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A Study of the Application of Self-Organizing Networks in Designing Appliances of Internet of Things

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A Study of the Application of Self-Organizing Networks in Designing Appliances of Internet of Things
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  A Study of the Application of Self-Organizing  Networks in Designing Appliances of Internet of Things  Liu Wenyang Electric & Information College  Northeast Agricultural University Harbin, China. Lwy810103@sina.com  Li Xue Foreign Language Institute Harbin University of Science and Technology Harbin, China.  Abstract   —The paper gives an overall description of Internet of Things (IOT) and IOT household appliances. It elaborates on the importance of self-organizing Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in designing IOT appliances and proposes srcinal designing ideas. Traditional IOT appliances are controlled through wire-line facilities. Besides the high installation cost and poor scalability of the system, it is difficult for men to break away from shackles of various lines. Nevertheless, IOT appliances based on self-organizing WSNs can not only cast off lines and lower the cost, but also improve the scalability of the system a lot. Therefore it is essential to study IOT appliances on account of WSNs in smart homes. The paper discusses the wireless module selection in the self-organizing WSNs nodes, the design of multi-Agent in the nodes and the overall structure of WSNs. The importance of norms in the development of IOT appliances is also mentioned in the paper.  Keywords- internet of things; self-organization; wireless sensor networks; smart homes I.   I  NTRODUCTION  In 2005, International Telecommunication Union delivered a report depicting a picture of the era of Internet of Things (IOT) [1]. When a driver operates wrongly, the car will automatically alarm; a briefcase will always remind the owner of something forgotten; when porters handle goods roughly, they will shout loudly “you hurt me”……what a wonderful  picture! If things in the future are really so intelligent, our lives will not be surrounded by much unhappiness and regret. Being a new technological field, IOT is established by applying networking technologies, which covers the following three basic characteristics [2]: a comprehensive perception referring to using such sensing means as RFID and sensors to identify and gathering information and data of dynamic objects at any time, reliable delivery referring to the real-time transmission of perceived information and data via such various telecommunications networks and Internet as Ethernet, wireless networks and mobile networks and intelligent  processing referring to using such various technologies as cloud computing and fuzzy recognition to process information in time to achieve intelligent control and management, and communication between men and objects. IOT essence is that objects can address, communicate, and control [3]. The equipment of ordinary objects, interconnection of terminals and intelligence of pervasive computing are the nature of IOT. Core technology of IOT lies in installing the sensor module and communication module to machinery and equipment and using the terminal to exchange information with machinery at any time and any place by transmitting information via the mobile network. IOT has currently been applied in appliances, electrics, mechanics, transportation, logistics, etc., among which intelligent IOT appliances are applied intelligent homes in a wide range. Wired connection is dominated for IOT appliances, with the wireless connection as its supplement. In the recent years the application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in the interconnection of IOT appliances has already been a hot topic in studying smart homes. WSNs are multi-hop self-organizing ones which are formed by intercommunication of nodes in sensors deployed in the monitoring areas, and important technologies in the basic layer of IOT [4]. Featured as self-organization, rapid deployment, high fault tolerance and strong concealment, WSNs are appropriate for battlefield targeting [5],  physiological data collection [6], intelligent transportation system [7], ocean exploration [8], etc. The paper attempts to explore an efficient and reliable wireless transmission network mode in IOT appliances based on WSNs to apply to smart home systems. II.   I MPORTANCE OF SELF - ORGANIZING WSN S IN APPLIANCES OF I  NTERNET OF T HINGS    A.   