric variables among Indian inter-university basketball players Variables WT BMI UAL FAL TAL UAC AMA UAA UAB-FMA AFA AFI RHGS LHGS HT .785** .207 .741** .767** .909** .564** .651** .569** .601** .018 -.381** .759** .709**WT .763** .552** .669** .675** .858** .756** .862** .742** .386** -.151 .743** .676**BMI .102 .267* .128 .762** .495** .758** .520** .602** .170 .371** .315**UAL .583** .804** .461** .577** .474** .536** -.037 -.391** .552** .583**FAL .754** .537** .561** .549** .491** .123 -.279* .647** .633**TAL .486** .590** .495** .541** -.020 -.379** .677** .634**UAC .825** .998** .830** .524** -.098 .662** .620**AMA .833** .989** -.045 -.626** .855** .796**UAA .838** .515** -.105 .668** .629**UABFMA -.017 -.584** .819** .749**AFA .779** -.117 -.097AFI -.612** -.577**RHGS .937** * Significant at 0.05 level; ** Significant at .01 level; HT= Height, WT = Weight, UAL = Upper arm length, FAL = Forearm length, TAL =Total arm length, UAC = Upper arm circumference, AMA = Arm muscle area, UAA = Upper arm area, UABFMA = Upper arm bone-freemuscle area, AFA = Arm fat area, AFI = Arm fat index, RHGS = Right handgrip strength, LHGS = Left handgrip strength.  Koley et al.: Arm anthropometric profile in Indian university basketball players Serb J Sports Sci 5(1): 35-40 38 Bivariate correlations of the arm-anthropometric characteristics were examined in the Indian inter-universitybasketball players and shown in Table 2. Height has significantly positive correlations (p ≤ 0.01) with all thevariables studied (except BMI and arm fat area, and is negatively correlated with arm fat index), weight withall the variables (except arm fat index), BMI with all the variables (except upper arm and total arm length,and arm fat index), upper arm, forearm and total arm length with all the variables (except arm fat area andnegative correlations with arm fat index). Arm muscle area has significantly positive correlations (p ≤ 0.01)with all the variables (except arm fat area and negative correlation with arm fat index), arm area with all thevariables (except arm fat index), upper arm bone-free muscle area with grip strength of both the hands andnegative correlations with arm fat index. Arm fat area and arm fat index have significantly negativecorrelations (p ≤ 0.01) with grip strength of both the hands and positive correlations with arm fat index. In anutshell, hand grip strength was positively correlated with all the arm-anthropometric variables while arm fatarea and arm fat index were negatively correlated with almost all the variables studied. DISCUSSIONDISCUSSIONDISCUSSIONDISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONAND CONCLUSIONAND CONCLUSIONAND CONCLUSION   Ball games require comprehensive abilities including physical, technical, mental and tactical ones [8].Among these, physical abilities exert marked effects on the skills of the players themselves and the tactics of theteam [8]. In the basketball game, the upper arm and the forearm generate adequate force with the contraction ofthe shoulder and arm muscles [7]. Arms act like a leverage and the integrity of the shoulder and elbowcomplexes completes the desired task [7]. There is more movement possible at the shoulder joint than at anyother joint in the body. Over 1600 positions in three dimensional space can be assumed by the shoulder [7]. Theprice to be paid for such an extreme range of movement is an inherent lack of stability. To achieve peakperformance during overhead activity, there must be optimal balance between mobility and stability [7].Though findings were reported regarding the anthropometric characteristics of basketball players [1, 3, 5,8, 9, 22, 24, 29, 30, 40], the arm anthropometric study of the basketball players remained less researched. AAAA NTHROPOMETRICNTHROPOMETRICNTHROPOMETRICNTHROPOMETRIC CCCC HARACTERISTICSHARACTERISTICSHARACTERISTICSHARACTERISTICS  In basketball, where teams compete by handling the ball above the head, height is considered to be themost important physical attribute [39, 11]. In the present study, the mean height and weight in the malebasketball players (174.00 ± 9.16 cm and 66.11 ± 12.39 kg respectively) were lesser than in the malebasketball players of the Indian national team (185.6 ± 13.1 cm) [35], players of Greece (199.50 ± 6.2 cmand 95.5 ± 8.8 kg, respectively) [3], USA (192.40 ± 11.7 cm, 91.9 ± 17.5 kg, respectively) [29], Italy (194.2 ±6.5 cm, and 94.7 ± 8.7 kg, respectively) [40] and Australia (188.8 ± 7.2 cm and 82.7 ± 7.3 kg, respectively)[41], while in female players, the mean height and weight (160.30 ± 7.41 cm and 53.88 ± 7.56 kg,respectively) were lesser than in the Greek (174.70 ± 7.8 cm and 71.50 ± 10.1 kg, respectively) [9] andAmerican players (174.20 ± 9.00 cm and 66.90 ± 5.8 kg, respectively) [29]. In the study, significantly lesserheight among the Indian inter-university basketball players might be disadvantageous for them in attaining agood jumping height as their center of gravity would be comparatively lower. In tall players, proportionallylonger extremities are beneficial to reach the basket. Some authors opined the height as an importantcondition of sports talents in such events that require it [38], and the presence of tall players was anindispensable element in success as a team [39]. Significantly positive correlations with height and all linearmeasurements of the arm showed proportionality in the basketball players. AAAA RMRMRMRM AAAA NTHROPOMETRYNTHROPOMETRYNTHROPOMETRYNTHROPOMETRY  Though male basketball players have greater mean values for all the variables than their control counterparts,female players had no significant differences than their control counterparts. These differences in male basketballplayers might be due to a more intensive training program. Highly significant sex differences found in basketballplayers in almost all the variables might be due to physical and physiological differences between the two sexes.Due to lack of adequate literature, the present data were not compared. All the arm anthropometriccharacteristics had significantly positive correlations among themselves, except arm fat area and arm fat index,highlighting structural and functional homogeneity among the arm anthropometric characteristics. Arm fat areaand arm fat index were inversely correlated with the other variables, following the equations that greater themuscle mass, the lesser the fat mass would be. So, it may be concluded that arm anthropometric informationwould have immense academic value in the identification of sport talents in overhead games such as basketball. HHHH ANDGRIPANDGRIPANDGRIPANDGRIP SSSS TRENGTHTRENGTHTRENGTHTRENGTH  In basketball players of both sexes, hand grip strength (right dominant) was reported to be higher than incontrols, showing biomechanical advantages in the game. Regarding the hand grip strength of the playersof other sports events, it was reported that the hand grip strength values of Indian inter-university maleKabaddi (an ancient Indian rural game) players were higher in comparison to those of Indian footballers andhockey players of the same sex [14]. In cricket, male players had the higher mean value for this trait (35.86
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