Trends of appliances of Internet of Things Intelligent IOT appliances integrate automatic control systems, computer network systems and network communication technology to automate equipment via IOT and to control appliances remotely via broadband of telecommunications, fixed line and 3G networks [9]. For example, according to the agreed protocol, 3G IOT air-conditioners use the terminal to exchange information and communicate by sensing devices to achieve intelligent identification, track, monitoring and management. IOT is on the rise all over the world in recent years and some enterprises have called for the application of products of Sponsored by College Computer reform project of Ministry of Education (2-11-ZXM-01) 978-1-4799-2860-6/13/$31.00 ©2013 IEEE 45  IOT technology, such as IOT air conditioners, IOT washing machines, etc. However, the few types of IOT appliances lead to less use by common homes. They have not entered the common users’ homes because of fewer types of IOT appliances. Moreover, in addition to using the family internet, it needs a support system network, related technical support, as well as, the cooperation among IT, telecom and other industries. IOT appliances are still in the “pre-industrialization” period from the perspective of current market, demand and corresponding supporting technology. The emphasis of designing past appliances is laid on style, function, interface and human-machine scale, whereas, the designers of IOT appliances focus on the system, turning the objective of “single product” to “product system”. That system not only includes many subsystems, but also an element subsystem of a larger system. The vitality of the system lies in exchanges of energy, material and information with environment. The aging of the system is due to the decline of system functions, unbalanced structures and poor adaptation to the external environment [10].  B.   Characteristics of smart homes based on appliances of  Internet of Things The following points should be listed in smart homes based on IOT [11-13]. •   Low cost: many equipments and terminal nodes of sensors need to be controlled and a large-scale network relies on low-cost nodes networking technology. •   Multi-platform: there are various platforms in the system in smart homes. •   Self-organization: self-organization and cooperation among various resources seem to be significant in networks rather than depend on users to collocate and mange the systems. •   Expandability: the systems are able to upgrade software automatically and expand their functions without any alteration. •   Embedded applications: embedded applications refer to equipments’ direct access to the networks or mobile networks to achieve information interaction by means of embedded modules or mobile communication modules. C.    Advantages of applying self-organizing WSNs Wireless self-organizing networks are self-organizing and reconfigurable multi-hop wireless ones without the support of  predetermined infrastructure [14]. The network topology, the channel environment, the business model are dynamically changed with the mobility of nodes. Wireless self-organizing networks can quickly establish the communication platform for civilian and military uses. The wireless self-organizing network, a P2P model, is an equal wireless communication network which has no center [14]. Nodes and appliances connected by nodes can join and leave the network at any time, and automatically find the neighbor nodes to form a network topology. Therefore, wireless self-organizing network nodes applied in IOT appliances, which accord with characteristics of smart homes  based on IOT appliances, can effectively promote the expandability of smart homes and collocate equipments in a large degree of freedom. Moreover wireless sensors applied in self-organizing networks could monitor the information of appliances. Applied sensors include temperature sensors, humidity sensors, CO2 sensors, infrared sensors, etc.  D.   Self-organizing WSNs’ dependence on some technologies Self-organizing WSNs are applied in IOT appliances by the following technologies: •   Object recognition: it depends on data storage devices like RFID tags, two-dimensional bar codes, or the characteristics of the object itself to recognize objects [15]. •   Sensors: it can sense and measure the physical or  biological environment, and elicit the corresponding value in accordance with sense and measuring results. IOT mainly makes use of RFID to read devices to get the desired value [16]. •   Integration of three networks: it refers to mutual integration of telecommunication networks, television networks and the Internet, enabling operators to share network resources in the management of information communication. Being used as information resources of IOT, the network resources avoid low-level duplicated construction, which is the basis of developing IOT and comes into being in the context of market demand [17]. III.   T HE DESIGN OF SELF - ORGANIZING WSN S    A.    Module Selection of Controlling Nodes in self-organizing WSNs The module of wireless controlling nodes is the component of home network to communicate with other nodes and control other equipments. The paper employs Atmegal28 as the core of wireless controlling nodes module in appliances and  NRF24L01 as the data transferring module. Various sensors can be installed in nodes according to monitored objects at homes. Appliances can also be controlled by the interface.  NRF24L0, a mini-watt energy-saving and environment- protecting transferring data module, has no negative impact on human health since its transmitting range covers only ten meters. Given that, we try to utilize multi-hop transmission to widen the areas where wireless networks are available. Provided that “relay nodes” exist in public coverage area, two nodes that cannot realize direct communication due to some  physical conditions can achieve data transmission. Every node can serve as “relay node” in the mentioned network. Hardwires of modules are composed of sensing and execution units, controlling modules and transferring modules. Information is collected by connecting sensing and execution units with appliances. Controlling modules is in charge of controlling, processing and storing data other nodes send, and ultimately deliver data to aggregation nodes. Transferring 46  modules are responsible for wirelessly communicating with other controlling nodes, exchanging controlling messages and transferring the collected data, as shown in fig.1. Figure 1. A framework Controlling nodes of appliances controlling appliances  B.   Software design of the multi-Agent structure in nodes of  self-organizing WSNs Agent is a self-adaptive and intelligent software entity, which can complete a task in the way of active service in place of users and other programs [18]. Agent should at least possess the following key attributes: •   Autonomy: Agent has computing resources and controlling mechanism restricted to its own uses. According to its internal state and the perceived (external) environmental information, Agent can determine and control its own behavior in the absence of direct manipulation; •   Interactivity: it can interact and cooperate with other Agents effectively in various forms; •   Reactivity: it is able to perceive the surroundings and make timely response to related events; •   Initiative: it can take the initiative by following the commitment, showing the goal-oriented behavior; •   Reasoning and planning capabilities: Agent has capabilities of learning knowledge and experience, and reasoning and intelligent computing. Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) consist of a number of autonomous or semi-autonomous agents. Each Agent performs its duties or communicates and collaborates with other Agents to solve problems. Compared with a single Agent, MAS has the following characteristics [19]: •   Sociality: Agent exists in the social environment constituted by a number of Agents. It can interact and communicate with others flexibly in some Agent language to achieve cooperation, collaboration, negotiation, competition with other Agents; •   Self-control: once Agent in MAS makes a request, other Agents that have the ability to provide the service and interest can accept a mandate, i.e., Agent can not force another to provide a service. Self-control is suitable for accessing learners’ characteristics; •   Collaboration: every Agent with different objectives must mutually cooperate, coordinate and consult to solve problems. Monitoring Agent, controlling Agent and communicating Agent are joined in nodes of appliances in the study. Agent in each node can monitor the operational status of the local network (fig.2), and each has the same communication interface to realize interaction and communication. Therefore, when such a network failure as scission occurs, Agent in each node can establish circuitous route by collaboration in order to maintain uninterrupted communication. Functions of a self-organizing system are as follows: •   Monitoring Agent (MA): MA monitors the local network periodically, obtains network performance metrics monitored via SNMP protocol and capturing  packets, such as delay, throughput, etc., then gives a comprehensive judgment of those indicators by means of the rule base and reports the results to Controlling Agent (CA). •   Controlling Agent (CA): CA is a core part of the entire node. It is used to establish circuitous routes by collaboration with other nodes according to the monitoring report sent by MA, such as sending the collaboration request to the neighbor nodes and  processing collaboration requests from neighbor nodes. •   Communicating Agent (CoA): CoA completes communication among different nodes, makes use of Multi-Agent language to put the communication contents in a format the Agent can recognize and send them through the network, and receive messages from other nodes. •   Rule base: it contains “if ...... then” rules used in reasoning. The action is implemented when the condition is true. The rule base reflects the intelligence of Agent. Figure 2. Various Agents joined in appliances C.   Overall structure of self-organizing WSNs WLAN (Wireless Local Area Networks) is composed of appliances with nodes of wireless sensors that can fully expand the functions of appliances. Temperature and humidity sensors are joined in air-conditioners to collect data, which serves as a reference for controlling programs in air-conditioners. CO2 47  sensors and temperature sensors are joined in fridges for food quality monitoring. The temperature of heaters being calculated automatically, nodes are only responsible for network connection without sensors being joined in them. Data, used by home LAN personal computers and mobile phone users on internet, can be accessed by joining the wireless module and the aggregation node, as shown in fig.3. Figure 3. Overall structure of self-organizing WSNs IV.   T ESTS AND CONCLUSIONS  Wireless networks are tested in the study and six nodes are used in the test. Nodes which are located in the edge communicate in a single hop with the neighbor nodes, while non-neighbor nodes can successfully access with other nodes as “relay”. Reliability of the system depends mainly on the  packet loss rate and the running time. In the overall networks and the tests of specific nodes connection, nodes for receiving timeout messages indicate no connection. All nodes being enabled in tests, no connection in half an hour indicates the high reliability and stability of WSNs. It can be inferred that self-organizing WSNs nodes have high application value in IOT appliances.  Nevertheless, it is not enough to rely on “Internet” to develop intelligent appliances. There are two drawbacks of current Internet in IOT era. Firstly, in the process of information transmission, Internet mainly depends on the artificial order, operation and participation. If users need to attend to everything in the appliances personally, the appliances are not obviously called intelligent appliances [20]; secondly, Internet is suitable for exchange and transmission of macro data rather than grasping the dynamics of micro data. For example, users can easily access to nutritional contents of food rather than the individual state of food (for example, quantity of stored food, frequency of use, being opened / unopened, amount of stock after the use, etc.) Those issues need to be solved in the future information design. Therefore, to complete the dialogue with food in it, apart from using Internet, the refrigerator should make use of other information technologies to realize “Things Application”. It is not one product, one enterprise, one institution or one design unit that can research and develop “Things Together”. It needs unremitting efforts and cooperation among industries and enterprises in the circulating link of consumer items. As IOT appliances stretch over three industries of network, IT and appliances, it needs a long time and process either for introduction and popularization of terminal products or for the seamless match between network and software. Currently, IOT appliances have already gone far beyond the scope of terminal  products, therefore, the future IOT appliances need implementing modular countertops, in which standard specification will play an important role. R  EFERENCES   [1]   International Telecommunication Union UIT, ITU Internet Reports 2005: The Internet of Things[R], 2005. [2]   Gustavo R G, Mario M O, Carlos D K, “Early infrastructure of an Internet of Things in Spaces for Learning”,Eighth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, pp. 381-383, 2008. [3]   AMARDEO C  SARMA, J G, “Identities in the Future Internet of Things”,Wireless Pers Commun vol.49, pp. 353–363, 2009. [4]   Liu Q, Huang X H, and Leng S P, “Deployment strategy of wireless sensor networks for Internet of Things”,China Communications, vol.8,  pp. 111-120, 2011. 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[11]   Jia Wei, “Wireless Sensor Networks in Smart Home Applications Research”,Jiangsu University, masters thesis, June 2009. [12]   Valtchev D,Frankov I, “Service gateway architecture for a smart home”,IEEE Communications Magazine, vol 40,pp. 126-l32, April 2002. [13]   Saito T,Tomada I,Takabatake Yetal, “Gateway technologies for home network and their impIementations,International Conference on Distributeed Computing systems Workshop”, Ariaona,USA, pp. 175-180, 2006. [14]   Macker J P, Corson M S, “Mobile Ad hoc Networking and the IETF ”,ACM Mobile Computing and Communications Review, pp. 9-14, February 1998. [15]   Roy Want, “Enabling Ubiquitous Sensing with RFID”,Computer, vol. 37, pp. 84- 86, April 2004. [16]   I.Akyildiz, W.Su, Y.Sanakarasubramaniam, “Wireless sensor networks:A survey”, Computer Networks, vol 38, pp. 393-422, April 2002. [17]   Wei Leping, “Integration Of Three Networks”,Telecommunications Science, pp. 1-6, March 2010. 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